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VOL. III. ' 


NO. 830. 




Royal Irish Academy' 1 s Todd Professor of the Celtic Languages; 
Examiner in Celtic, Royal University of Ireland. 






14, Henrietta-street, Covent Garden. | 20, South Frederick-street. 






THE luni-solar criteria employed in the following 
pages, and Tables I., in., iv., v., vn., vm., ix., of Lec- 
ture IV. belong to the Old Style, which was super- 
seded in 1582 by the Calendar of Aloysius Lilius, 
commonly designated the Gregorian. 

The numbering, sectional distribution and letter- 
ing of the texts are an arbitrary arrangement for the 
purpose of reference. 

After Lecture II. had gone to press, I learned 
that the metric tracts in the Book of Ballymote were 
published, without a translation, by Prof. Thurneysen: 
this transcript I have not read. 

YOUGHAL, October, 1892. 




NOTES, 31 

TEXT, 38 

INDEX, 72 



TEXTS (Metric) : 

1 120 

IL, 128 

III., 132 

IV., 138 

V ' ... HO 

TEXT (Historical), -142 

INDEX, 214 


NOTES, . . . . 259 

TEXTS: A, 278 

B, 286 

INDEX, 318 


NOTES, 389 

TEXTS : PROSE, . . . . . . .396 

VERSE, 408 

INDEX, . 438 



No, 830. 



Page 13, line 32, to "here set forth" add "underneath the diagram." 
243, dele 11. 22-5. 

259, line 18, for "son of Con," read "son of Cu." 
,, 266, 35, after "Faelan," insert "son of Colman." 
394, 21, for "DE TEMPORUM RATIONED read " VE 




TEXT, ....... 

. 72 
INDEX, ..... 

LECTURE II., ......... 

NOTES, ....... 

TEXTS (Metric) : 

T ...... 12 

! :; : ....... 

in., ..... 

TV ....... 138 

v.; ........ 

TEXT (Historical), ....... 

^ _ 214 



No. 830. 



No. 830. 



DURING the Thirty-years' War, after Maximilian of Bavaria 
gained the battle of Prague over Ferdinand of Bohemia, 
the Palatinate was occupied by the Imperial troops. Two years 
later, Heidelberg, the capital, was captured. The collection of 
MSS. in the Library was forwarded to Pope Gregory XV. in the 
year following. By him the donation was deposited in the Vatican. 
In the Catalogue it is denoted the Palatine. In 1816, most of 
the MSS. were restored by order of Pope Pius VII. Amongst those 
retained is a thick vellum quarto, bound in boards and covered with 
red velvet. It bears the number 830. On the inside of the cover is 
pasted a printed note which reads as follows : 

Sum de bibliotheca quam, Hiedelberga capta, spolium fecit et 
P. M. Gregorio XV. trophaeum misit Maximilianus, utriusque 
Bavariae Dux, S. R. I. Archidapifer et Princeps Elector. Anno 
Christ! ClQ.Io.CXXIII [1623]. 

On the first folio is written : Iste liber pertinet ad Librarian*, 
S. Martini, Moguntiae, 1479. How it passed from that monastery 
to Heidelberg, we have no means of determining. The volume 
contains the well-known Tripartite Chronicle of our countryman, 
Marianus Scotus. During the time that I worked in the Vatican 
Library, I took occasion to go carefully more than once through the 
entire Codex. In setting forth the results, I shall deal first with 
what is known of the Compiler ; next, with the contents and 
characteristics of the MS. ; thirdly, with the entries that throw 



light upon persons and events of domestic interest ; finally, with the 
text and linguistic value of the native items. 

Respecting Marianus, all the known facts connected with his 
life, save one, have been put on record by himself and in his own 
handwriting. An instance of being one's own biographer and ama- 
nuensis is unique, as far as I am aware, in our native literature. 
As such, some interest attaches thereto. He was called in Irish 
Mael Brigte (Calvus Brigitae), devotee of Brigit, the national patroness. 
The name Marianus (devotee of Mary} was doubtless given on the occa- 
sion of his becoming a monk on the Continent. He was born in 1028.* 
Of his parentage or tribe he has left no mention. That he belonged 
to the half of Conn to use the term retained by himself that is, the 
northern half, can be inferred from the fact that he gives a Catalogue 
of the Irish kings who sprang from that moiety of Ireland. 

In 1052, at the age of twenty -four, he abandoned the world :f 
most probably entering the monastery of Moville, Co. Down. The 
establishment was then presided over by Tigernach of Mourne, who 
died in 1061. Four years later, he became a pilgrim ; went over sea 
and arrived at Cologne, as he is careful to note, upon Thursday, August 
1, 10564 That the expatriation was not of his own seeking can be 
plainly deduced from an entry in the Chronicle, under date 1043. 
Recording the death of an incluse in the monastery of Fulda, he says 
the deceased had been a religious of Innisceltra (in the Shannon). 
For having, however, given a drink to some brethren without per- 
mission, he was banished by his superior, Corcran (ob. A.D. 1040), not 
alone from the community, but from Ireland. A similar sentence, he 
adds, was pronounced upon himself by Tigernach, for some slight 
fault not stated. 

Why he wended his way to Cologne we learn from some of his 
entries. In 975, Archbishop Eberg donated the abbey of St. Martin 
in that city to the Irish monks. The obits of four of the superiors 
are recorded. As will be seen, however, the years of their respective 
incumbencies as given in the text cannot be reconciled with the 
marginal dates. The sum of the former erroneously falls short by 
twenty years of the latter. The error (of transcription) occurs in 
reference to Elias (so called on the Continent from the partial simi- 

* Note A. f Note B. t Note C. 4 Note D: 


larity of the name to the native Ailill). This we learn from the 
Annals of Ulster, which agree with Marianus respecting the year of 
his obit.* In this community, becoming a monk, he remained for 
close upon two years. 

In connexion herewith, it will not be out of place to describe the 
salient features of the profession to which the remainder of his career 
was devoted. Inclusion, in the technical sense, was a phase of 
monachism which never made its appearance in Ireland. It origi- 
nated on the Continent, in conjunction with the Benedictine monas- 
teries. Thereby an effort was made to unite the active life of the 
cenobites with the contemplative existence of the anchorites. In- 
cluses, that is to say, were more restricted than monks and less 
isolated than hermits. Their existence, it may be concluded, was 
owing to a desire on the part of the Church authorities to utilize as 
teachers and spiritual directors men whose lives were solely devoted 
to study and prayer. 

A Regula Solitwiorum, in sixty-nine chapters, has been preserved.! 
It was the composition of a monk called Grimlaicus^ who dedicated 
the compilation to his namesake, a priest. The latter, Mabillon con- 
jectures, lived at the papal Court during the pontificate of Formosus 
(A.D. 891-6). The date, accordingly, falls within the second half of 
the ninth century. From this Kule it will suffice to mention such 
portions as are pertinent to the life and literary labours of Marianus, 

The abode of the incluse consisted of a cell, an oratory and small 
garden : the whole surrounded by a high wall. Outside the precincts 
were cells for disciples who were instructed by the solitary and 
supplied him with necessaries through an opening. The oratory lay 
so contiguous to the monastery church, as that the occupant could hear 
the reading and join the brethren in psalmody through the aperture. 
Postulants were selected from those most distinguished for piety 
and learning. Foreigners had to come provided with commendatory 
letters, signed by the bishop or abbot. The period of probation was 
two years. The ceremony of inclusion consisted of the selected 
brother prostrating before the bishop and community and reciting 
a formula of perseverance. On rising, he was inducted into the cell. 
The doorway was then built up and sealed by the officiating bishop 

* Note E. t It is given in Migne's Patrologia, torn, ciii., col. 575-664. 


with the episcopal signet. Thenceforward the solitary was not to 
issue, except by command of lawful superiors, or upon occasion of 
unavoidable necessity. Of the latter we have an instance in the 
burning of Paderborn, when an Irish incluse refused to come forth 
from the cell to save his life. 

The work-a-day routine consisted of devotional practices, advising 
such as came for instruction and teaching the pupils. These duties 
alternated with manual labour and recreation. Sundays and festivals 
were devoted exclusively to religious and studious exercises. Daily 
celebration of Mass was, however, left discretionary. Knowledge of 
Scripture and the Canons was prescribed, in order to be enabled to 
counsel persons differing in age, sex and profession. Erudition 
sufficient to confute Jews and heretics was to be acquired. As such 
opponents were not likely to come to hear, it follows that the incluse 
had to draw up written refutations. The library at his disposal must 
consequently have been of fair amplitude. 

Of the furniture of the cell, incidental mention is made in the 
Chronicle of the matta, or mattress. Respecting burial, the Rule is 
silent. But from Marianus it can be collected that the body was 
deposited where death took place. He had a grave, which he was not 
destined to occupy, dug during his first enclosure. 

At Eastertide, A.D. 1058, Siegfried, Superior of Fulda, visited the 
abbey of St. Martin. Whether by invitation or at his own request, 
Marianus accompanied him on returning, in order to become a recluse. 
On the Friday before Palm Sunday (April 10), an event had occurred 
which naturally excited great interest, especially amongst the Irish 
inmates, in continental monasteries. The episcopal city of Paderbom, 
in Westphalia, with its two abbeys, was burned to the ground. In 
one of them an Irishman, named Padernus, had lived an incluse 
for a number of years. He had foretold the catastrophe and, when 
his prediction came true, refused to leave the enclosure, losing his life 
in consequence. Marianus adds that he was regarded as a martyr. 
"Wherefore Siegfried and his companion went northwards out of their 
way to visit the scene. On the Monday after Low Sunday, the 27th 
of the same month, Marianus informs us that he prayed on the 
mattress from which his countryman had passed to his rest.* 

* Note F. 


Within a year, on Midlent Saturday (i.e. the Saturday before the 
fourth Sunday of Lent), March 13, 1059, Marianus was promoted to 
the priesthood. This took place, he tells us, at Wiirtzburg, in the 
church containing the body of St. Kilian, the Irish martyr-apostle of 
Franconia. Herein we have a circumstance that deserves to be noted. 
Contrary to the custom that prevailed in Ireland, the community of 
Fulda had no bishop-monk for the performance of episcopal functions. 
Otherwise, a candidate for enclosure would not have been sent else- 
where to receive Holy Orders. Being thus ordained, Marianus became 
a professed incluse, on the Friday after the festival of the Ascension 
(May 14). The cell had probably been vacant since the death of 
Animchad, whose name sufficiently denotes his nationality, sixteen 
years previously.* 

A decade having passed and Siegfried having been meanwhile 
appointed to the see of Mayence, Marianus, by order of the bishop (by 
whom he was evidently appreciated), with the consent of the new 
abbot, was conducted to that episcopal city. He arrived there, he 
does not fail to note, on the Friday before Palm Sunday, April 3 
(1069). On Friday, the tenth of the following July, the feast of the 
Seven Brothers, Martyrs, the oratory of the inclusory of St. Martin 
was dedicated in honour of the Apostle St. Bartholomew. Immediately 
after the ceremony, Marianus was enclosed for the second time.f 
Here he lived thirteen years and died in 1082, at the age of fifty-four.J 

Respecting the contents and characteristics, the MS. consists of 
1 70 folios. Of these, the matter of the first twenty-four (folio 25 is 
blank) has no necessary connexion with what is contained in the re- 
mainder. It was prefixed, partly as being the work of the Compiler 
and partly as being made up of illustrative and cognate material. The 
chief items are nineteen Solar Cycles of 28 = the Dionysian (so-called) 
Great Paschal Cycle of 532 (fol. 1-3) ; three "Emendations" of the 
Vulgar Era, one, a rearrangement of the consular series from Lentulus 
and Messalinus to A.D. 532 ; another taken from St. Jerome ; the third, 
from the Roman Martyrology, Passions of Popes and Decretal Epistles 
(fol. 4-13) ; a list of native kings (fol. 15) ; a catalogue of Popes from 

* Note G. t Note H. J Note I. 

It is also in his handwriting. See p.. 15, infra. The parchment is likewise 


St. Peter to John [XII.], de regione Violata (recte : Viae Latae\ who 
is said to have succeeded on the fourteenth Indiction (A.D. 956 [It is 
continued down to Paschal II. (1099-1118) in a different hand.] fol. 
16); two Dionysian Great Paschal Cycles, A.D. 1-532: 533-1064, 
with a historical event attached to each year (fol. 18-24). Some of 
these entries are strangely inaccurate. For instance, Elias, Ahbot 
of Cologne, is said to have died A.D. 1012 (= 990). The true year 
(Note E (a, b) ) was 1042. The slaying of Brian Boru is assigned to 
1029 (= 1007). In the Third Book of the Chronicle, we find correctly 
at A.D. 1036 (= 1014) : Brian, rex Hiberniae, parasceue Paschae, feria 
vi., ix. Kal. Maii, manibus et mente ad Deum intentus, occiditur. 

Folio 26 a. Along the upper margin runs the following in rubric : 

In nomine Sanctae Trinitatis, Ressurrectionis Christi inquissitio 
incipit, quam Marianus Bibernensis, inclusus, congregavit. 

In this Prologue, Marianus professes to have discovered, " with 
great labour," partly from authority and partly from reason, why [in 
assigning Easter to March 28, moon 21] the thirty-fifth year of the 
(five) Dionysian Cycles (= the Passion year, A.D. 34) is opposed to 
Scripture and the Church, which, according to Marianus, place the 
Resurrection on March 27, moon 17. 

His proofs will be considered later on. 

Folio 27 b. Finit Prologus. Incipit hinc Mariani Scoti Cronica 
clara. Incipiunt capitula primi libri. 

The chapters number 22. Three of them are noteworthy. The 
first is : De disputatione Dionissi Exigui supra Patsionem et Resurrec- 
tionem Christi. This is the well-known Epistle to Petronius, which 
TMonysius prefixed in explanation of his five Paschal Cycles. The 
third and fourth are : 

De inquisitione capitis mundi et primae hebdomadae initii saeculi. 

De Pascali ordinatione et de Passione et de Resurrectione Dominica, 
argumentatae et inquisitae (sic) a capite mundi. 

These are the longer recension of the Epistle of Theophilus, or the 
spurious Acts of the Council of Caesarea, which imposed upon Bede 
(De temp, rat., xlvii), as well as upon Marianus. Owing no doubt to 
the misleading diction of the headings, the present transcript escaped 
the notice of the latest editor of the forgery.* 

* Krusch : DerSiJahrige Ostercyclm u. seine Quellen, Leipzig, 1880, pp. 303-310. 


Folio 28. Incipiunt capitula libri secundi, qui est Incarnations 
usque in Ascensionem Domini. 

These amount to 83 and are followed by those of the Third Book. 
The latter divisions, 96 in number, are not carried into effect in the 
text of the Chronicle. 

Folio 31b. Primus liber, ab Adam usque ad Christum. 

Folio 71 a. [The Second Book begins here without any title.] 

Folio 101 a. Incipit tertius liber. 

Folio 165 b, at A.D. 1098 (= 1076), the following is found in the 
hand- writing of Marianus : [The book is represented as addressing 
the reader.] 

Multum ol excerptos legimus barbaricos 
Reges iustificandos gestaque turbida egenos : 
Collide litter am anterior em ; uolvito summam, 
Existat numeratus author : intra require, 

.i. librum 

Rectus omnes me tulit in nouum ordinem laudis. 

" Collecting" the initial letters of the words in the two opening 
lines, we get Tiloelbyn^ce; in the next two, claur-enairi ; in the 
last line, pomcinol : TTloel-bpigce, claur-enaiji, riomcinol 
Moel-Brigte, the incluse, collected me. With this is to be compared the 
expression, folio 26 a, Marianus, inclusus, congregavit. 

Of the foregoing, the Third Book has been edited by Waitz, in the 
Monumenta Germaniae Historica of Pertz (Scriptorum torn. ;.).* It 
was reprinted in Migne's Patrologia (torn, cxlvii.). A notable, in fact a 
fundamental, characteristic of the Chronicle, as may be seen in the 
edition of Waitz, is that the reckoning of Marianus differs by 22 
from the Yulgar Era. On the left are placed his own ; on the right, 
what he calls the Dionysian years. The method of arriving at this 
conclusion is explained in the Inquiry on folios 26, 27 and at greater 
length in his Second Book. 

First (Lib. II., cap. xii."], he follows Bede (De temp, rat., cap. 
xlvii.} in fixing the Resurrection in the 34th year of our Lord, March 
27, moon 17. In the first of the Decemnovennal Cycles written by 
Dionysius, this Easter occurs in the 13th year, namely A.D. 544. It 

* He has also described the contents of fol. 1-26 and transcribed all the headings. 


consequently belongs to the previous 532nd year, which is likewise 
No. 13 in the Cycle of 19. A.D. 12 should accordingly be A.D. 34. 

Bede had already applied the same principle in a different way. 
Since A.D. 566, according to Dionysius, has the Paschal criteria of A.D. 
34, he ironically bids you thank God, if, upon opening the Dionysian 
Cycles, you find moon 14 on Thursday, March 24 and Easter on 
March 27, moon 17, assigned to 566.* (The year in question has the 
14th of the moon on Sunday, March 21 and Easter, as already 
observed, on March 28, moon 21). But to point out a defect is easier 
than to supply the remedy. Bede propounded no solution himself. 
Plurimum observatus, nihil lucis infudit.\ 

Whether Bede and Marianus were right or wrong, or partly right 
and partly wrong, respecting the Eesurrection, is irrelevant in this 
place. For, beyond prefixing its years to his cycles and giving rules 
for finding the cyclic (Golden) number of a given A.D. year, Dionysius 
had demonstrably nothing to do with determining the Vulgar Era. St. 
Cyril of Alexandria wrote five Paschal Cycles, from the 153rd to the 
247th of Diocletian (A.D. 437-531). Commencing with the 248th, 
Dionysius wrote five more (A.D. 532-626). For the reasons set forth 
in his Preface,^ ^ ne continuator substituted the years of the Incar- 
nation for those of Diocletian. 

To render his work of any practical utility, St. Cyril must have 
had a Eeckoning showing the ferial incidence and bissextile position 
of the 153rd of Diocletian. To construct a Cycle irrespective of the 
two main elements of the Paschal lunisolar computation were to labour 

* Sicut quingentesimus tricesimus tertius prirno, ita quingentesimus sexagesimals 
sextus tricesimo quarto per universes solis et lunae concordat discursus. Et ideo 
circulis beati Dionysii apertis, si quingentesimum sexagesimum sextum ab Incarna- 
tione Domini contingeiis annum, quartam decimam lunam in eo ix. Calendarum 
A pi-ilium, quinta feria, repereris et diem Pascbse Dominic um vi. Calendarum 
Aprilium, luna decima septima, age Deo gratias, quia quod quaerebas, sicuti ipse 
promisit, te invenire donavit (De temp, rat., cap. zlvii.). 

t Anonymous Preface to the Dionysian Cycles, in the works of Bede. 

% Nos a ccxlviii.vo anno eiusdem tyranni potius quam principis inchoantes, 
noluimus circulis nostris memoriam impii et persecutoris innectere, sed magis 
elegimus ab Incarnatione Domini nostri lesu Christi annorum tempora praenotare : 
quatenus exordium spei nostrae notius nobis existeret et causa reparationis humanae, 
id est, Passio Redemtoris nostri, evidentitis eluceret (Epistola ad Petronium}. 


in vain. The futility of an attempt of the kind is proved conclusively 
by the spurious Anatolius.* A genuine Easter Computus, in fact, 
presupposes an Era. Now, the requisite solar criteria of the opening 
year of St. Cyril can be found only by reference to the Vulgar 
Beckoning. Thereby we get A.D. 437 ; first after Bissextile ; Domi- 
nical Letter C. Applying the Alexandrine Epact (9 = Golden number 
I), the result is Easter upon April 1 1 . 

This fundamental principle will carry us farther. Theophilus, the 
predecessor of St. Cyril, composed a (lost) Paschal Table of 100 years, 
from the fifth consulship of Gratian. In 457, Victorius of Aquitaine 
published his discovery, the Great Paschal Cycle (the solar of 28 x the 
lunar of 19). That the solar basis of these two dissimilar works was 
the Vulgar Era, is shown, to give but one proof, in a note appended to 
the Leyden transcript of the Prologue of Theophilus. In the first year, 
we are told, March 1 was Sunday, moon 9 and Easter was April 12, 
moon 21 : that is, in the 380th from the Incarnation and the 353rd of 
Victorius. f The sole clue to this is the Common Computation. A.D. 
380 is therein Bissextile, with the Dominical letters E D. March 1 
thus coincided with Sunday. With respect to the Epact, in the Alex- 
andrine Cycle the year is the same as 437, Golden Number I. The 
different ferial incidence, however, alters the Paschal recurrence noted 
above by a day. 

"With regard to Victorius, the same Computation proves that his 
Cycle began (proleptically) with A.D. 28, to which year he (erroneously) 
assigned the Passion. Hence, to equate his numeration with the A.D., 
we have, as the Leyden computist rightly calculates, to add thereto the 
27 Incarnation years which he omitted. In this way we get 353 = A.D. 
380. The Epact is 9 (Victorian Golden Number XI = Alexandrine I), 
which, in connexion with D, gives the Easter of Theophilus. 

Now, the Cycle of Victorius was a modification of the lunar portion 
of the Cycle of 84, the solar criteria of the prototype being preserved 

* Bucherius : De Doctrina Temporum, etc., Antverp. 1633, pp. 439-449. 
Krusch : Der Mjdhrige Ostercyclus, etc., pp. 316-327. 

t An. I, Graciano u. et Theodosio, Kal. Mar. fer. i., luna nona : dies Pasche 
ii. Idus ApL, luna xxi : hoc est, anno ab Incarnatione XPI. ccclxxx. ; iuxta 
cyclum uero Uictorii anno cccliii (Krusch, ubi sup., p. 226). 


in their integrity. The Yulgar Era is thus carried up to A.D. 46, 
the initial year of the Paschal Cycles and Tables of 84. The five 
Decemnovennal Cycles of Dionysius, it accordingly follows, contain 
no data for rectifying error in the Vulgar A.D. Era. 

The 22 years in question Marianus next professes (Lib. II., cap. 
xviii., xix.) to find in the regnal years, months and days (as given hy 
Bede) of the Roman Emperors, from the 15th of Tiberius to A.D. 703, 
the date employed in Bede's Tract De temporibus (cap. xiv.} to ex- 
emplify the rule for finding the Incarnation year. But the uncertain 
character of such a calculation is strikingly exhibited in the following 
typical examples, in which Marianus differs from Bede and, what is 
of more significance, both are at variance with a far higher authority, 
the Imperia Caesar urn of the fourth century. 

(a] Marianus.* (b) Bede.f (c) Imper. Caes.J 


4 y., 10m., 8 d. 
14 y., 8m.,28d. 

3y., 10m., 8d. 
13 y., 7m., 28 d. 

3y., 8m., 12 d. 
13 y., 8m., 27 d. 

In addition, the sum of the months and days of (a) is, according to 
Marianus, one year, five months and thirty-six days ! || 

The system constructed with such labour is thus seen to be with- 
out foundation. 

The caligraphy is an uncial minuscule with capitals of the same 
class. The execution (of which no fair opinion can be formed from 
the imitations given in the edition of Waitz) is fully equal to that of 
any coeval MS. which I have examined, either in fac-simile or in the 
original. In some parts, the writing is done in columns ; but in the 
greater portion it has, most inconveniently, been carried across the 
page. There are forty lines in each column or page. A compara- 

* Lib. II., cap. xviii. f Chronicon (De temp, rat., cap. Ixvi.}. 

J Mommsen : Ueber den Chronographen vom J. 354 (Abhandlungen d. K. S. 
Ges. d. Wiss. Erster Band, Leipzig, 1850), p. 646. 

7 m., in the Third Book of the Chronicle, A.D. 44 [= 22]. 

|| Gaius imperavit annis quatuor, mensibus decein, diebus octo. Claudius, annis 
quatuordecim, mensibus octo, diebus viginti octo. Adde menses decem Gaii : fit 
annus et menses quinque, dies triginta sex (Lib. II., cap. xviii.). The reading of 
the Third Book of the Chronicle makes the total of the Second Book correct. 


tively rare feature, in works of the kind, is the insertion of pictures 
and a diagram explanatory of the text. 

Folio 37 a. Nearly one-half of the column is occupied with two 
illustrations, placed side by side, respectively representing the Fall 
and the Eedemption. In that to the left of the reader, the tree with 
leaves and fruit stands in the centre. Entwined round the trunk 
appears the serpent, with a yellow apple in its mouth. On the left 
(of the spectator), stands a figure superscribed Adam. At his feet 
flows a fountain, with fons written overhead. On the right we have 
Eve, her left hand holding an apple, the right presenting a larger 
one to Adam. He has his left raised in the act of refusing, whilst 
the right is placed upon the tree.* 

The picture in juxtaposition depicts the Crucifixion. Kather 
high over the body is a tablet with Iks. Nazarenus. The feet rest 
upon a board. Neither in them, nor in the hands, do nails appear. 
On your left is a figure with a nimbus inscribed S. Maria. The left 
hand is placed on the mouth, the other points upward towards the 
cross. On the opposite side appears a second figure, the nimbus 
lettered S. lohannes. The right hand rests on the mouth, with the 
left pointing up to the cross. 

Folio 103 a. Here are two representations, the Deposition and 
Crucifixion, one above the other. In the upper, Maria holds the left 
hand of the body Joseph has his hands placed around the waist and 
united in front. Overhead is written loseph deponit corpus. A third 
person holds a hammer in the right and with the left applies an 
instrument to the nail in the right foot, evidently intended to 
pourtray the act of extraction. 

In the lower, stands the Cross bearing the body, having at each 
side two figures respectively marked overhead Maria and lohannes. 

Folio 40 b. At the top of the second column, the following 
representation of the ark is drawn (see next page). The compart- 
ments have inscriptions which for convenience are here set forth 
(see next page). 

* One of the sculptured niches in the western gable of the eleventh-century 
church of St. Declan, Ardmore, co. Waterford, has a representation of the Fall, 
which, as far as it goes, is identical in design with that of the Marianus Codex. 
In the centre is the Tree of Life, with the serpent coiled round the trunk. At 
either side stand Adam and Eve. 





[A] Hie Noe cumfiliis, typus Christi cum apostolis. 

[B] Hie erant aves, typus martyrum. 
[cj Oves hie, typus virginum. 

[D] Hie animalia qui carnem non edunt, typus coniugum. 

[E] Hie qui carnem edunt, typus peccatorum vel ferocium 


[F~] Hie stercus missus, typus inferni. 
[G] Area super undas, typus ecclesiae superfluous huius 

[Compare the similitude Arcae Noe in the Dubia et Spuria of Bede 
(Migne, Patrol, xc., col. 1179), the inscriptions of which are sub- 
stantially the same as those here given.] 

The execution was in all cases the work of the scribe (to be 
mentioned immediately) and is extremely crude. 

The facts relative to the transcription of the Codex are of such 
interest as to render it matter of regret that more of a similar kind have 
not been placed upon record. Marianus had passed three years in his 
second enclosure, when one day a compatriot presented himself at 
the monastery. He had come through Scotland on his pilgrimage. 
Being a competent scribe and knowing Latin, he was employed to 


copy the Chronicle.* During the progress of the work, on Thursday, 
June 28, of the year of his arrival, he paused from his copying to 
write the following note along the top margin of folio 33 a : 

Ip oemen t>tin inbiu, a TTloel-bpisce, clupenaip, ipin clupail 
in TTlasancia, ipin t)apt>6en pia p6l pecaip, ipin cec bliatmi 
t>en t>lej5ait>, .1. ipin bliabin ippomapbac "OiapTnaic, pf Lai^en : 
ocup ip ipit>e cecna bliat>ain eanacpa a Qlbam in perigrinitate 
mea. Et scripsi hunc librum pro caritate tibi et Scotis omnibus, id 
est Hilernensibus, quia sum ipse Hilernemis. It is pleasant for us 
to-day, Moel-Brigte, incluse, in the inclusory in Mayence, on the 
Thursday before the feast of Peter, in the first year of the [peni- 
tential] rule [imposed upon me], that is, in the year in which was 
killed Diarmait, king of Leinster : and this is the first year I came 
from Scotland on my pilgrimage. And I have written this book for 
love for thee and the Scots all, that is, the Irish, because I am 
myself an Irishman. 

t)en blegait), the parchment shows at a glance, is a correction 
made by the writer. Of the original reading, all, except t>enn, was 
erased. Then, by prolonging the connecting stroke to the left and 
joining the down lines at foot, the second n was made into a t). 
Next, an I was drawn, resting upon the upper right hand angle of the 
(second) t>, and 6501 1> (with the e curved) was added on. The lection 
thus became benble^ait) = t>e in ble^ait). 

An entry in the Chronicle enables us to fix with certainty the 
year in which the foregoing was written : A. D. 1094 [= 1072]. 
Diarmait, rex Lag en, viii. Idus Felruarii, ferid secundd, occissus.] 
Diarmait, King of Leinster, was slain February 6, on Monday. 
That being leap-year and the Dominical Letters A G, February 6 
fell on Monday and June 29, the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, on 
Friday. The scribe and Marianus were, accordingly, correct in the 
notation of the year and days of the week. 

That his pilgrimage was not voluntary, the foregoing shows. 
To judge from a splenetic outburst that took place a calendar month 
later, his temper, in all probability, was the cause of his banishment. 

* His work extends from folio 26 to folio 150. 

t In the Dublin copy of the Annals of Ulster, it is stated that he was slain on 
Tuesday, the seventh of February. Note K. 


Fol. 67 a.* Ip obenn t>un intnu, a TT16l-t>piee, cLupenaip, 
t)ia-TTlaipc, n. Kl. Gug., mam bepncaip pcoloca manepcpech 
TTlaupicii bpaplacc t>ampa pop lebeunn in cige coieccenn, ut 
cecidi cum tabulis in fundo stercoris. Sed gratias ago, nee mersus sum 
in stercore Francorum. Sed tamen oro discentes, ut dent illis male- 
dictionem. It is pleasant for us to-day, Mel-Brigte, incluse, 
Tuesday, the second of the Kalends of August [July 31], if the 
farm-workers of the monastery of [St.] Martin had not made a 
trap for me on the platform of the common house, ut cecidi, etc. 
Discentes, doubtless, has reference to the students under the instruc- 
tion of Marianus. 

The unique feature of the Codex consists in this, that another 
hand (the secunda manus of Waitz) went throughout, correcting and 
supplementing the work of the copyist. "What has been done of the 
kind in the Third Book will be found marked off in the edition of 
Pertz. My examination has resulted in the discovery that the altera- 
tions and additions were effected by the Compiler. It has, likewise, 
supplied rectifications of some of the published Latin and Irish read- 
ings and yielded additional native gleanings. 

The items of domestic interest fall, for convenience of treatment, 
into three divisions, hagiographic, linguistic and historical. In 
dealing with these, I shall illustrate them in connexion with cognate 
material to be found in other authentic sources. 

I. Of Irish Saints, but four are found mentioned with any 
detail in the Chronicle, Patrick, Brigit, Columba and Columbanus. 
Respecting the first named, the following, in the hand-writing of the 
scribe, is given at the year 394 [= 372]. 

(1) Sanctus Patricius nascitur in Sritania insula ex patre nomine 
Calpuirn. Preslyter fuit ipse Calpuirn et filius diaconi nomine Fotid. 
Mater hautem erat Patricii Conches, soror sancti Martini de Gallia. 

The Notes will show to what extent these statements are borne 
out by the Confession of St. Patrick, the Patrician Documents in the 
Book of Armaghf and the Tripartite Life. 

* Comparison of his two notes shows that the scrihe's rate of progress was a 
folio per day : proving him to have heen an expert penman. 

t In quoting the Book of Armagh, I assume that the contents of the missing 
(first) folio have been supplied hy the Brussels Codex. Note L. 


On the margin, Marianus added, in five lines : 
(2) Sucat nomen in babtismate, 

, biambde ic po- 
511 am bo cechapcpeb, 

[Cothraege, whilst he was a-serving four trihes] 

Magonius a Germano. 
Patricius, id est, pater civium, a papa Celestino. 

With this is to be compared what is given in Tirechan.* It cor- 
responds almost verbally with the Tripartite : Sucaic a ainm 
o cupoibib. Cochpaigi biambui ic po^ncim t>o cedipup. 
Magonius a Germano. Patricius, id est, pater civium, a papa Celestino. 
Sucait [was] his name from [his] parents ; Cothraigi, whilst he was 
a-serving four, etc. 

At folio 138, A. D. 410 [= 388], the text has : 

(3) Sanctus Patricius cum duabus sororibus suis, id est, Lupait et 
Tigris, venditur in Hilerniam.. Sanctus quidem Patricius venditur 
ad regem nomine Miluc, filius nepotis JBuain, in aquilone Hilerniae, 
cuius porcorum pastor erat Patricius. Et Victor angelus loquebatur 
saepe cum eo. Duae vero sorores venditae sunt in Conallae Muirtemne.* 

Six folios farther on (fol. 144, lower margin), additional matter 
is given by the Compiler, with hoc ante sex folia debuit scribi appended. 

(4) Sanctus Patricius, genere Urittus, cum esset xvi. annorum, 
venditur in Hibernia ad Milco\_i~\n, regem Dalnaraede. Cui sex 'annis 
servivit, et ab angelo Victore semper consolabatur, de lapide quodam 
cum eo loquens, qui ibi manet.\ 

The passage relative to Victor agrees with Tirechan and with 
Fiac's Hymn 4 The corresponding portion of the Tripartite is 

A. D. 416 [= 394]. In the text we have : 

(5) Cum Sanctum Patricium noluit dominus suus dimittere, nisi pro 
massa aurea, servavit sanctum\_-us~] Patricium\-us~\ precepto Victoris 
angeli quidam \quemdam~\ porcorum {quorum custos fuit Patricius et 
pastor}, qui fodit massam auream quam sanctus Patricius [reddif] 
domino suo pro se. 

* Note M. t Note N. J Note 0. 



On the same folio, in the margin, Marianus gives the substance 
as follows : 

(5 a) Sanctus Patricius reddit massam auream domino suo pro se. 
Cum enim dominus eius noluit eum dimittere nisi pro massa aurea, 
servavit Patricium\_-us~\ precepto Victoria angeli quidam \_quemdam'\ 
porcorum (quorum erat pastor], qui fodit massam. 

Somewhat similar statements are to be found in the scholia upon 
Fiac's Hymn in the Franciscan copy of the Liber Hymnorum. But 
they seem to be unhistorical and only prove that those who gave 
them currency were not acquainted with the Confession of St. Patrick. 
The captive, we are there informed, had no thought of escape until it 
was suggested by a voice in his sleep. Even then, he was not blind 
to the obstacles. The ship was some two hundred miles away. The 
seaport was unknown to him, nor had he any acquaintance there. 
This shows that he felt there was great risk of re-capture.* 

A. D. 424 [= 402]. The text contains : 

(6) Sanctus Patricius, cum esset xxx. annorum, veniens Turoniam 
tonditur a Sancto Martino tonsurd monachicd, quia servilem tonsuram 
antea hucusque haluit. Deinde trans Alpes ivit, ad occidentalem 
partem australem Italiae, ad Germanum, episcopum civitatis nomine 
Al[ti~]siodorus, et legit apud eum xxx. annis divinam Scripturam in 
insula nomine Alanensis. 

The connexion between Martin and Patrick is also stated in the 
Tripartite Life. Cap cull pacpaic tnno co THapcan i Copimp 
1 pobepp beppat) Tnancu paip, ap ba beppat) mo^at) ba[i] 
paip piam copin Patrick indeed went to Martin in Tours and 
[Martin] shaved the tonsure of a monk upon him, for it was the 
tonsure of a slave that was upon him hitherto. 

At A.D. 453 [= 431], the copyist wrote : 

(7) Ad Scotos in Christum credentes ordinatus a papa Celestino 
Palladius primus episcopus missus est. Sanctus Patricius, genere 
Brittus, a sancto Celestino papa consecratur et ad archiepiscopatum 
Ifilernensem, ubi signis atque mirabilibus predicans totam insolam 
Hiberniam convertit ad fidem. 

The opening sentence is taken from the Chronicle of Prosper, 
with the variant missus est for mittitur. With regard to the 

* Xote P. 


second sentence, Marianus made alterations that are of special signi- 
ficance. To understand them, I reproduce the arrangement of the 
lines in the MS. : 

(7 a) Sanctus Patricius, genere firittus, a sancto Celestino papa 
consecratur et ad archiepiscopatum Hibernensem, ubi sig- 
nis atque mirabilibus predicans totam insolam Hiberniam 
convertit adfidem. 

In the first line, post ipsum (referring to Palladius) was placed 
before Sanctus. Then, after Hibernensem, in line 2, mittitur was 
written overhead. A line of deletion expunged sig. and per annos 
Ix.a was added after ubi. Finally, in line 3, Marianus prefixed sig 
to nis. The reading thus became : Post ipsum Sanctus Patricim .... 

mittitur, ubi per annos sexaginta signis . . . convertit ad fidem, new 

evidence in support of sixty years as the duration of the missionary 
life of St. Patrick in Ireland. 

Finally, at A. D. 513 [= 491], the text runs: 

(8) Sanctus Patricius, Hiberniae archiepiscopus, anno cxxii. beatis- 
simo fine obiit. Annorum xvi. venditur ; vi. annos in servitute ; xl. in 
Romanis partibus ;* Ix. annos in Hibernia predicavit. 

The textual figures in (6) and (7 a) amount to 120, the received 
age of St. Patrick. They are in agreement with the marginal dating. 
Similarly, the total under A. D. 491 (8) corresponds with the items 
there given. No correction was made by Marianus to bring the two 
sums into harmony. The discrepancy, which is trifling, occurs in 
determining the period between the liberation of St. Patrick, in his 
twenty-second year and the commencement of his mission in Ireland. 
That the time was of lengthened duration is proved by a passage in 
the Confessio, which, so far as I know, has hitherto been overlooked. 
The cause of his coming hither to preach the Gospel were the voices 
of those by the wood of Fochlut, which he heard in the house of his 
parents. According to the Book of Armaghf and as was to be 
expected, he journeyed to that locality soon (in the second year) 
after his arrival in Ireland. The visit took place, he himself in- 
forms us, very many years post plurimos annos. after he received 

* Note the expression Romanae pxrtes, which includes Britain, t Xote Q. 

C 2 


the invitation.* This demolishes at once the fantastic hypothesis 
lately propounded, that St. Patrick came as a missionary priest 
before he arrived as a bishop. f The duration of his labours here 
assigned is in accord with all reliable authority. The birth and 
death are, however, dated two years in advance. 

With reference to St. Brigit, at folio 148, A.D. 543 [= 521], 
Marianus inserted in the text : Sancta Brigitta, Scotta, virgo, in 
Hibernia obiit. 

On the upper margin of the same folio, he wrote in five lines : 
[The first quatrain is in Rannaidhacht Bee, heptasyllabic lines, end- 
ing in dissyllables; the second, in Debide (for which see Lecture n.).] 

Ol pacjiae'c : 

Q bpi^ic, a n6eb challec, 
a bpe6 6ip t)o na t)6peb, 
Cpfca blfaban gen cp6t>em, 
bennac '6perm bap m'6pe : 

bennac '6penn in cec bti, 
bennac Ulcu ep Conaccu, 
bennac La^mu in cech can, 
Qcup bicbennac pipu THunian. 

Quoth Patrick : 
Brigit, holy nun, 
flame of gold to the Desies, 
Thirty years without faith, 
Bless Eriu after myself : 

Bless Eriu in every place, 

Bless the Ultonians and Connacians, 

Bless the Lagenians at every time [always], 

And ever bless the men of Munster. 

These quatrains are also to be found, according to Mr. Stokes, 
in a MS. in the Royal Library, Paris. J The second couplet of the 
first is quoted by Ussher from what he calls the Testament of Patrick, 
but he has not given a reference to any accessible authority. The 
author of the Life of St. Brigit given in the Bollandists was ac- 

* Note E. f The Tripartite Life, $c., Ed. W. Stokes, p. cxli. 

J The Tripartite Life, $c. } pp. cxxxiv-V. Britan. Eccles. Antiq., p. 450. 


quainted with a document somewhat similar. He gives the same 
lines, with the omission of gen cpebem without faith. Per 
triginta annos, beata Brigitta, post mortem meam benedic Hiberniam. 
The kernel was, douhtless, that she lived for thirty years after St. 
Patrick a fact attested by every authority of repute. As her death 
took place in, or about, 523 (Marianus being here likewise two years 
in advance), the theory that places the obit of the national apostle 
before A.D. 470 has no reliable basis. 

Kespecting St. Columba, four of the leading facts in his life have 
been recorded. Of these, the first and second were marginal addenda 
of the Compiler. 

A.D. 545 [= 523]. Colum Cilli nascitur in Hibernia. 

A.D. 585 [= 563]. Colum Cille egit cath Culi Dremne. 

[Colum Cille caused* the battle of Cuildrevny.] 

A.D. 587 [= 565]. Colum Cilli de Hibernia predicaturus [enavigavit~] 
in Britania, cum esset xlii. annorum, predicavit vero postea xxxiiii. annis. 

With this is to be connected one native portion of the heading of 
Chapter 63 (Book III.) : Et in hi& temporibus [circa A.D. 595] fuit\ 
Columba Baetinique in Scotia [Scotland]. 

Here the intervals are the same as in Adamnan, who states that 
in the second year after the battle of Cuildrevny (near Drumcliif, 
co. Sligo), at the age of forty-two, the Saint set out for lona, where 
he lived for four-and-thirty years (until his decease). Hie, anno 
secundo post Cule Drebinae bellum, aetatis vero suae xlii., de Scotia ad 
Britaniam pro Christo perigrinari volens> enavigavit (Vit.Col^pref.ii.}. 
Per annos xxxiv. insulanus miles conversatus (ib.}. 

To settle the chronology, accordingly, it only requires to deter- 
mine the time of either the birth, the battle, or the death. As was 
to be expected, the data relative to the last are the fullest and most 
reliable. To deal adequately with those given in Adamnan would 
entail the discussion of questions lying outside the scope of the 
present Lecture. This becomes the less necessary, as certainty is 
attainable by methods more direct and equally conclusive. The choice, 

* Note how the battle is attributed to the instigation of St. Columba. Cf. 
Adamnan, Additional Note, p. 247 sq. 

t Singular, according to the Irish idiom, wherehy the number of the verb is 
determined by that of the subject next following. 


it is conceded, lies between 596 and 597.* St. Baithine above 
mentioned was first cousin of St. Columba and second abbot of 
lona. His Acts relatef that lie died on the festival of his pre- 
decessor, St. Columba, namely, Tuesday, June 9. These criteria 
denote 593, 599 (Lit. Dom. D) and 604 (Lit. Dom. E D). As 
Baithine, there is no doubt, was alive in the first and dead before the 
last of these years, his obit is thus to be referred to 599. 

The question next arises, by how long did St. Columba pre- 
decease him. A quatrain in a Brussels MS. (quoted by Dr. Reeves, 
Adamnan, p. 309) professes to give the information. 

bacup cena, pega a lin, There were moreover, behold the complement, 

Ceicpe blia&rtQ, m hanpip ; Four years [between them], not untrue ; 

t)eit>encu baichin' i pup, Later [was] Baithine on this side, 

Colum pop cup i pap cup. Colum [was] first in Paradise. 

Taken in connexion with 599, this stanza, as it stands, assigns 
the death of St. Columba to 595 : an impossible date, as can be shown 
indisputably. According to the Computation followed in lona, the 
Easter of 595 fell in March. But we have the Saint's word that in 
the year wherein he was called to his reward Easter fell within April 
(In Paschali solemnitate nuper Aprili peracta mense. Adamnan, Vit. 
Col. iii. 23). This Paschal incidence belongs to 596 and 597. As t)i 
(two) would make the line a syllable short, we have consequently to 
read ceopa (three), which satisfies the scansion and, in addition, 
agrees with the solar data given above in referring the death of St. 
Columba to A.D. 596. The conclusion thus derived from independent 
and undesigned evidence is confirmed by the above quoted figures of 
Adamnan, which give the Saint an age of seventy-six years. 

In each of his three dates Marianus is accordingly three years in 

The year of the decease of St. Columba being thus established, 
we are enabled to correct, once for all, a calculation connected with 

* See Adamnan, p. 312. 

t Note T. Strange, notwithstanding, that the Bollandist editor concluded 
Baithine died in 601. Note U. Dr. Reeves (Adamnan, p. 182) makes no use of the 
passage, except to show the coincidence of the festivals of Columba and Baithine. 
O'Clery (Marty rolcgy of Donegal, June 9) characteristically states that St. Columba 
died in 599 and St. Baithine, four years later, in 600 ! 


the advent of St. Patrick as missionary. The wonder is how anyone 
at all conversant with native chronological reckoning could have been 
betrayed into an error so uncritical and misleading. Gilla Coemain, it 
is asserted,* places the coming of St. Patrick 162 years before the 
death of Gregory the Great. But that pope, as everyone is aware, died 
A.D. 604. Accordingly, St. Patrick's arrival must be fixed at A.D. 442. 
But, what is the fact ? The versifier in question makes Columba 
and Gregory die in the same year.f Yet, with this before him, 
a recent editorj prints two notes, one under the other, the first 
giving the death of Columba in 592 ; the second, that of Gregory 
in 604. To the last he appends, with approval, the deduction just 
dealt with. How far Gilla Coemain was justified in synchronizing 
the death of Gregory and the death of Columba, is beside the 
question. The fact that he did so is the foundation for any historical 
conclusion from this part of his poem. 

Of St. Columbanus we have but a meagre resume of the principal 
events in his career. It is in the hand of the scribe : 

A.D. 611 [= 589]. Sanctus pater Columbanus ex Hibernia, insula 
Scotorum, cum sancto Gallo aliisque probatis discipulis venit in 
Burgundiam ibique, permittente Theodorico rege, monasterium quod 
Luxovium dicitur edificavit. Exinde a BrundicJiilda fugatus Almaniam 
ingreditur, ubi sanctum Gallum reliquit. Ipse vero in Italiam transiens 
monasterium quod Bovium dicitur edificavit, ubi multorum pater mona- 
chorum extitit. 

To the heading (already mentioned) of Chapter 63, Marianus 
added : Tune sanctus pater Colmnbanus ex nostra sanctissima insula 
Hibernia, quae sanctorum nominatur, cum sancto Gallo et aliis probatis 
discipulis in Burgondiam venit. Et in his temporibus [&c., as given 
p. 21, supra~\. 

The date here given is that of the advent of the Saint into 
Burgundy. It is a matter of regret that the year of his death was 
not given. Owing to a mistake of transcription (xi. Kal. Dee. for 
ix. Kal. Dec.), the feast is assigned in some of the later Martyrologies 
to November 21. But the obit took place on the morning of Sunday, 
November 23, A.D. 615. 

* St. Patrick, by Dr. Todd, p. 396. t Note S. t Tripartite Life, p. 537. 

See Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Series in., vol. 5, p. 771 sq. 


II. The portions of linguistic interest are the following twelve 
quatrains, in Debide metre, upon four independent subjects : 

A. Folio 38, top margin : 

Cenn apb QbaiTn, ecpo6c pdb, The head high of Adam, brilliant saying, 

Q cip glan, gpianba Siapab; [Was formed] from the earth pure, 

sunny of Garad ; 

Q bpunne6op, nab bp6cbpon, His breast, not a lamentable falsehood, 

Q cip alaerm Gpabion From the land beauteous of Arabion 
(no Qpabon, no Gbilon). (or of Aradon, or of Adilon). 

Q bpu a Laban ip lia, His belly fromLaban 

Q coppa a cip Dagapia* (no His feet from the land of Dagaria (or 

<5asonia), Gagonia) ; 

t)o bapigne t)ia bia beoin, For him God made them of his good-will- 

Q h[p]uil bo uipcej inb aeo[i]p ; His blood of the water of the air ; 

Q anim bo cinpiub t)e, His soul from the spirit of God, 

Oopibnacc bo, ba 5mm $16, (God) granted [it] to him, it was a deed 

pep cocnic bpac, buibmb gell, conspicuous, 

Ip lep ce6 pac, ce6 popcenn. [God is] the man who hath power over 

doom, with troops of vouchers,^ 
To him belongs every cause [beginning], 

every end. 
Cenn [apb] Qbaem. The head [high] of Adam. 

The transcription displays much carelessness and, by conse- 
quence, corruption, especially in the vocalismus. Thus we have 
CltKiini, Otoaem, alaen ; hull [= h[p]uil]. In declension, the 
dative of a masculine ^-stem is made to end in e (wpce), instead 
of iu. (Cinpiut), dative of an #-stem, is given correctly.) The 
most glaring instance of the kind, however, is aeoji for aeoip, 
where the omission of the letter destroys the rhyme and sense. 

With respect to the composition, the variants of lines 4 and 6 
go to prove that Marianus was the author and, furthermore, that he 
employed some of the proper names from memory. The sense, at least 
to me, is in part enigmatical. I have found the subject similarly 
treated in the text appended to this Lecture and in the following 
from a Tract on the Creation in the Book of Ballyniote :| 

[The original is doubtless a mediaeval Latin legend.] 

* Perhaps this is to be read b'Qsopia of Agoria. Cf. the Ballymote extract 
(p. 25) and the L. B. text (e). 

t The MS. form is uipq ; (i. e. uis and the contraction for qtte). 
% Photographed edition, p. 15b. 


Ip amlaio cpa bopisni t)ia in , It is thus indeed God made man, 

bume, ibon, a c[h]opp bo calum : namely, Ms body of earth : to wit, his 

ibon, a 6enb a cip ftapab ; a ucc i head from the land of Garad ; his bosom 

a bpuinbi a cip dpabia ; a bpu a and his breast from the land of Arabia ; 

Lobain ; a c[h]oppa a cip Qsopia ; his belly from [the land of] Lodain; his 

a puil bo uipci[u] m ae[i]p ; a anait feet from the land of Agoria ; his blood 

bo aeop ; a c[h]eap bo ceinio ; a from water of the air; his breath from 

cnnm bo cinpeo t)6. Ip amlaio air; his heat from fire; his soul from 

pin acac na nil. buili i n-ga6 the spirit of God. It is thus the four 

buine. elements are in every human being. 

B. Folio 39 b, left margin, about half-way down: 

Eua mater humani generis. 

t)e6 bliabna [po]bae 6ua Ten years was Eve [alive] 

t)'6p Qbaem i n-imneba, After Adam in afflictions, 

Qc coi bep po[p]pi[c]5mmi, A-weeping tears with great diligence,* 

Co poppuc pep 5 pip ligi. Until exhaustion of long illness took her 


In the third line, t>ep was at first omitted by oversight and subse- 
quently placed overhead. The fourth line stands thus, without a 
break, in the MS. : 

The quatrain is a transcript. It is to be found in Lebar Brec 
(Lith. ed., p. 90, lower margin) : 

;. m -bliabna poboi Cua Ten years was Eve 

O'eip Qbaim ppi himneba, After Adam [exposed] to afflictions, 

hie cui bep [po]ppi[c]<5nime, A-weeping tears with [great] diligence,* 

Co pupmapb pepc piplige. Until exhaustion of long sickness killed 


With respect to fidelity in copying, comparison results favour- 
ably for the fourteenth-century (L. B.) scribe. Thus we have 
boi bae, b'eip b'6p, Gbaim Gbaem (gen), ppi[c];5niTne 
[p]pi[c]5mmi (gen. of masc. w-stem). On the other hand, pipli^i 
(gen. of masc. or neut. e^-stem) of Marianus, not pipli^e of L. B., is 
the true reading. The errors in the transcription of the final words 
of the second distich arose from overlooking the fact that e and i 
assonate with each other. 

* Literally, of tears of great diligence. 



C. Folio 40 a, lower margin : 

Cecpop, coic \lege p6] [p]i6ic lap 


<5en uabop, sen imdpim, 
lp e ITn in spega glaen, 
Claenne Cua acup Gbaim. 

Da mace teac ap pi6ic ann, 
Oen ben ce6 pip, nopbisbann ; 
6p pici mace, mop in lep, 
6p ba mnae im ce6 oen pep. 

Coica mace, ba mace co m-blaeb, 
(Da mac ap coicaec co m-blaec) 
Da insen ap peccmogaec, 
Cb 6n puc 6ua bo claen 

(Ip eb) [puc 6ua bo claen] 
D' Qbam, cen bae i colainn. 

Sil, popap na mace mm 
Rue in pisan bo'n popis ; 
Secna, polup, gpian pa sel, 
balnj popap nan n-ingen. 

Four persons, [and] five [read six] 

score, in truth, 

Without boast, without over-reckoning, 
It is the complement of the pure flock 
Of the children of Eve and of Adam. 

Two sons [and] ten over tM r enty therein, 
One wife marries each man [of these] ; * 
And twenty sons, great the amount, 
And two wives tot every one man [of 

Fifty sons, [and] two sons with fame, 
(Two sons over fifty with fame) 
Two daughters over seventy, 
This [number] indeed Eve bore of 


(It is this) [number, etc.] 
For Adam, whilst he was in the body. 

Sil [was] the youngest of the sons fair, 
[Whom] bore the queen for the great king ; 
Sechna, light, sun that was bright, 
It was she (?) was youngest of the 

These verses I have not succeeded in discovering elsewhere. The 
variants of the third quatrain and the debased graphic forms may 
perhaps be taken as proofs that we have here the work of Marianus 
himself. Against this is scarcely to he placed the fact that the 
numerals (104) of the opening line do not correspond with the sum of 
those in the second and third stanzas. The substitution of p6 (six) 
for coic of the text (= 124) would have removed the discrepancy. 
Three-fourths of the composition present serious corruptions in almost 
every line. 

* Literally, one wife of each man takes them (respectively), 
t Literally, around. J ba hi ? 



C. forms. 

Old-Irish fc 

1. 1, cecpop, 


2, sen, 


3, slaen, 


4, claenne, 


7, ep, 




8, ba, 


,, mnae, 


C. forms. 
1.9, blaeb, 

,, coicaec, 
(9 a), blaec, 

10, ba, 

,, peccmogaec, 

11, claen, 

12, bae, 
15, pa, 

Old-Irish forms, 


blaeb and blaec, glaen and Gt>aim, claen and colainn show 
that the foregoing list was the result of carelessness or caprice. 

Respecting the subject matter, I know of nothing cognate, except 
what is stated in Saltair na Rann that, namely, Adam had seventy- 
two sons and an equal number of daughters. 

D. Folio 47 h, lower margin : 

ben pomapbpac pip <5 aba > 
Insen pip bo cpeib luba, 
a pep bo cpeib Leui loip, 
Ip paip [pojhimpeb* ecoip. 

Coica 1 [lege coic] mile, mop 2 in cac, 
Sepca mile pep n-apmac, 3 
t)o h[p]fl 4 lacoib, ep 5 eol bam, 
Qen 6 \lege im] aen 7 mnae 9 bapo6pa- 
cap. 9 

Cimcell ban acup mac 10 mfn 11 
Cpebe beoba bemaminn, 12 
Ip cimcell inb aip polab 
pop muncep 13 lobip 14 

A woman the men of Gabaa killed, 
Daughter of a man of the tribe of Juda, 
Her husband [was] of the tribe of 

valiant ? Levi, 
It is upon him was committed injustice. 

Fifty [read five] thousand, great the 


[And] sixty thousand charmed men, 
Of the seed of Jacob, it is known to me, 
On account of one woman they fell. 

Besidesf the women and sons fair 
Of the spirited tribe of Benjamin, 
And besides! the destruction that was 

Upon the people of Jabes Galaad. 

1 Coic. 2 map. 3 n-dpmac. 4 pfl. 5 ip. 
8 mndi. 9 bopocpacap. 10 mace. 
13 mumcip. u labip. 

6 imm. 7 oen. 
11 mnn = mfn of text. 12 beniamin. 

* The omission of the verbal particle arose from pronouncing himpeb as a 
trisyllable ; m and p not coalescing in sound. 
) Literally, around (governing the genitive). 


Continued on folio 48 a, top margin : 

Cpi6a cpen [p]ep ap cec cepc, [In all] thirty brave men over an exact 
Qcup cpi \lege coic] mile pepcac, hundred, 

Cpuag in c-abbap pobopbae And three [raw?. five] thousand [and] 
Q rnapbat) ule im oen rnnae. sixty [thousand], 

Pitiful the cause that was for them 

[=they had] 

To be killed, all of them, on account of 
one woman. 

Of some of these quatrains there is evidence to prove that Marianus 
was not the author. The second and third are found in the Mael-Brigte 
Gospels, a twelfth-century MS. of exquisite caligraphy in the British 
Museum (Harleian, 1802, folio lib, top margin).* They were inserted 
to illustrate Rachel ploram Jilios sues [Jer. xxxi. 15] of Matt. ii. 18 : 
concerning which expression the following is also given, with the 
heading Ag[ustinus~\ : Rachiel plorans quia tribus Beniamin pene 
deleta est a toto Israel, quaff erat de semine Rachel, propter struprum 
in uxorem Levitis commissum. 

The reference is Judges xix.-xx. In the second verse, the reading 
of Marianus makes the total of Jews slain 110,000! The Harleian 
reckoning falls 30 short of the true number. Coic has to be read as a 
dissyllable to satisfy the scansion. In the final quatrain, coic (five), 
in place of cpi (three), is requisite to make the text correspond with 
the original (65,130). 

In transcription, the opening stanza, except the fourth line, which 
requires another syllable, is given accurately. In the portions occur- 
ring in both MSS., nine of the fourteen variants (1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
13, 14) establish the superiority of the later copy. Marianus, as was 
his wont, gave ae for en in pobopbae and mnae of the two closing 

In reference to the date of the composition of A, B, C, D, the 
depraved vocalismus and consonantismus of the Marianus Codex would 
at first sight lead the pieces to be classed under the so-called Middle- 
Irish. Here, however, an inference of the kind would be unwarranted. 
In the first place, B and D, which are demonstrably copies and not 
originals, exhibit forms that are quite Zeussian in Lebar Brec and- 
the Moel-Brigte Gospels. Furthermore, instances of pronominal in- 

* See Proceedings R. I. A., vol. v., p. 45 sq. 


fixation, such as t)[o]-a-pi5ne [a = ea] (A), po-p-puc [p = earn] 
(B), po-t)0-p-bae [p = eis (bo is metrical)] (D), constitute internal 
evidence of a kind to place the compositions wherein they occur in the 
category of Old- Irish. 

We have, accordingly, to conclude that to determine the date of 
authorship from the mere linguistic phenomena of mediaeval Irish 
MSS. is uncritical and illusory. 

In connexion with A, I append a text from Lebar Brec. It gives 
the names of the " sods" from which the parts of Adam's hody were 
formed, namely, Malon, Arton, Billon and Agore. What these signify, 
I am unable to explain. The main interest of the Tract consists in 
its relation to Saltair na Rann. Saltair na Rann, or Psalter of Verses, 
so-called in imitation of the number of Psalms, is made up of one 
hundred and fifty, mostly short, poems in Decide metre, amounting 
to 1947 quatrains. They deal with Old Testament incidents, except 
CLXI., CXLII., which treat respectively of John the Baptist and the 
Incarnation and CXLIII-CL., which are devoted to the life of our Lord. 
The work, as far as our present knowledge extends, exists in its 
entirety only in one MS. (of the twelfth century), in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, Eawlinson B 502. From this it has been " edited," 
that is, printed, with a meagre Index verborum, but without transla- 
tion, collation or explanatory notes, in the Anecdota Oxoniensia.* 

To show the radical imperfection of the publication, a note to the 
Preface informs us, with respect to No. I., that a prose abstract of 
part of the poem is to be found in the first volume of the Brelion 
Laws, pp. 26-30. Incredible as it seems, no use has been made of that 
material to clear up any of the many textual difficulties. Nay more, 
judging from the note and another statement in the Preface, the 
writer was unaware that what had been done in the Brehon Laws in 
the case of sixty quatrains had been effected for more than eleven 
hundred in Lebar Brec. 

As regards the authorship, the title is followed by a statement 
that the Psalter was composed by Oengus Cele De. (He flourished 
at the close of the eighth century and the opening of the ninth and 
was the compiler of the well-known native rhymed Calendar (or 
Martyrology) called by his name.) This attribution may be well 

* Oxford, 1883. 



founded. For the verbal corruptions can be fairly charged to the 
transcription. No doubt, events and persons of the tenth century are 
mentioned. In No. XII., namely, it is stated that one thousand 
years, less eleven, elapsed from the Nativity to the first Cattle Plague 
(in Ireland). The names of contemporary kings at home and abroad 
are also given, together with a notice of an incursion of Danes. Men- 
tion is also made of Dubdalethe,* successor of St. Patrick (Archbishop 
of Armagh). But the eleven quatrains in question (xn., 11. 2337-80), 
as they have no necessary connexion with the context, are, it may 
be safely concluded, adventitious. Their presence can be naturally 
accounted for. A tenth- century computist connected to his own 
time the chronology from Adam to the Nativity contained in the 
Psalter and then added the historical items just named. We can 
go even farther. The internal evidence, as set forth hereunder, 
enables us to detect the work of a second interpolator: 

Saltair na Rann, XII. (11. 2293-2344). 


2297-2300, ,, 

Deluge ,, Abraham, . . 

962 years [944]. || 


2301-4, ,, 

Adam ,, Abraham, . . 

[3202]+ 3184. J 


2305 8, 

Abraham ,, Exodus, . . 

540 years [524].. ) 



Adam ,, Exodus, . . 

[3742] 3708. J 



Exodus ,, David, . . . 

500 years [456]. ) 



Adam ,, David, . . . 

[4242] 4164. J 


2321-24, ,, 

David ,, Captivity, . . 

569 years [585]. ) 



Adam ,, Captivity, . . 

[4811] 4749. J 



Captivity ,, Incarnation,. . 

566 years [447]. \ 



Adam ,, Nativity, . . 

[5377] 5196. J 



Nativity ,, Cattle Plague, . 

989 years [988]. \ 



Adam ,, Cattle Plague, . 

[6366] 6184. J 

The mere juxtaposition, it will scarcely be questioned, establishes 
that no author could, with serious intent, have composed the a qua- 
trains and the b quatrains of the foregoing. The reckoning of the 

* In the preface to the Oxford edition, he is stated to have died A.D. 1061. But 
this is egregious confusion. Dubdalethe, who, the text says, lived at the same, 
time as Brian Boruma (to take the best known of the rulers mentioned), died 
A.D. 998 more than half a century before his namesake. 

t The bracketted figures in this column are derived from the a verses. 

J The bracketted figures in this column are derived from the b verses. 


former is in the total within three years of that of Eusehius (who was 
known to Oengus) ;* that of the latter is based upon the computation 
of the Septuagint. Furthermore, 6 b is one year in excess of 6 c 
5 a and equally in arrear of the (correct) date (A.D. 988) derivable 
from 6 c, which agrees with the Annals of Ulster. The b verses 
are thus discovered to be interpolations, at variance not alone with 
the original text, but likewise with the quatrain (6 c) introduced by 
the hand that inserted the other historical matter. 

The Lebar Brec version embodies, with the exceptions pointed out 
in the textual Notes, the contents of Nos. n., iv., vi., vn., TIII., ix. 
and xi. of the Psalter. The similarity of expression, too close and 
too frequent to arise from coincidence, to which may perhaps be added 
the formula ut dixit \_poeta~\, proves that the prose was a precis of the 
corresponding poems. If so, the abstract was made from a somewhat 
shorter recension and a better transcript than those of the Bodleian 
Codex. This is confirmed, with regard to the form, by the variants 
of No. x. 

The Variants and Notes exhibit the data upon which the deduc- 
tions regarding the recension and the text have been based. 


A.D. 1050 [= 1028]. Ego, miser Marianus, in peccatis fui in hoc anno natus. 

A.D. 1074 [= 1052]. Ego, Marianus, seculum reliqui. 


A.D. 1078 [= 1056]. Ego, Marianus, peregrinus factus pro regno coeleste, 
patriam motuavi, et in Colonia, v. feria, Kal. Aug., monachus effectus. 


A.D. 1065 [= 1043]. Animchadus, Scottus, monachus et inclusus, ohiit iii. Kal. 
Feb. in monasterio Fuldensi. Super cujus sepulchrum visa sunt lumina et 
psalmodia audita. Super quern ego, Marianus Scotus, decem annis inclusus, super 
pedes ejus stans cotidie cantavi missas. 

Willihelmus, monachus et presbiter conversus clericus et sapiens, districtius[-or] 

* The (lost) Martyrology of Eusebius was one of the sources of the Calendar of 
Oengus (Epilogue of the Calendar, 1. 140). 


et religiosior omnium monachorum Fuldensium, sicut nos vidimus, Animcadum 
rogavit ut se benediceret. Eadem vere ipsa nocte, sicut mihi incluso super 
Animcadum confirmavit, somniavit Animcadum in suo sepulchre stantem, nimio 
fulgore candentem, et extensa sua manu se ab eo benedici. Cumque etiam fossa 
sepulchri mei iuxta latus ejus in nocte nondum completa permaneret aperta, totam 
ipsam noctem mellifluo odore scilicet conduxi. 

Qui, quia cum licentia senioris sui, nomine Corcram[-n], in insola Kelt[r]a 
caritatem fratribus fecit, paucis vero remanentibus post alios exeuntes potumque 
petentibus ipse sine licentia prebuit, et inde etiam tune sicut primum potum 
seniori misit. Ideo die crastino non tantum de insola Kelt[r]a, sed de tota 
Hibernia ipsum senior projecit : quod humiliter complevit. Ita Tigernach 
Borchecb \lege -ch] mibi culpabili in aliqua levi culpa pronuntiavit. 


Q.O- Tn. pel. Copcpcm cleipec, A.D. 1040. Corcran, the cleric, head 
cenn Goppa mi cpabub -j im ecna, of Europe with respect to piety and to 
m Chpipco paupauic. wisdom, reposed in Christ. 


A.D. 997 [= 975]. Ebergus, archiepiscopus Coloniensis, immolavit Scottis in 
sempiternum monasterium Sancti Martini in Colonia. Quibus primum abbas 
preerat Minnborinus Scottus, annis xii. 

A.D. 1008 [= 986]. Minnborinus, abbas Scottorum monasterii Sancti Martini 
in Colonia, obiit xv. Kal. Aug. Kilianus, abbas Scottus, successit annis xvi. 

A.D. 1025 [= 1003]. Kilianus, abbas Scottorum Sancti Martini Coloniae, xix. 
Kal. Jan. obiit. 

A.D. 1026 [= 1004]. Helias, Scottus, post eum successit annis xx. 

A.D. 1058 [= 1036]. Propter religionem districtam disciplinamque nimiam et 
propter aliquos Scottos, quos secum habebat Helias, Scottus abbas, qui monasterium 
Sancti Pantalionis et Sancti Martini in Colonia pariter regebat, Piligrinus, 
Coloniensis episcopus, invidis viris instigatus, Heliae ait : Nisi usque dum ipse, 
Piligrinus, de curte regia revertisset, nee Helias neque alius Scotus in monasterio 
Pantalionis fuisset. 

Tune Helias atque alii Scoti quibus episcopus dixit condixerunt : si Christus 
in ipsis fuit peregrinis, ne umquam omnino ad Coloniam vivus venisset de curte 
episcopus Piligrinus. Et ita Dominus complevit ; atque Helias duo monasteria 

A.D. 1064 [= 1042]. Helias, Scottus abbas, obiit iii. Id. Apr.: vir prudens et 
religiosus, et ideo monasterium Sancti Pantalionis cum suo, id est, Sancti Martini, 
sibi datum est. 

Ipse obtimum missalem monachi etiam Franci sine licentia conscriptum in 
commune monachorum, in monasterio Sancti Pantalionis, igne consumpsit, ne 
alius sine licentia conscriberet, aut tale aliquid fecisset. 

Cui successit Maiobus, Scotus, virgo, patiens et sapiens, annis xviii. 

A.D. 1083 [= 1061]. Maiobus, abbas Scotorum Coloniae, obiit. 

[Foillanus post eum successit, Marianus added,] 




Q.O- m.;cl .ii . Ch till ITIucnoTTia, A.D. 1042. Ailill of Mucknoe [Co. 

Monaghan], head of the Irish monks 

cenn rhomac na n-<5oei&6l 
Colonia, quieuic. 

in Cologne, rested. 


A.i). 1080 [= 1058]. Badaebrunna civitas cum duobus monasteriis, id est epis- 
copatus et monachorum, feria vi. ante Palmas, igne consumitur. In monasterio 
autem monachorum erat Paternus nomine, monachus Scotus, multisque annis 
inclusus, qui etiam combustionem prenuntiabat, ambiens martyrium pro nullo foris 
exivit, sed in sua clausola combustus per ignem pertransivit in refrigerium. De 
cujus etiam sepulchre quaedarn bona narrantur. 

Ipsis vero statim diebus, feria ii. post octavas Paschae, exiens de Colonia, 
causa" claudendi, cum abbate Fuldense ad Fuldam, super mattam in clausola 
ipsius, ubi supra eamdem mattam combustus et passus est, ego oravi. 


A.D. 1081 [= 1059]. Ego, Marianus indignus, cum Sigfrido, abbate Fuldensi, 
iuxta corpus Sancti Kiliani, martiris, Wirziburc ad presbiteratum, sabbato medi[a]e 
Qua[d]ragesimae, iii. Id. Mart., [promotus] ; et feria vi. post Ascensionem 
Domini, pridie Idus Maii, inclusus in Fulda per x. annos. 


A.D. 1091 [= 1069]. Ego, miser Marianus, iusione episcopi Mogontini et abbatis 
Fuldensis, feria vi. ante Palmas, iii. Non. Apr., post annos x. meae inclusionis 
solutus, de clausola in Fulda ad Mogontiam conductus. 

Dedicatio capellae clausolae monasterii Sancti Martinii in Mogontia, in honore 
Sancti Bartholomei apostoli, vi. Idus lul., feria vi., Sanctorum vii. Fratrum in 
festivitate. In qua clausola eodem die ego, Marianus, pro peccatis meis secundo 


Folio 166 b. A.D. 1082. Obiit Marianus, inclusus. 

Q.D- rn.l;c;e ,n . Diaprnaic, mac 
TYlail-na-Tnb6, pi Laisen -j 5all, 
bo cuicim i cac (Cac O&ba) la 
Con6obup hUa lTlael-Se6lainn, 
la pis Gerhpac : -\ dp fiall ime 
(it)on, i TTlaipc -[ i pepc Ib pebpa). 


A.D. 1072. Diarmait, son of Mail- 
na-mbo, king of Leinster and of the 
Foreigners, fell in battle (the battle of 
Odhbha) by Conchobur Ua Mael- 
Sechlainn, [namely] by the king of 
Tara and slaughter of the Foreigners 
[took place] around him (that is, on 
Tuesday and on the seventh of the 
Ides of February [Feb. 7]). 




Ego, Patricius . . . patrem habui Calpornum, diaconum, filium quendam 
Potiti, filii Odissi presbyteri, qui fuit [de] vico Bannavem Taberniae. Book of 
Armagh, folio 22 a. 

(b) LIFE OF ST. PATRICK [Brussels Codex]. 

Patricius, qui et Sochet vocabatur, Brito natione, in Britannia natus, Cual- 
farni[-o] diaconi[-o] ortus, filio, ut ipse ait, Potiti presbyteri, qui fuit [de] vico 
Bannavem thabur indecha . . . matre etiam conceptus Concesso[-a] nomine. Cod. 
Brux., Document^ etc., ed. Hogan, p. 21. 


Pacpaic, bino, bo bpecnaib Patrick, then, of the Britons of Ail- 

Gilcluabe a bunabup. Calpuiprib cluade [was] his descent. Calpuirnd 

ainm a acap ; uapalpacapc he. [was] the name of his father ; an arch- 

p6cit> ainm a penacap ; bee-can priest [was] he. Fotid [was] the name 

acacomnaic. Concepp ainm a of his grandfather ; a deacon he chanced 

macap ; bi Ppanscaib bf ~\ ptup [to be]. Concess [was] the name of his 

bo TTldpcan hf. mother; of the Franks [was] she and a 

sister to [St.] Martin [was] she. 


Inveni quatuor nomina in libro [ad] scrip ta Patricio apud* Ultanum, epis- 
copum Conchuburnensium : Sanctus Magonus, qui est clarus ; Succetus, qui est 
[deus belli] ; Patricius [qui est pater civium] ; Cothirthiacus, quia servivit quatuor 
domibus magorum. Book of Armagh, folio 9 b. 


Et empsit ilium unus ex eis [scil. magis], cui nomen erat Miliuc Maccu Boin, 
magus et servivit illi septem annis omni servitute et duplici labore et porcarium 
possuit eum in montanis convallibus. Deinde hautem vissitavit ilium anguelus 
Domini in somniis in cacuminibus mentis Scirte, iuxta montem Miss. Book of 
Armagh, folio 9 b. 


De quo monte [Miss], multo ante, tempore quo ibi captivus erat [et] servierat, 
pres[s]o vestigio in petra alterius mentis, expedite gradu vidit angelum Victoricum 
in conspectu eius ascendisse in caelum. Ib., folio 3 a. 

* Apud, Literal rendering of Irish la (by). 



dpbepc Uiccop 5pi 5crt> Said Victor to the slave [waves: 

TTli I conceppeb pop conn a ; Of Mil[iuc] that he should go over 

poppuib a coipp poppinb leic, He planted it, his foot, on the flag, 

ITlapait) bia aep, ni bponna. It remains after him, it wears not out. 


Et ibi scilicet quadam nocte in somno auclivi vocem dicentem mihi : Bene ieiunas, 
cito ituris ad patriam tuam. Et iterum, post paululum tempus, audivi responsum 
dicentem mihi : Ecce, navis tua parata est. Et non erat prope [navis] ; sed forte 
habebat ducenta milia passus et ibi numquam fueram, nee ibi notum quemquam de 
hominibus habebam. Et deinde postmodum conversus sum in fugam et intermissi 
hominem [quojcum fueram sex annis. Et veni in virtute Dei qui viam meam 
ad bonum dirigebat et nihil metuebam donee perveni ad navem ilium. Book of 
Armagh, folio 23 b. 


Foedus pepigerunt per manus Loiguiri, filii Neill, Patricius et filii Amolngid 
cum exercitu laicorum [et] episcoporum sanctorum et inierunt iter f acere ad montem 
Egli. Et expendit Patricius etiam pretium quindecim animarum hominum, ut in 
scriptione sua adfirmat,* de argento et auro, ut nullum[-us] malorum hominum 
inpederet eos in via recta transeuntes totam Hiberniam ; quia necessitas poscit illos 
ut pervenirent Silvam Fochlithi ante caput anni Pasca secundd, causd filiorum 
clamantium clamore magno, [quorum] voces audivit in utero matrum suoruni 
dicentium: Veni, Sancte Patrici, salvos nos facer e. Foil. 10 d, 11 a. 


Putabam enim ipso momento axidire vocem ipsorum qui erant iuxta Silvam 
Focluti, quae est prope mare occidentale. Et sic exclamaverunt : Rogamus te, 
sancte puer, venias et adhuc ambiilas[-es~\ inter nos. Et valde conpunctus sum 
corde et valde amplius non potui legere. Et sic expertus sum, Deo gratias, quia 
post plurimos annos prestitit illis Dominus secundum clamorem illorum. 


Gpica bliaban, cpi bliabna, Thirty years, [and] three years, 

C6"iji o pen bold iapma, It is right from that to go afterwards, 

Co bap niaic phaeibilmei i n-hl, To the death of the son of Fedilmidt in 

Ip co epcecc ^P^OP 11 - ^ n ^ *o *^ e decease ^ Gregory. 

Book ofLeinster, p. 131, 11. 42-3. 

* Vos autem experti estis qua[n]tum erogavi illis qui indicabant per omnes 
regiones quos[-as] ego frequentius visitabam ; censeo enim non minimum quam 
pretium quindecim hominum distribui illis. Confession of St. Patrick. 

t That is, to St. Columba. 




Tertia feria, dum Sanctus Baithinus in ecclesia iuxta altare Dominum oraret, 
sopor pene mortis super eum illic cecidit. Cum autem fratres circa eum lamenta- 
rentur, Dierinithis, minister Columbae, ait : JEcce, fratres, videtis quod inter duas 
solemnitates seniorum vestrorum magnum intervallum non erit. 

Haec eo dicente, Baithinus, quasi de gravi somnio excitatus, ait: Si inveni 
gratiam in oculis Dei et si cur sum perfectum in conspectu eius consummaverim usque 
hndie, ego confido in eo quod usque ad natale senioris mei non obiturus era. Quod sic, 
fere post sex dies, factum est (AA. SS. Jun. ii. 238). 


Tempus mortis et regiminis itadefinit Colganus in Appendice 5 ad vitam Sancti 
Columbae, cap. 3, sect. 4, ut dicat ipsum quarto post decessoris sui mortem anno 
obiisse ; unum dumtaxat annum ubi invenerit Usserus non indicat ipse : secundum 
quern ea ratione obiisset Baithenus DXCVIL, cum in ipsius sententia S. Columba 
decesserit anno praecedenti. Ego, qui in commentario praevio ad prolixiora Acta 
S. Columbae eorum opinionem praetuli qui affirmant Sanctum istum ex hae vita 
migrasse uno anno serins, et ex communi Hibernorum sententia (quamdiu nulla 
in contrarium affertur ratio) credere malo quatuor annis Sanctum Baithenum 
praefuisse : consequenter eum anno DCI. finem vitae pariter et regimini imposuisse 
existimo (Praefatiuncula, ib. 233). 



lebAti bnec. 

P. 109 a. a. tfopiQ-ne 1 t>ia imoppo in pi^cec uaccapac bo 

ampa aipcain^el 3 , hi pilec beic cucpuma in bomain. Gcac 
cpi inuip anb bino hi cimcell in pi^ci^e : ibon, mup bo 
^loine 4 uaine 4 -\ mtip bo 5 bep^op -\ mtip bo 5 copcaip ^lain. 
pil 6 cacip ant) ~\ pi comlecan, co cecpi ppimt>oippib puippi. 
Ip e Tinec cac t>opaip 7 t)ib pin, it>on, mile ceiment) ppi a conrmp. 
pil 6 t)ino cpop 8 t>e op in cec 9 t>opup t)ib pin. luce pempa, 
poapba 10 i en t>ep56ip pop cec cpoip i gemiu 11 oepmaip 11 bo 
lica Io5inaip ceca cpoipe. Qingel bino co n-a plo$ 2 o pig in 
pigcig cec laei 12 co claipceclaib 13 i ceolaib 14 hi cimcell cec 15 
oen cpopi. 16 pil 6 anb paicci 17 po comaip cec bopaip 7 ~\ ip 
cucpumma ppi calmain co n-a mupaib 18 cec paicci bib i ponb 
pucib. Ocup bpuige po blac -\ luibib 19 ligbaib 19 -\ mup 
511 im cec paicci. 17 Secc n-aippopcai^ 20 ann lap pin, 
imon ppimcacpaij5 bi cec lee co popcaib biaipmib i mup cpe- 
buma im cec 21 n-aippopcac. 22 Ocup ip amlaib accac, i n-a ppeic 
imon ppimcacpai^ i m pa^uba pamail bo mec cec aippopcaig 23 
bib i piac Ian bo luibib 19 e^amlai[b]. t)a mup bee bino na 
n-aippopcac 22 1 na paicci, 17 cinmocac 24 na cpi muip pilec 25 imon 
ppimcacpai^. Cecpaca bopup bino hi c-[p]peib in picib, cen- 
mocac a pi^boippe. Cpi bopaip 7 ceca paic[c]i i cpi bopaip 
cec 15 aippopcaig 26 *] cecpi bopaip 7 uaba[ib] immac o'n aippopcac 

(The bracketed numeral indicates the number of the Poem.) 

a. (II.) l bopisni. 2 pluas. 3 dpcarisel. 4 ~ 4 slam huaine. 5 bi. 
6 pail. 7 boptnp. 8 cpoip. 9 cac. 10 b doubled. 11 - 11 semm ttepmop. 
12 lai. 13 clappcecal. u ceol. 15 caca. 16 cpope. 17 paic6i. 
18 muipeib. 19 ~ 19 lubaib lisaibib. 20 n-aippopcais. 21 ca6. 

22 n-aippopca6. 23 avppopcui5. 24 cenmcac (the elision is to suit the 
metre). 25 pailec. 26 aipponcai6. 


a. Moreover, God made for the distinguished host of archangels 
the upper royal dwelling, which 1 is ten times as large as the world 1 . 
Now, there are therein three walls around the royal dwelling : 
namely, a wall of 2 green crystal 2 and a wall of red gold [colour] and 
a wall of pure purple [colour]. There is a city therein and it 3 is 
square, with four chief doors thereto 4 . This is the size of each door 
of those, to wit, a thousand paces [wide] in its measure. There is 
also a cross of gold on each door of those. They are thick [and] very 
high and a bird of red gold [is] upon each cross and very large gems of 
precious stone [are] on 5 every cross 5 . Now, an angel with his host 
[is placed] by the king of the royal dwelling every day with choirs 
and melodies around each cross. There is in it a lawn in front of 
each door and as large as the earth with its walls is each lawn of 
them and a foundation of silver under them. And a sward in 6 bloom 
and [with] beauteous herbs and a wall of pure 7 silver around each 
lawn. Eight 8 porticoes [are] therein also, around the chief city on 
every side, with numberless supports and a wall of bronze around 
each portico. And it is thus they are : [namely,] distributed 9 
[equally distant] around the chief city. And there hath not been 
found the like of 10 the [great] size of each portico of them and they 
[are] full of divers herbs. Twelve also [are] the walls of the 
porticoes and of the lawns, besides the three walls that are around 
the chief city. Forty doors likewise [are] in the circuit of the royal 
abode, besides its regal doors. Three [are] the doors of each lawn and 

. 1 - 1 Literally, in which are ten equalities of the world. 
2 - 2 The expression can also signify of pure green (lit., of green purity}. 
3 Lit., she ; caciri (city) heing feminine. 4 Lit., upon her. 

5 ' 5 Lit., of every cross. 6 Lit., under. 7 Lit., white. 

8 The reading of S. . ; L. B. has seven (r-ecc). 

9 Lit., in their distribution. 10 Lit., to. 

40 LebdR tmec. 

[a] ime6cpa6 imTna6 ppipin cecna accomapcc. Ocup comla 

cec bopaip 7 bo na paiccib pin -| comla cpebuma ppi boippib 27 
na n-aippopcac 28 . Na ppicmuip pilec o'n mup mop amac 29 
hi cimcell na n-aippopcac 23 , pamailcep 30 a n-aipbe o calmam 
co hepcai 31 . TTIuip na paicci 17 bino, bopanca bo pmbpume 32 -\ 
ip e comup a n-aipbe, ibon, o calmam co gpein. Cpi muip 
bino pilec imon ppimcacpaig, pamailcep a n-aipbe o calmam 
co pipmaminc 33 . Suioiuguo 34 na mup imon cacpaig, ibon, 
cpian cec mup bib pec apaile beop. Ip e bino in c-aipbpig 
uilecumaccac popaigep na popca pin imon ppimcacpaig -j im 
na paiccib -| im na heppopcacaib. 

b. Ropocic 1 bino ploig 2 pfl Qoaim b'mbpai^io cec poppaib 
tub pin. bib bino cec plog 3 poleic bib 'n-a n-eppopcaib 4 -j 'n-a 
paiccib 5 peppin. Na noim 6 oino -j na noimuaga 7 , pcepcaip 8 
lacpibe ppipin plog amuig 9 -| bepcaip bocumm na mopcacpac 
lac. Ocup m ceic ipm cacpai5 pin accmab [pebmab, MS.] oen 
cpiap bo boimb 10 in bomain : ibon, buine 11 co n-ban n-bligcec 
n-t)e i buine 05 co coimec a pipinne ] buine ampa, aicpigec. 
Coimpcepcaip 12 bino na noim 13 ipm noemcacpai^: ibon, cac 
bib pop 14 a ppimbopup. 15 "Na boippe 16 pin imoppo, co n-belbaib* 
*1 co lecaib logmapaib i co comlabaib bepgoip. Cpi haccomaipc 
cec bopaip 17 bfb pin -\ accomapc pe 18 cec 19 n-oen 19 mup bib opin 
amac. Qupbpocaic bino na n-bopup noem pin, hice caicne- 
maca bo bep^op. Qipbe 20 cec ceimen 31 [ap]aile 22 inncib, co 
piacc in ppfmbun. Ip cam in plog 3 popoic 23 in conaip pin 
bap lebenbaib ^lainibe. Ip mop cec -j ip mop mfle bo 
noemaib popoic 23 in conaip pin illebenbaib glamebaib -\ 
aupbpoccib bepgoip. pilec ann paicci blaice 24 i lac bicnua 

28 n-iyipopcac 29 immac. 30 p amlaicip. 31 


b. : -popoic. 2 rluai5. 3 fluas. * n-aippoyicac. 5 paiccib. 
6 noeb. 7 nuibhuasa. 8 pcepbaip. 9 immais. 10 boeneib. n bum. 
12 cons^pbaip. 13 naeb. 14 bap. 15 -bopop. 16 boippi. 17 bopuip. 18 pop. 
19 - 19 cac oen. 20 aipbbiu. 21 ceim. 22 apaile. 23 popai5 24 bldci. 

After this word there is a lacuna (= space for three letters) in the Lithograph. 
Perhaps the word was oip of gold. 


three [are] the doors of each portico and four doors from them outwards, [a] 
[that is, one] from [each] external portico out towards the first bul- 
wark (?). And a fastening of silver [is] on 11 each door of those lawns and 
fastenings of bronze [are] upon the doors of the porticoes. The con- 
necting walls 12 that are from the great wall out around the porticoes, 
their height equals [that] from earth to moon. Now, the walls 12 of 
the lawns, they are made of copper and this is the measure of their 
height, namely, from earth to sun. The three walls 12 also that are 
around the chief city, their height equals [that] from earth to firma- 
ment. The [relative] position 12 of the walls around the city [is this], 
to wit, a third each wall of them [is] beyond the other. Now, it is 
the high-king all-powerful that establishes those supports around the 
chief city and around the lawns and around the porticoes. 

to. Now, fare the hosts of the seed of Adam to attain each seat 
of those. However, each host of them is apart in their own porticoes 
and lawns. But the saints and the holy virgins, these are separated 
from the host outside and they are carried unto the great city. And 
there goeth not into that city except one-third of the people of the 
world : namely, the person with the righteous gift of God and the 
pure person that 1 kept his truth 1 and the person of 2 distinguished 
penance 2 . Moreover, the saints are separated in the chief city : to 
wit, each of them over a chief door. Those doors also, [they are 
adorned] with figures and with precious stones and with fastenings of 
pure 3 gold. Three bulwarks (?) to each door of those, and a bulwark(?) 
to each wall of them from that outwards. Now, the passages of those 
holy doors, they are delightful [and made] of pure 3 gold. Higher [is] 
each step than the other in them, until one reaches the chief fortress. 
Fair is the host that fares on that path over crystal platforms. Many 4 
hundreds and many thousands of saints fare 4 on that path, on crystal 
platforms and passages of pure 3 gold. There are therein lawns of bloom 

11 Lit., of. 12 Nom. abs. ; the subject, as a rule, following the vb. 

b. 1 - 1 Lit., with keeping of his truth. 

2 - 2 Lit., distinguished, penitential. 3 Lit., red. 

4 ' 4 Lit., it is a great [number] of hundreds, and it is a great [number] of 
thousands of saints that i'ares, &c. The neut. adj. (mop) is used as sb. (with 
dependent gen.). 

42 lebarc brcec. 

[b] co cop[cib] 25 cec copaib co m-bolcnugub. pil 26 ann pailci cen 
P. 109 b. coippi i pappab bicbuan, l^poillpe 27 cen epbibab 28 -| ceol cen 
anat). pil 26 ann t>ino in nf papap cec plog: ibon, po^ap na 
n-spab i na ceol ~\ bolub na m-blac. pilec anbpin mop poppab 
1 mop clapp i mop ceol cec clappe. 29 pil ann bino mop lino 
pomblapca. pil anb bino mop bo ppocaib -j bo cemul ceca 3 
lenna pomilip ppia pappab na plog. pil 26 anb bino mop bo 
coppib pfna 31 . pil ann lecca 32 logmapa ; pil ann popaib 
popopba[i] 33 ; pil 26 ann mop bo pi^pjpocaib 34 ; pil 26 ann mop 
m-pDJile 35 m-bposa; pil ann mop cipe 36 n-ingnab; pil 26 ann mop 
cec bo mui^ib ; pil 26 ann mop ppeac 37 1 mop cec ceol nacpoic 38 
cuipem 39 na aipneip. pil 26 ann bino cec i a cecaip cecpacac 
piab gnuip t)e bo immpocpaiccib. 40 Clanb Qbaim bino o 
copac 41 bomain 42 co bpac 43 , ni coempacip 44 uile oen pocpaicc 
bib pin bo paipnep. 

c. pil ann bino poppab in pig uilecumaccaig pop lap na 
ppimcacpac. tDe 1 6p bepg bino boponca 2 pigpuibe in pig op 
na mupaib upapbaib 3 . Sopab 4 aingel bino, ip nepa 5 bo na 
ppimboippib. Qpcan^il 6 co n-a n-aipbpib, ip nepa 7 bo na 
hain^lib : Uipcucep, ip nepa 7 bo na hapcamglib 8 : pocepcacep 
ip nepa 7 bo "Uipcucep: Ppincipacup, ip nepa 7 bo pocepcacep: 
tDommacionep, ip nepa bo'n poppcemiul pil po'n pfgpuibe. 
pil[ec] ann bino Cpom co n-a n-bpon^aib ain^el. Slog 9 
"hipuphin i cimcuaipc in 10 pi5popaib 10 : Sapaphin (no Sepaphin) 
co n-a pk>5 cuap, imon apbpi^ peppin. Qmlaib bino accac noi 
n-5paib nime, cen cnuc, cen popmac. 11 Ip e imoppo a n-aipem 
na plos pin : ibon, ba pe pepcac plog 9 cec oen spaib bo na 
Spabaib. Ocup ni pil nee connipab na ploig pin, ace in pi^ 
boppoine bo nephni 12 . Qca imoppo in c-apbpig uapal uapaib 13 

25 copcib. 26 pail. 27 roilri. 28 ript)ibat>. 29 clarpi. 30 cao. 
31 - 31 pmbcoppaib. 32 lecsa. 33 popopbai. 34 pisppocaib. 35 m-bile. 
36 cipi. 37 ppec. 38 nat>p6i5. 39 cuipim. 40 pocpaicaib. 41 copucc. 
42 boTmnn. 43 bpab. 44 coempaicip. 

c. x bi. 2 po<5nib. 3 epopbaib. 4 poppaib. 5 neppaim. 6 apcafi5eil. 
7 neppam. 8 -ariglib. 9 pluais. 10 ~ 10 inb pigpoppaib. u impopbac. 
12 nempm. 13 ~ 13 uapbaib uili. 

* This line marks commencement of MS. column. 


and they [are] ever-new with aromatic 5 fruits of every kind 5 . There [b] 
is therein felicity without weariness and satiety ever-constant ; light 
without waning and music without ceasing. There is therein also the 
thing that satiates every host : to wit, the sound of the [heavenly] 
grades and of the melodies and the perfume of the flowers. There are 
therein many 6 seats and many 6 choirs and many 6 melodies of every 
choir. There is therein also much 6 of liquors pleasant-tasting. There 
are therein, likewise, many 7 streams and [many] a kind of every plea- 
sant-sweet liquor for the satiating of the hosts. There are therein also 
many 7 wells of wine, precious 8 stones, golden 8 thrones, many 8 ' 7 royal 
streams, many 8 ' 6 large 9 trees 9 , much 8 ' 6 wondrous land, many 8 - 6 hundreds 
of plains, many 8 - 6 ranks and many 6 hundreds of melodies that numbering 
or telling attaineth not. There are therein also a hundred and four 
[and] forty rewards before the face of God. Now, the children of 
Adam from the beginning of the world to doom, they could not, all 
of them, recount one reward of those. 9 

c. There is therein also the seat of the king all-powerful, in 1 the 
centre of the chief city. Of pure 2 gold, in sooth, was made the regal 
seat of the king, above the very high walls. The seat 3 of the angels 
is next to the chief doors. Archangels 3 with their troops are 4 next to 
the Angels : Yirtues 3 are 4 next to the Archangels ; Powers 3 are 4 next 
to Virtues : Principalities 3 are 4 next to Powers : Dominations 3 are 4 
next to the footstool that is under the regal seat. Therein likewise 
are Thrones with their throngs of angels. The host of the Cherubim 
[is] around the royal seat : the Seraphim with their host [are] above, 
around the high king himself. Thus, in sooth, are the nine grades of 
heaven, without jealousy, without envy. Now, this is the 5 tale of 
those hosts : to wit, twelve 6 [and] sixty hosts in 7 each grade of the 

5 ~ 5 Lit., fruits of every fruit with perfume. 

6 Lit., a great (number of, etc.) : same idiom as in 4 ~ 4 . 

7 Lit., much of (bo, corruptly for bi, be, used as a partitive). 

8 There is therein (pil anb) is prefixed in the original. 

9 - 9 Lit., trees of (i.e. trees as large as those that surround) a burgh. 

9 There is an additional quatrain (11. 521-524) in S. . 

c. l Lit., upon. 2 Lit., red. 3 Nom. ahs. in the original. 

* Sing. , according to native idiom, in the text. 
6 Their, by prolepsis of the possessive, in the original. 
6 Lit., two sixes. 7 Lit., from (with partitive meaning). 

44 tebcm braec. 

[c] uile ia i n-a pfgpuibe i i n-a pigpoppub. 14 Ip e t)ino poopbai^ op 
in 16 plog 16 pin : it>on, ceol na cecpi pancc pfnb picec i ip et> 
canaic bo spepu Sanccup, Sanccup, Sanccup, "Oominup t)eup 
Sabaoch. Ip e t>ino poopbai^ in enlaic n-alaint) pil pop mm; 
ibon, con canuc ceol comlan, cen epcpa i con papcap bo copab 
na n-buillepab. Ip alamb bino in 16 enlaic pin : ibon, cec ecci 
pop cec n-en 17 1 cec ceol cec 18 ecci 18 . Ip e bino poopbai^ cpec 
na n-uan n-enbacc imon uan nemelm^ci nemloccac pop imluab 
lappin pleib; ibon, cecpaca i cecpi nnile 19 uan ennacc i n-biaib 
in 15 uam pin, con canac pibe ceol n-abampa bo gpep oc molab 
in Choimbeb. Ip e bino poopbai^ clapp bo na hogaib cen 
elmub, con canuc ceol i n-biaib inn 15 uain ecpoccglain i piac 
comcoema, comluaca ipin pleib 30 1 n-biaib inn 16 uain -] anmunba 
a n-acap pcpibca i n-a n-5nuipib. 

d. Qcac imoppo noi n-uipb -\ noi n-gpaba pop a 
Qcbepc bino in Coimbiu ppi Lucipep 1 : " bic 2 poc," ol pe, 
"aipbpiu 3 ile apcaingel 4 -j cabaip oipmiciu 6 bo Qbam, bom' 
coimbelbaibpea pen." " Ni cibeppa on," op Lucipep, 
" oipmiciu 5 bo Qbam; uaip am 6 pine 7 -j am uaipliu olbdp Qbam 
1 mmcaipbepiub po'n popap 8 ." Qcbepc in Coimbe ppipium : 
"Nocomluapu bino in aipmicm 5 limpa, uaip na bene peip 
Qbaim." Qcbepc bino Lucipep cpia uaill i biumup: "bam 9 
pig pea 9 ," ol pe, " pop aipbpib ile ainjel i bogenac pognam 
bam i pamaigpec mo ce^baip i n-aipcep cuaipcepc mme 
illoc pubomam -\ m bia pig 10 aile uapum." Comb annpin 
r. llOa. pocpapcpab Lucipep be mm collin a plog | cpia n-a biumup 
1 bopimapc 11 bocum n-ipipn 12 * cen epic, cen popcenb. Ocup 

14 P'Srorr 13 ^- 15 " 15 in c-pldg. 16 int). 17 en. 18 - 18 caca oen heicce. 
19 mill. 20 c-pleib. 

d. (IV.) l Lucipup. 2 biaic. 3 aipbpi. 4 -ansel. 5 aiprmciu. 6 im. 

7 pimu. 8 p6pup. 9 ' 9 bam pi. 10 pi. n bopimmapc. 12 n-ippipn. 

* Here and in h, the MS. contraction reads n-ipopn. Similarly, in ippipn 
(k, 1, o). 


grades. And there is no one that could know those hosts, except the [c] 
king who made them from nothing. Now, is the nohle high-king 
above them all, in his regal seat and in his regal position 8 . It is He 
that ordered over that host the chant of the fair four score and it is 
this they sing continually Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth. 
It is He also that ordered the beauteous flock 9 of birds 9 that is in 1 
heaven ; namely, that they sing a perfect song, without ceasing and 
that they be satiated with the fruit of the foliage. Beauteous, 
indeed, is that flock 9 of birds 9 : namely, one hundred wings 10 upon 
each bird and one hundred melodies 11 in 12 each wing. 12 It is He also 
ordered the flock of the innocent lambs around the undefiled, faultless 
Lamb, to move upon the mountain : namely, forty and four thousand 
innocent 13 lambs 13 behind that Lamb, so that they sing a wondrous 
melody continually, a-praising of the Lord. It is He, too, that 
ordered the choir of the virgins without defilement, so that they sing 
melody behind the Lamb pure-shining. And they [are] equally 
comely, equally swift on the mountain, behind the Lamb and the 
name 14 of their Father [is] written on 15 their countenances. 

d. There are also nine orders and nine grades in 1 the angels. 
Now, said the Lord to Lucifer : " There shall be under thee," quoth 
He, "many troops of archangels and 2 give reverence to Adam, to my 
own very likeness." "I will not give, indeed," said Lucifer, " re- 
verence to Adam ; for I am senior and I am nobler than Adam and 
I will not place myself under the junior." Said the Lord unto him : 
" You shall not merit reverence with me, since you do not the will 
of Adam." But said Lucifer, through haughtiness and pride : "I will 
be king myself," quoth he, "over many troops of angels and they will 
make submission to me and build my dwelling in the north-east of 
heaven, in a deep place and there shall not be another king over me." 
So that then was cast Lucifer from heaven with the full tale of his 

8 Three quatrains (11. 569-580) follow in S. R. In addition, the order of the 
birds and the Lamb is inverted. The treatment is likewise more diffuse. The 
poem concludes with eight verses (11. 625-666) upon heaven. 

9 " 9 The textual word (enlcnc) is a collective. 

10 Lit., of wings (part. gen.). " Lit., of melodies (part. gen.). 

l2 - 12 Lit., of each wing. 13 - 13 Part. gen. in the text. 

14 Names in the original. 15 Lit., in. 

d. l Lit., upon. 3 The conjunction has here a conditional force, "provided that." 

46 tebcm brcec. 

[d] acbepuc na pcpibenba 13 co puil mile 14 bliaban o cpucu^ub in 
aingil comce a cainmceccup. Gcbepac apaile pcpibenba ip 
cni huaipi bee collec o cpucusub in aingil co a caipmcecc, 
uc bi;cic poeca: 

Lecuaip ip cpi huaipe bee, 
Ip pip ip m himepbpec, 
O cpucusub bomain bil 
Co himapbup in 0111511. 

"Uaip ap mebon lai cen Io6c, 
IntnpiTnm co p6ib, pobocc, 
"Re 6ua pin i pappcup 
Ip Qbaim pia n-imapbup. 

Oen uball t>o'n abaill am 
Oocoipmipc t)ia cen bobtiil ; 
"Ropbean 6ua, bopb in bpefc, 
Qbam, pocaic a cepclec. Lecuaip. 

t)opi5ne 15 nnoppo in pig poppat> pucac ap ctip t>o buine, it>on, 
Papcup 16 co n-a copcib i co n-a ilceolaib. Ocup bino poopbaig 
cobup 17 na cecni ppuc: ibon, ppuc pfna ~\ pyiuc olai ~\ ppuc 
lemnacca i ppuc -mela, ppi pdpab na noemanmanb. 18 Ocup 
bopac ainin pop cec ppuc po leic bib : ibon, pippon, 5 eon > 
Cibpip, Guppacen. pippon in olai i paip pmgep ; 
in lemnacc i po cuaib pmgep;*] Cibpip in pfn i piap 
Guppacen in mil i po beap 19 pmgep. TTIup bep5Oip bino pil 
acimcell panpcaip. 

e. Ip annpibe cpa pocpucab Qbam pia n-benam imapbaip 
bo. Cni bino bui 1 copp Qbaim cen anmain bo cabaipc 
inb, oc 2 piugpab 3 ep^p^i Cpipc, co pahopbaigeb ainm bo lap-um 
o na cecpi peblannaib. 4 Ic e bino a n-anmunbpibe : ibon, 

13 enna. "mill. (VI.) 15 bopisni. 16 papbup. " copup. 

18 noebanman. 19 bep. 

e. 1 bai. 2 ic. 3 pispab. * p6cslannaib. 

* The omission of this sentence was doubtless owing to homoeoteleuton a 
fruitful source of lacunae in transcripts. 


hosts, through his pride and he was thrust into hell without limit, [d] 
without end. And the writers say that there are a thousand years 
from formation of the angel to his transgression. Other 3 writers say 
it is thirteen hours and a half from formation of the angel to his 
transgression, as said the poet : 

Half an hour and three hours [and] ten, 

It is true and [it is] not a very great falsehood, 

From formation of the world pleasant 

To the offence of the angel. 

An hour beyond 4 mid-day, without defect, 

I tell plainly, very precisely, 

That [was] the time of Eve in Paradise 

And of Adam before [they committed] offence. 

One apple of the apples 5 fair, 

God commanded 6 not to partake [thereof] ; 

Eve took it, foolish the decision, 

Adam, he consumed its exact half. Half an hour. 7 

Now, the king made a pleasant place at first for man, namely, 
Paradise with its fruits and with its many melodies. And moreover 
he prepared the spring of the four streams : namely, the stream of 
wine and the stream of oil and the stream of new milk and the 
stream of honey, to satisfy the holy souls. And he placed a name 
upon each stream of them separately, to wit, Phisson, Gehon, Tihris 
and Euphrates. Phisson [is] the oil and eastward it flows ; [Gehon, 
the new milk and northward it flows 9 ;] Tibris, the wine and west- 
ward it flows ; Euphrates the honey and southward it flows. A wall 
of pure 10 gold likewise [it is] that is around Paradise. 

e. It is there indeed was formed Adam before 1 his commission of 
offence 1 . Now, three periods was the body of Adam without a soul 
being put in it, to typify the resurrection of Christ, until a name 
was arranged for him afterwards from the four stars. These are their 

3 From this to the end of the quatrains is omitted in S. J?. 4 Lit., on. 

5 abaill is employed collectively in this place. 6 Lit., prohibited. 

7 The repetition of the opening words is to show that the poem is completed. 

8 Seven quatrains (11. 965-992) follow in S. It. 

9 Five and a-half verses (11. 1013-1030) are inserted here in S. It. 10 Lit., red. 
e. U1 Lit., before the doing of offence by him. 

48 tebcm bi?ec. 

[e] Qnacale 5 in c-oipcep ; t>ipip in c-iapcep ; Qpccop 6 in cuaip- 
cepc; TTlipimbpia 7 in beipcepc, uc bi;cic [poeca] : 

dnacale,* in c-oipcep caip ; 
Dipip, lapcep 'n-a asaib ; 
Qpccop, in cuaipcepc cpuas, cepcc ; 
Ip TThpimbpia,* in bepcepc. 

Iche inpo anmanna na cecpi poc bia n-bepnab Qt>am : it>on, 
TTlalon, Qpcon, biblon, Qjope. t)o TTlalon t)ino a ceant) ; 
bo Qpcon a ucc; t>o biblon a bpu ; t>o Qgope a coppa. Ip e 
cpa cec pat>apcc acconnaipc Gtmm lap cabaipc a anma inb, 
mon, Slebci papiach. Ocup t>o'n occmat) apna uaccapac 
cleib a leci t>eip Qbaini t>oponca 6ua, int)up co m-[b]at) 
cucpuma t>o hi. Ocup ip e oen poc t>o calmain cap na cainic 
t)iliu, ibon, 5^5 ocna: ibon> pongc met>onac [MS. met)ononac] 
in bomain i n-lepupalem, oc piugpat) Cpipc t)o cpocat) lapcain. 
Ip aipe t>ino boponca copp Gbaiim t>o'n calmain coiccint), uaip 
popepp co n-elnigpicea -\ co m-[b]ab t>o calmain gloin nemel- 
nigci papbaip tjognecea copp THuipe lapcain i co m-bab o 
copp TTluipe nogenpicea copp Cpipc, lap pipinbe na Scpepcpa 
noemi -\ na paca -\ na n-uapalacpac apcena. Ip e bino 
ainmm in luicc in pocpucab Qbam, ibon, in agpo t)amup5O. 
Co pocaipmcemnis appein i papcup. Noi mfp bino o'n uaip 
appoec 8 Qbam anmain co poceipeb 6ua ap a coeb. Ocup ip 
po'n aicneb pin bip cec bannpcal bia pfl coppac opin ille. Ip 
annpin bino popdib 9 in Coimbiu in n-aicepc pa ppi hQbam *\ 
6ua ap oen. " Cofmlib," ol pe, "copci 10 papbuip uile, cenmoca 
oen cpanb 11 namd, co pepabaip 12 ," ol pe, " bee 13 pom' pmacc pa 
1 pom' cumacca : cen cpfne, cen galup 14 -| bul btJib pop neam i 
n-bap coppaib i n-oeip 16 cpiccaibe 16 ." Ropopmcig 17 bino Lucipep 
(ibon, biabul)f ppi hQbam. t)eapb laip ip e Qbam nobepca 
innem bap a 6ppi. 

5 Qnacole. 6 Qp6on. 7 Hlippipia. 8 pohec. (VII.) 9 popabe. 
10 coipci. " cpann. 12 peppabaip. 13 bic. 

15 n-aep. 16 cpiccaise. (VIII.) " ba popmcec. 

* In the scansion, e of Qnacale and a of Tnipimbpia are to be elided. 
+ These two words are an interlinear gloss, placed above Lucifer. 


names: namely, Anatole ('AvaroXrfi, the East 2 ; Dusis (AvW), the [e] 
West ; Arctos ('ApK-ros), the North ; Mesembria 3 (Meo-ry/A/fyia), the 
South, as said (the poet) : 

Anatole, the East, easterly ; 
Dusis, the West, opposite it ; 
Arctos, the North, wretched, poor ; 
And Messembria, the South. 

These are the names of the four sods of which was made Adam : 
namely, Malon, Arton, Biblon, A gore. Of Malon, to wit, his head ; of 
Arton, his breast; of Biblon, his belly; of Agore, his feet. This is the 
first sight Adam saw after the putting of his soul into him, namely, 
the mountains of Pariath. And of the eighth upper rib of the breast 
of the right side of Adam was made Eve, so that she should be equal 
to him. And this is the one sod of earth over which did not come 
the deluge, namely, Golgotha : that is, the middle point of the world 
in Jerusalem, to tipify that 4 Christ was to be crucified 4 [thereon] 
afterwards. Now, it is for this [reason] the body of Adam was made 
of the common earth, for it was known that it would be defiled and 
in order that afterwards the body of Mary should be made from the 
pure, undefiled land of Paradise and in order that from the body of 
Mary should be born the body of Christ, according 6 to the truth of the 
holy Scripture and of the prophets and of the patriarchs besides. 
Howbeit, this is the name of the place in which was formed Adam, 
namely, in the land of Damascus. And 6 he passed therefrom into 
Paradise. Nine months, indeed, from the time Adam received a soul 
until issued Eve from his side. And it is according to that precedent 
is every woman of her seed pregnant from that hither. It is then, 
indeed, spoke the Lord this precept to Adam and Eve together. 
" Eat," said He, " all the fruits of Paradise, save one tree alone, that 
ye may know," said He, " that 7 ye are 7 under my sway and under my 
power. [Ye shall be] without old-age, without illness and ye 8 shall 
go 8 to heaven in your bodies at 9 the age of thirty 9 ." Now, Lucifer 

2 The equivalents and the stanza are not in S. ., which gives instead four 
quatrains (11. 1061-1076) upon the creation of Eve. 

3 That is, the initials of the four words, Anatole, Dusis, Arctos, Mesembria, 
spell ADAM. 4 ' 4 Lit., Christ to be crucified. 

5 Lit., after. 6 Lit., so that. 7 - 7 Lit., [ye] to be. 

8-8 Lit., going for [= by] ye. 9 " 9 Lit., in thirtieth age. 


50 iebcm brcec. 

P. 110 b. f V\Q huile 1 anmanb 2 pocecc cpf -| becaib, boppac in Coimbiu 
a pomamup bo Qbam -j ip e noppollamnaigenb 3 . In can bino 
nocescip 4 plois na pecc nime bocum in apbpift, ceigeb 5 t)ino 
cec anmanba pop bic bocum Qbaim bia anoip i t)ia 6 abpab i 
bia oippiciut) 7 . Ip e t>mo in Coimbe nopmaccab 8 lac, co m-bicip 
pop 9 bpeic 9 pappbaip 10 amui^ ppi bpeic Qbaim. Gegeb cac bib 
lapum bia abbuib 11 , lap im-bennacub 12 bo Qbam. bui bino biabul 
oc a cup mbup nomellpab pe Qbam. Ip hi bino coinaiple 
puaip Lucipep : ibon, bul iimnepc na n-anmanb 13 ppia 14 papbup 
amui5 15 a n-eccaip. Comb anbpin puaip in nacpai^ peccaip 
cdic. "Nip' coip imoppo," op biabul ppipin nacpaig, u bobec 16 * 
pi 16 aiTiuig 15 ap c'aniainpe -j ap bo cuaicli 17 . Qp ip mop in col," 
ol pe, " popap 18 na n-bul 19 bo aipmicniusub pecuc i m bub mop 
in cm mannup 20 no gluapacc bo cabaipc paip ; uaip ip cupca 21 
pocupmeb 22 cu pen olcap Qbam i nip' coip buic bo caipbepc 
po'n 23 popap 23 ," ol biabul ppipin nacpai^. " JJeib 24 mo comaiple 25 ," 
ol pe, "-] benamm cocac -j caipbep 26 i na heipg pop amup 
Qbaim i cabaip inab bampa ic'cupp co n-becpam, 'n-ap 27 n-bip, 
bocum 28 6ua -\ epailem 29 poppi 30 copab in cpomb 31 aupgapci 32 bo 
comailc, co pupepali 33 6ua pop Qbam lapum in cecna. Ocup 
cicpaic iap pin bap cimna a cigepna 34 -j mpbia a n-5pab oc 
t)ia bia epi i capcpaibep a papbup immac lac lapum." 
" Cia 16s 35 bino," ol in nacip, "apbomcapa 36 bia cmb pin, ibon, 
comaiccpeib buic im' cupp bo abmilliub 6ua i Qbaim ?" 
" Rocbia bino," ol biabul, " ibon, ap comammniusub 37 , ap 
n-bip, bo^pep iap pin." 

'. l huili. 2 anmarma. 3 nopopbaiseb. 4 ceiscip. 6 bo ciceb. 

11 abbai. 12 -cab. 13 n-annnanna. 14 ppi. 15 immuic. 16 ~ 16 bobic. 

17 cuaicle. 18 opap. 19 n-buli. 20 manbpab. 21 coipe6u. 

22 pocuipcigeb. 23 " 23 po'nb oppop. 24 5cnt>. 25 comaple. 26 capbbep. 

27 ap. 28 abocum (the prothesis is for the metre). 29 aupalem. 30 puippi. 

31 cpairm. 32 -gaipci. 33 pohepala. 34 -nai. 35 luag. 36 nomca. 
37 n-anmni5ub. 

The mark of aspiration is wanting in the Lithograph. 


(that is, the devil) envied 10 Adam. [It was] certain to him [that] it [e] 
is Adam that would be taken into heaven in 11 his place 11 . 

f. All the animals that possessed body and life, the Lord gave them 
in subjection to Adam and it is he that used to govern them. Now, 
the time the hosts of the seven heavens used to come unto the high- 
king, every being in 1 the world used also to come unto Adam, to honour 
him and to adore him and to delight him. It is the Lord indeed that 
used to compel them so that they used to be in sight of Paradise, out- 
side, in the sight of Adam. Each of them used to go afterwards to his 
dwelling, after paying respects to Adam. Now, was the devil a-thinking 
how he could deceive Adam. This, then, is the council that Lucifer 
found : namely, to go amidst the animals [that were] hard by 
Paradise, on the outside. So that then found he the serpent [suited 
to his intent] beyond every [other animal.] "It was not just 
indeed," quoth the devil to the serpent, " to have thee outside for 
thy subtlety and for thy cunning. For great is the wrong," quoth 
he, " the younger of the beings to be honoured beyond thee and 
it were not a great crime to inflict destruction or temptation upon 
him ; for sooner wast thou begotten thyself than Adam and it were 
not right for thee to place thyself under the junior," quoth the 
devil to the serpent. " Take my counsel," quoth he, " and make 
we covenant and friendship and go thou not to 2 wait on Adam 2 and 
give a place to me in thy body, that we may go, both 3 of us 3 , unto 
Eve and enjoin upon her to eat the fruit of the forbidden tree, 
so that Eve may enjoin the same upon Adam afterwards. And 
thereby 4 shall they transgress the command of their master and God 5 
will not love them 5 after that and they shall be driven from out 
Paradise afterwards." "What reward, now," quoth the serpent, 
"is there for me on account of that, namely, co-dwelling for thee 
in my body to destroy Eve 6 and Adam 6 ?" "There shall be for 
thee, indeed," quoth the devil, " [this] namely, our being named 
together, both 7 of us 7 , constantly after that." 

10 Lit., envied against. n ~ n Lit., after him. 

f. l Lit., upon. 2 ~ 2 Lit., upon attack of Adam (an idiomatic expression). 

3 ~ 3 Lit., in our duality. 4 Lit., after that. 

5 ~ 5 Lit., there will not be their love with God (possessive used objectively). 
6 Gen., governed by vbl. sb. (the infinitive), in the original. 
7 ~ 7 Lit., our duality. 


52 lebaR braec. 

g. Qnnpin pollen 1 Lucipep i n-beilb na nacpac -| bocoib* 
cu bopup 3 papbu[i]p, cop'^apc in* nacip amuig 5 -| acbepc : 
" a 6ua, a ben Qbaim, bena mo acallam," ol pi. " Ni huain 
bam acallam neic," ol 6ua, " ap acu 6 oc 7 ppicailem 8 na n-uile 
anmanb 9 [n-i]nblij5cec 9 ." " TTlapa cti 6ua, ip pope epailim pe 
mo lepp bo be"nam," ol in nacip. " Can 10 nacbf 11 Qbam tnb, ip 
mipe coimecup 12 papbup 13 i bo$nf ppepcul na n-uli anmann 14 ,'' 
ol pi. " Cia lee 15 ceic Qbam uaic," ol in nacip, " in can nacbi 11 
ppi ppepcal na n-anmanb?" "Do abpab in buileman," ol 
6ua. " Qbaip ppim, a 6ua," ol in nacip, " in maic bap 16 
m-beca i papbup 13 ?" "Ni cuingim 17 nf ip mo," ol 6ua, "olbap 
a pil i papbup, co n-becpam i n-ap coppaib 18 bocum picib. 
Uaip cec maic boponpaic 19 Dia i papbup 13 co pil pop ap comap, 
ace aen 20 cpann nama. Ocup pohaieneb bino cen nf bo copab 
in cpombpin 21 bo caicem. Ocup pogebab ppinb bia caicmip 
co puibbemip bap." Qebepc in nacip ppi 6ua: ""Ni mo bap 
pipp, no bap n-$liccup olcap cec anmanna bopb inbligcec 
apcena i m cue bap cigepna pip uilcc bib, ace pip maicupa 
namd : ip mop bap 22 n-epbaib 22 -| aca '50 bap 23 cojaecab 24 in can 
nacleicc 25 buib nf bo copab in cpoinb ic aca pipp uilcc -\ 
maicupa bo comailc 26 ," ol in nacip. " Ocup ip ap oipecup 27 in 
cpombpin 28 na[cleicc] a comailc buib, apbai5 na paib 
[mb]clecc occaib 29 pipp maicupa -\ uilc," ol in nacip. "Na 30 
P. ilia, ba blomab buic, 30 eipg bo'n | cpunn 31 bia ppomab i pocbia 
oc'cisepna pen pipp uilc -\ maiciupa, ace co comli aen 
uball bo'n cpunb," ol in nacip. Qebepc 6ua ppipm nacpaig: 
"Cit> maic bo comaiple i bo 32 mbclecc, 32 ni lamaim 33 bul cupin 34 
cpanb, ap na poeblap 35 ." Comb ann acbepc 6ua: " Caip 
pen, a nacip, cupm 36 cpanb 36 i cue bam in uball, 37 co popannap 
ecpam i Qbam, co pepam in ba pfp ce6 ni pocpia be." 

g. l popamlai. 2 bobeocait) (to suit the metre). 3 bopop. 4 mt>. 
5 rmmai5. 6 icu. 7 ic. 8 -alim. 9 - 9 n-anmanna n-inbliscec. 10 In can. 
11 nat)bi. 12 6omecap. 13 -bop. 14 n-anm[ann]a. 15 leic. 16 pop. 
17 -5 em. 18 copp. 19 boppoppac. 20 oen. 21 cpaint). 22 - 22 pop n-eppbait>. 
23 pop. 24 cosdep. 25 nableic. 26 copmailc. 27 appancap. 28 cpann. 
29 accaib. 3 - 30 Nabbac bolam. 31 cpaunn. 32 - 32 c'incliucc. 33 lamup. 
34 copin. 35 h6pbalup. 36 -' 36 bo'n 6paunn. 37 ubull. 


g. Then cast Lucifer himself into the figure of the serpent and 
went to the door of Paradise and 1 the serpent called outside and said : 
" Eve, wife of Adam, address 2 me 2 ," quoth it 1 . " [There] is not 
time for me to address any one," quoth Eve, "for I am attending 
all the lawless beings." "If thou art Eve, it is upon thee I enjoin 
to assist me," quoth the serpent. " The time Adam is not here, it 
is I care for Paradise and perform attendance on 4 all the beings," 
quoth she. " What direction goeth Adam from thee," quoth the ser- 
pent, " the time he is not in attendance on 4 the beings ?" "To adoring 
of the Creator," quoth Eve." " Say to me, Eve," quoth the serpent, 
"is [it] good, your life in Paradise?" "We ask not aught that is 
more," quoth Eve, " than what is in Paradise, until we shall go in our 
bodies unto the kingdom. For every good [that] God made in Para- 
dise, it is at our disposal, save one tree alone. And he commanded [us], 
indeed, not to eat a whit of the fruit of that tree. And he assured us 
if we should eat, we should 5 die. 5 " Said the serpent unto Eve : " Not 
greater [is] your knowledge or your acuteness than [that of] every 
ignorant, lawless being besides and your Lord gave not knowledge of 
evil to ye, but knowledge of good alone : great is your deficiency, and 
he is deceiving 6 ye 6 , when he does not allow ye to eat a whit of 
the fruit of the tree that has the knowledge of evil and of good," 
quoth the serpent. " And it is for pre-eminence of that tree 
that he does not allow ye to eat it, in order that ye may not 
understand the knowledge of good and of evil," quoth the serpent. 
" Do not refuse ; go to the tree to try it and you shall have from 
your own Lord knowledge of evil and of good, provided you eat 
one apple of the tree," quoth the serpent. Said Eve to the. serpent : 
" Though good thy counsel and thy intelligence, I dare not go to 
the tree, lest I die." So that then said Eve : " Come thyself, 
serpent, to the tree and give me the apple, that I may divide 
between me and Adam, that we may know whether everything 
be true that shall be from it." So then said the serpent to Eve: 
"Open before me the door of Paradise, that ^ I may give the apple 

g. l Lit., so that. 2 ~ 2 Lit., make my addressing (possessive used objectively). 

3 Lit., she ; nacip (serpent) being feminine. 

4 Lit., of. 5 " 5 Lit., should get death, 
6 " 6 Lit., at your deceiving (same idiom as in 2 - 2 ). 

54 lebarc brcec. 

[g] Comb arm aebepe m nacip ppi hGua : " Oplaic pemum 38 bopup 
papbu[i]p, 39 co eucap in uball 37 buic t>o'n cpunb 40 ." " Cia 
oplaicep 41 bopup papbu[i]p," ap 6ua, " ] cia eip inb, mpbia 42 
puipec pope ann, ace co euca m uball 43 bam bo'n cpunb 40 ." 
Qcbepc in nacip ppi 6ua: " Qcc co cucap in uball 37 bo'n 
cpunb, bogena bib beocaip icep olc -j maic -| bopagapa 44 imac 
lappin i mmeaip 45 cace na cuibpec 46 ." 

h. Oplaicib 1 lapum 6ua in bopup pepin nacpaig, co piacc 
'n-a 2 pic pop amup in cpamb hep^aipce, co capuc in 3 uball 3 
be -| bopae bo 6ua, co 4 n-&uaib 4 a lee -\ bopac anaill bo Qbam. 
Opunb bino a cuaib 5 6ua in uball pin -| pocloecla 6 a belb i a 
cpuc i bopocaip lap pin in clacc caicnemac bui impe bi ; 
cop'gab 7 epic -\ puacc -j ba hin^nab lee a bee 8 lomnacc 9 . 
Comb ann poleic guc n-abuacmap pop Qbam. t)obecaib 
bino Qbam po gaipm 6ua -| pop' ingnab laip a bee lomnacc. 10 
Qcbepc Gbom ppi 6ua : " Nico 11 n-poelaip amal 11 acai, a 
n-mgnaip bo clacca -j cia popben biee?" "Noco n-eb6p 12 
ppic 13 ," ol 6ua, " cu n-eea lee in 14 ubaillpea 15 pil im' Idim." 
Jabaib Qbam bino a lee in 14 ubaill 16 1 pocomail, cu eopcaip a 
clace be, co m-btii capnocc 17 , peib pobui 6ua. Comb ann 
acbepc Qbam: "Q 6ua," ol pe, " cia 18 pocboeeaij 19 -\ pomboe- 
caibpea imalle ppic? Ip e inci cecna," ol pe, "ibon, Lucipep -| 
bemic pepea cofbce ppi paecaib i ^allpaib e^amlaib," ol pe. 
Qcbepc 6ua : " In nacip poc^uib 20 bimm 21 allecub 22 1 papbup 23 -| 
iap cibecc 24 bi inb, bopac pf bam uball 16 bo'n cpanb 25 hepsapei 26 
1 aebepe 27 ppim 28 : " Q 6ua," ol pi, " geib uaimm 39 in 3 uball pa 3 , 
co paib ocuc beocaip maieiupa la hulc. Ocup pomb 30 aepuc 31 1 
Qbam," ol pi. " Rogabupa 32 in uball 33 lapum i mco n-pecup 

38 p6m. 39 -uip. cpaunn. 41 oplac. 42 nibia. 43 uboll. 
44 bop 65. 45 manmicaip. 46 cumpec. 

h. : po oplaic (pret.). 2 pop a. 3 - 3 inn ubull. *- 4 bopuaib. 

(IX.) 5 buab. 6 poclaemcti. 7 porsab. 8 bic. 9 imnocc. 10 -nocc. 
"- 11 Noco n-alainb map. 12 n-ep6p. 13 pic. u inb. 15 ubtnll pe. 
16 ubuill. ^ lomnucc. 18 ci (c, by oversight, for c). 19 pocbaicis. 
20 gaib. 21 bim. 22 a ciccu. 23 -op. 24 ciccain. 25 cpaunn. 
36 aupsaipce. 27 acpubaipc. 28 pirn. 29 uaim. 30 painb. 31 ecpuc. 
32 -rra- 33 ubull. 


to thee from the tree." "Though opened be the door of Paradise," [g] 
quoth Eve, "and though you come into it, there shall be no tarry- 
ing for thee therein, save until you give the apple to me from 
the tree." Said the serpent to Eve : " Provided I give [thee] 
the apple from the tree, it will make for ye distinction between 
evil and good, and I will go out after that, if 6 [neither] subjection 
nor bondage come to me. 

h. Afterwards opens Eve the door for the serpent, so that it 1 
went running to 2 reach 2 the tree forbidden and 3 took the apple from 
it and gave to Eve, so that she ate the half and gave the other to 
Adam. Suddenly in sooth, when ate Eve that apple, changed her 
figure and her shape and there fell off her after that the beauteous 
garb that was around her, so that she got shivering and cold and it 
was a wonder to her to be stark -naked. So that then sent she forth 
a dreadful cry towards Adam. Thereupon went Adam at the call 
of Eve and it was a wonder to him her being stark-naked. Said 
Adam unto Eve : " You will not endure [to be] as thou art, without 
thy raiment and who took it from thee ?" "I will not say to thee," 
quoth Eve, " until thou shalt eat half of this apple that is in my hand." 
Then takes Adam the half of the apple and ate, so that his raiment 
fell off him 3 and he was stark -naked, as was Eve. So that then said 
Adam : " Eve," quoth he, "who hath deceived thee and deceived 
me myself along with thee? It is the same," quoth he, "namely, 
Lucifer and we shall be henceforth ever [exposed] to various labours 
and diseases," quoth he. Said Eve : " The serpent that asked of me 
to allow it 5 into Paradise and, after its 6 coming 6 therein, it 1 gave 
me an apple from the tree forbidden and said to me : '0 Eve,' 
quoth it 1 : ' take from me this apple, that thou mayest have 
[knowledge of the] difference of good from 7 evil. And divide [it] 
between thyself and Adam,' quoth it. Myself took the apple 
afterwards and I knew not [that] harm [would] be therefrom, 
until I saw 8 myself to be stark-naked and I knew not evil before 

6 Lit., and may ... not come (the copulative = condition, "provided that"). 
h. 1 Lit., she. 2 - 2 Lit, upon attack (of). 3 Lit., so that. 

5 " Her" in the original. 6 Lit., coming for (= by) her. 7 Lit., with. 

8 Lit., saw it [namely], myself, etc. (neut. pron. = object, of saw, used prolep- 

56 lebarc brcec. 

[h] hepcoic bo bee be, co nupfpQacca 34 mo bee 8 lomnace 10 1 m pecap 
olc 35 pemipin. Ip hi in nacip fin," ol 6ua, " ponmell, 36 a 
Qbaim." Comb anb acbepc ppi 6ua : " ~Ni 37 mananacap 37 buic 
ppic' uball 38 1 ip peill 39 btfn aea ap n-bual ppi mop olc pepea 
in can acam lomnacc. 40 Ocup bino aca nf ip mepa 41 btin 
be, ibon, pcapab 42 cuipp ppi hanmam -\ na cuipp bo legab i 
calum 43 -| in ammm 44 bo bul bocum ipipn 45 cen epic." t)opocaip 
bino bibpium a dace inbpin. Linaip lap pin cpombacc la 
cpuaige lac, co m-ba bocpaib leo a cuipp cen pial impu oc 46 
a n-imbfcen. 46 

i. Ip annpin bino ba peill 1 bo cac bib bac cuipp apaile. 
Comb annpin cucpac buille 2 na pailme 3 pop a pcdc a peli. 4 
Ni ppic bino i papbup cpanb poppa m-bec buille, ace 
in 5 piccommna. 6 Comb annpin iccualab Qbam guc TTlicil 
apcangil oc 7 a pab ppi 5 a ^r ie ^ 8 ciin^el: " Seincep," ol pe, 
" copn 9 i pcocc poccpa lib, co clumncep po na pecc nimib 10 
1 epcib 11 uile 12 i combail bap n-buileman. Ocup epcib uile, a 
plogu -] a aipbpiu aingel na pecc nime, co n-becpaib map aen 
P. lllb. pia bap n-builemam bocum papbu[i]p." | t)olluib in Coimbib 
cuca iapum, co n-a moppl65 13 laip, co papcup 14 i clapa ain^el 
oc claipcecul imme. t)epib 15 bino hipuphin oc pigpuibe in 5 
apbpi5 i papcup, ic c-epmebon papcaip, baile i ca cpanb 16 becab. 
Locc pucac, bino, eppibe hi papcup. Ropepnab bino cec plo^ 13 
bib iapum i n-a ppeic -| cec gpab co n-a ain^lib imme. Ocup 
bepib 15 in pig 17 pen i n-a pigpuibe pop hipuphm. 18 Ip ann bino 
poloigpec 19 cpoinb i pibbuib 20 papcu[i]p 21 co lap caiman ap 
oipmicin^in buileman. Comb annpin acbepc t)i a ppi muincep 
nime: "In cualu[b]appi 23 ," ol pe, a in ^mm bop oine 24 Qbam, ibon, 
mo papu^ubpa ~\ cibecc cap 25 mo cimnai 26 "] cap 25 mo popcecul 27 ?" 
Ip anb bino bocoib 28 Qbam i 6ua pop pcac in cpoinb, 29 pop ceceb 

34 co pacca. 35 olcc. 36 ponmill. 37 - 37 nimanpacamap. 38 uboll. 
39 peil. 40 nocc. 41 merru. 42 pcapcain. 43 calm am. 44 an mam. 
45 n-ippipn. 46 ~ 46 bia n-imbicen. 

i. a p6il. 2 builli. 3 palm e (corrected into pice). 4 peile. 5 mt>. 
6 picomna. 7 co. 8 -al. 9 cormn. 10 mme. n heipsib. 12 huili. 
13 -pluas. 14 -bup. 15 beppib. 16 cpann. 17 pi. 18 -pern. 19 -peb. 
20 mb [p]ibbab. 21 -buip. 22 aipmiciu. 23 cualabappi. 24 
25 bap. 26 -na. 27 -cal. 28 bobecaib. 29 cpamn. 


that. 9 It is that serpent," quoth Eve, " that deceived us, [h] 
Adam." So then said he unto Eve : "It has not succeeded for thee 
respecting thy apple and it is clear to us our destiny is for much 
evil henceforth, now 10 that we are stark-naked. And, moreover, 
there is a thing that is worse for us from it : namely, separation 
of the body from the soul and the bodies to decay in earth and the 
soul to go unto hell without end." Then indeed fell from them 
their raiment. After that heaviness with wretchedness fills them, 
so that it was miserable to 11 them [to have] their bodies without 
a veil around them to 12 protect them 12 . 

i. It is then, indeed, manifest to each of them the colour of 
the body of the other. So that then took they foliage of the palm 
for the concealment of their nakedness. Now, there was not found 
in Paradise a tree upon which was foliage, except the sycamore. 
So that then heard Adam the voice of Michael, the Archangel, a- 
saying 1 to Gabriel the Angel : " Let there be sounded," quoth he, 
" the horn and trumpet of summoning by ye, that they be heard 
throughout the seven heavens and go ye all into the assembly of 
your Creator. And go ye all, hosts and troops of angels of 
the seven heavens, that ye may proceed together with your Creator 
unto Paradise." Went the Lord to them afterwards, with his great 
host along with him, to Paradise and the choirs of angels a-quiring 
around him. Then sit the Cherubim by the royal seat of the high 
king in Paradise, at the very centre of Paradise, the place wherein 
is the tree of life. A pleasant place, in sooth, this in Paradise. 
Ranged indeed was each host of them afterwards in its rank and 
each grade with its angels around it. And sits the king him- 
self in his royal seat above the Cherubim. It is there, indeed, bent 
the trees and forests of Paradise to the level of the earth, for 
reverence of the Creator. So that then said God to the people of 
heaven : " Have ye heard," quoth He, " the deed Adam did, namely, 
to 2 affront me 2 and to transgress my commandment and my precept?" 
It is then, indeed, went Adam and Eve under the shade of the tree, 
upon fleeing before the voice of the Creator. So that there spoke 

9 A quatrain (11. 1337-1340) is inserted here in S. -R. 10 Lit., the time. 

11 Lit., with. 12 - 12 Lit., at their protecting. 

i. l Lit., at its saying; the possessive, = object of vb., being employed prolep- 
tically. 2 ~ 2 Lit., my affronting. 

58 tebciR brcec. 

[i] pe guc in builenian. Comt) ann acbepc dbam in n-aicepc 
n-epcoicec pa, ibon : "TTla popapaigep 30 bo pmacc, ip i in ben 
bopacaipiu bam popaplais 31 popm, 31 ibon, 6ua." Qcbepc t)ia 
ppi 32 hdtxmi 32 : "Uaip nac acnriai 33 t>o cm," ol pe, "becic bo 
clanb cpia bicu a n-impepam ppicc. Ocup bia 34 m-[b]at) 34 
aicpige 35 bosnecea 36 , bollogpaicea Duic a n-t>epnaip i bobecea 
ipm maiciup cecna." 

k. Ip anbpin toino popopcongaip 1 t)ia pop a ain^liu 2 : 
" Cuipit) 3 ," ol pe, " at>ani a papcup 4 bocum in caiman coiccint) 
beop." Qnnpin bino poblompac aingil ppi 6ua -j at>am a 
Papcup amac, co came t>oib lapum, it)on, bogpai i bomenTna 
1 bommai -| gopcai -| lumt>e -j coppi -\ gallpa hile epramla. 
Comb ann acbepc dbam ppi hamgliu nime : " Lecib puipec 
bice bain," ol pe, " co m-blapinb 5 nf bo copub cpoinb 6 becab." 
""Ni blaippea 7 icep," ol piac, " nf bo copab in cpombpin 8 na 
becab, oipec 9 bep 9 bo copp -| c'ammTn imalle. 10 Ip anbpin bino 
poheceppcapab Qbam ppi papcup opm irmnac, uc bi;cic 
[poeca] : 

Ri5 n popait)!, 12 ejiim n-slan, 
Ppi h6ua i ppi hatmm : 
"Uaip 13 bocuabap 14 bap mo pmacc 15 , 
nf bo 17 beolaibecc. 

" 6pcib 18 i m-becaib m-boecpais, 19 
Sep[5c]i5, 20 fnimais, pippaecpais, 
Coppis, 21 cpuagais, 22 cen pil 23 poipp 23 , 
Ropbia 24 luag bap n-imopbo[i]pp 24 . 

"bap 25 clanna, bap 25 meic, bap 25 mna, 
posnam 26 boib cec aen cpaca, 26 
Nocupca 27 maic, monap n-glan 28 , 
Co 29 ci 29 allup bap 30 n-ecan 30 . 

30 -pusup. 31 ~ 31 popom poaplacc. 32 - 32 b'Qbam. 33 acamap. 

34-34 bi a m -bob. 35 acipse. 36 bognfec. 

k. l poppopcongapc. 2 ainsleib. 3 Cupib. 4 pbapbup. 5 -ppmb. 
6 cpamn. 7 blappi. 8 cpainb. 9 ' 9 heb beic. 10 'mole. (X.) n pi. 
12 popdbi. 13 omitted. u -baip huaim. 15 pecc. 16 mpca. 17 bom'. 
18 eipgcib. 19 m-bdecpaig. 20 peipscis- 21 coippec. 22 cp6s. 
23 - 23 piala pop. 24 - 24 popbia 105 pap n-imapbop. 25 pop. 26 - 26 posmac 
buib cac oen laa. 27 nocopca. 28 li-ben. 29 ~ 29 conopci. 3 - 30 pop b6cen. 


Adam this plea injurious, namely : " If I have violated thy authority, [i] 
it is she, the woman thou thyself gavest to me, suggested [it] to 3 me, 
to wit, Eve." Said God unto Adam: " Since thou dost not confess 
thy crime," quoth He, " thy children shall be always 4 in contention 
against thee. And if it were penance thou hadst done, there would 
be pardoned to thee what thou didst do and thou wouldst be in 
the same happiness." 

k. It is then indeed God enjoined upon his angels: "Put," said 
He, " Adam from Paradise unto the common land straightway." 
Then therefore forced the angels Eve and Adam from Paradise forth, 
so that there came to them afterwards anguish and dejection and 
poverty and want and anger and weariness and diseases many [and] 
various. So that then said Adam unto the angels of heaven : " Allow 
respite brief to me," quoth he, " until I taste a whit of the fruit 
of the tree of life 1 ." " You shall not taste at all," said they, 
" a whit of the fruit of that tree of life, the while shall be 2 thy body 
and thy soul together." It is then, in sooth, was separated Adam 
from Paradise from that out, as said [the poet] : 

[It is] the king who said, perfect the tale 3 , 
Unto Eve and unto Adam : 
' ' Since ye have transgressed my command, 
There is not aught [for ye] of favour. 

Go into life deceptive, 
Bitter, anxious, ever-toilsome, 
"Wearying, wretched, without germ of rest, 
It shall be the reward of your offence. 

Your posterity, your sons, your wives, 
They must serve at every time, 
There is not good [to ye], perfect the work, 
Until cometh the sweat of your brows. 

3 Lit., upon. 4 Lit., through ages. 

k. l Here follow two quatrains (11. 1425-1432) in S. It. 

2 Sing., agreeing with the next following subject, in the text. 

3 The first, second, third and fourth of these quatrains each contain one line 
that has no Concord in either MS. The metre of the Poem is accordingly Irre- 
gular Debide (explained in Lecture n.). 

60 lebcm brcec. 

" Imab 31 ce6 galaip pupca 31 , 
Scapab cuipp -\ anma 
Ocup 32 paecap popbia an ban 32 , 
Oep 33 ip 34 cpme 35 ip 36 cpicldm. 

"Ppicoilib 37 aplac 38 biabuil, 
Ce6 laci 39 ip 40 ce6 40 bliabain, 
Na6 pop[p]uca 41 laip bia 615, 
Do6um ippipn 42 n-abuacmaip. 

" bap 26 n-5nimpat>a, bia 43 m-bofc]* 3 slain, 
lap 44 cimnaib, iap 44 popceclaib, 
Dobepcep 45 nem, cloece6 46 clue 46 , 
Do 6a6 iap 47 n-aipilliub 47 ." 

TCi pi6ib pannmaip 48 , ni puaill 49 , 

Ri beca blabmaip, bicbuain, 

Miclaic ppi 50 5le gpaim 50 ce6 can, 

Ri popaib, epimm 51 n-sle slan 51 . T?i popaibi. 

1. Oopibna6c t)ino t)ia t>o Clbam 1 in calmam coiccint) pea, 
iap n-mnapbup i papcup ~\ ni bab 2 bimmac 3 pum be pin, mina 4 
bee 4 epcpa 5 lap n-aimpip b6. but 6 bino Qbam peccniain lap 
n-a bicup 7 a papcup 8 cen ecac, cen big, cen biab, cen cec, 
cen cenib 9 , po 10 coppi 10 -j aicmela bepmaip, co n-dicbep -\ 
imaicbep 11 occu ppia apaile. Comb anbpin acbepc Qbam ppi 
hGua: " Ronlaab 12 a papcup 8 cpia cinab inriapboip," ol pe, "i 
ip mop poppacpum 13 ba 14 cec maic ann. Uaip pobui papcup 15 
co n-a uile aipmicin pop ap comap: ibon, aicce 16 aille i planci" 
P. 112 a. cen ^alap -\ aibnep 18 cen epcpai, | bptjige 19 blaci, 19 luibe 20 ampai, 
oippiceb 21 bicbuan, papab 22 cen paecap, beca cen bp6n, aibnep 
cen epbfbab, n6ime biap n-anmanbaib, compab cunnail ppi 
haingliu, bicbeca 23 cen bap, i na huile 24 t)6 oc 25 dp n-aipmicm 

31 - 31 immab n-onsalap poped. 32 - 32 pmm ocup paecap cec can. (This and 
the foregoing are the true readings.) 33 dep. 34 ocup. 35 cptni. 36 omitted. 
37 -alim, corrected into -alib. 38 correction of aplais. 39 laici. 4 - 40 cec oen. 
41 poppuca. 42 n-ippipn. 43 ~ 43 bia m-[b]ac. 44 iap m'. 45 -cap. 
46-46 n 01C ec cpuc (wrong reading). 47 ' 47 iap n-a cam aipliub (the true 
reading). 48 panmaip. 49 puail. 5 - 50 a sle gpaim. 51 - 61 6paim n-epslan. 
1. (XI.) l Qbaum. 2 mp'bo. 3 bfmbac. 4 - 4 manbab. 5 aipcpa.' 
6 bdi. 7 caccop. 8 -bop. 9 cein. 10 - 10 ppi coippi. n imaicpeup. 
12 ponlab. 13 -pam. u bo. 15 -bup. 16 oeciu. 17 plamce. 
18 oebinneop. 19 ~ 19 bpuigi balcai. 20 lubai. 21 aippiciub. 2Z pappab. 
23 -cu. 24 buile. 25 ' 25 'co ap n-aipmicein. 


Much of every disease is [for ye], 
Separation of body and of soul, 
And labour shall be the lot, 
[Old] age and decrepitude and palsy 4 . 

Endurance of assaults of the devil, 
Each day and each year, 
That be carry ye not with him to his house, 
Unto hell very horrible. 

Your actions, if they he pure, 
According to commands, according to precepts, 
Heaven shall be given, renowned the fame, 
To each according to merit. 

The king of the kingdom spacious, not trifling ; 

The king of life famous, everlasting, 

Not remiss [is he] for a conspicuous deed every time, 

The king who said tale bright, perfect. The king, &c. 

1. Then granted God to Adam this common earth, after the 
offence in Paradise and [Adam] would not be displeased therewith, 
if there were not dissolution after a time for him. Now, was Adam 
[for] a week after his expulsion from Paradise without raiment, 
without drink, without food, without house, without fire ; under 
very great weariness and distress, with reproach and recrimination 
by 1 them towards each other. So that then said Adam to Eve : 
" We have been cast from Paradise through guilt of offence," 
quoth he, " and great is what we have left of every good there. 
For there was Paradise with all its honour at 2 our command : namely, 
youth joyous and health without disease and delight without decay ; 
meadows of bloom, herbs excellent, pleasure ever-constant, satiety 
without toil, life without sorrow, delight without failure ; holiness 
for our souls, converse fitting with 3 angels, lasting life without death 
and the elements 4 of God reverencing 5 and honouring us. 5 And all 

4 Lit., trembling of hands. 

1. * Lit., with. 2 Lit., upon. 3 Lit., towards. 

4 The reading of Saltair na Rann. The text has " the [things] all." 
5 ~ 5 Lit., at our reverencing and at our honouring. The possessive, as else- 
where, is used objectively with the verbal substantive (infinitive). 

62 tebciR brcec. 

[1] -] oc dp n-onoip. Ocup na huile 26 anmanb 27 baeap pop bie, 
ifpjpinb 28 nopopbai^eb 29 . Ocup ninloipcpet) cene -j nipbaipeb 30 
upce 31 i nipcepcpab poebup 32 no iapn -j nipgebab galap no 
paee. "Ni boi 33 bino innim no hi calum 34 btfil cfpab 35 ppinb, 
mine cfpab Lucipep 36 . Ocup cib Lucipep 36 bino, m c6empab 37 ap 
n-airnlep 38 , cen 39 bamap po pmacc in Choimbeb. O popapaig- 
pimap 40 bino in Coimbib, aca cec btiil i 41 cocappna 41 ppinb 42 -\ ni 
he t)ia ba cincac ppinb 43 , ace pinne popapaig epium i cue puin 
cec maic bun, c6m bamap po [a] pmacc pum." Qcbepc bino 
6ua ppi hQbam : "Uaip ip mipe ap cincac ann, a Qbaim," ol 
pi, " cappi cucamm i imbip bdp popm im' cincaib. Qp, ace co 
caecaippa 44 am'cincaib, ip moci^bogena t)ia cpocaipe opucpa." 
a lp lop cena pocpaibpim 46 in Coimbib," ol Qbam, "-) ni 47 bin- 
gencep 47 pfngal 48 popcpa," ol pe, " ap acai co cpuag -\ co 
caebnocc -| ni cobdileb mo puil pen po calum," ol pe. "dp 
i[f] pippanbup bom' cupp cupa, a 6ua," ol pe, " -\ ni c6ip bun 
acamup bo cabaipc ap in Coimbib, no ap n-bibub, 49 no ap 
n-bilcenb, 50 co na pobilpigea in Coimbiu pinb bo bemnaib i 
pubomam ippipn ~\ na 51 pobilpigea pinn 51 bopibipe 52 bo Lucipep 63 . 
Qp acam cena i n-ap peinn -\ acbelam bi puacc -j gopcai 
cen biab, cen ecac." " Q pip maic," ol 6ua, " cib na cuipe 
cuaipc 54 ap 55 cec 56 lee, btip in puigbicea 57 btin m nomelmaip." 58 

m. Qcpacc Qbam lap pin, cop'laa cuaipc 1 , oc lappub bfb 
nocaicpicip. Ocup ni puaip biab, ace luibe 2 in caiman ~\ cuic 
na n-anmanb 3 n-inbligcec. Nip'bac papeai' leo epibe lap m- 
biabaib blapca 4 papcu[i]p. 5 Comb annpin acbepc Qbam ppi 
6ua: "t)enum 6 ," ol pe, "penbaic 7 -| aiepige 8 , co cuipmip binb 

26 huili. 27 -nn. 28 ip pint). 29 nopo6oTi[ai5]e[b]. mnbaibpeb. 
31 omitted. 32 paebup. 33 bai. 34 calmain. 35 nocirpeb. 

36 -pup. 37 coemnacaiyi. M n-aTnlepp. 39 cein. 40 pafdpaisrem. 
41-41 hi cocappnai. 42 ppirn (sing.) 43 pinb. 44 copcpoppa. ^ moce. 
46 -pern. 47 - nfben (fut. 1. sg.). 48 pinsail. 49 n-bibab.' 

*ldnbil5en. 61 - 51 nacapnbilpi. 52 bopifi. 53 -pup. 54 cuaipb. 
"pop. 56 ca6. "pogebca. 68 bomelmaip. 

m. Cuaipb. 2 lubai. 3 n-anman. 4 blaicib. 5 -buip. 6 ben am. 
7 penn-. 8 aceipge. 


the beings that were in 2 existence, it is we that used to control [1] 
them. And fire would not burn us and water would not drown 
us and edged 6 weapon 6 or iron would not cut us off and illness or 
weariness would not seize us. There was not, moreover, in heaven or 
on 7 earth an element that would have come against us, if Lucifer had 
not come. And even Lucifer, indeed, he could not have caused our 
destruction, whilst we were under the obedience of the Lord. Since 
however we have offended the Lord, every element is in opposition to 
us and it is not God that was the 8 cause thereof to us 8 , but ourselves 
who have offended him, although 9 he gave every good to us, whilst we 
were under his obedience." Then said Eve to Adam : " Since it is I 
that am guilty therein, Adam," quoth she, " come you to me and 
inflict death upon me for 7 my crimes 10 . For if I be destroyed for 7 my 
crimes, the 11 more will God work mercy upon thee." " Enough 11 already 
have we afflicted the Lord," quoth Adam, " and murder 12 shall not be 
done upon thee," quoth he ; " for thou art wretched 13 and stark naked 13 
and I will not shed my own blood along the earth," quoth he. " For 9 
true portion of my body art thou, Eve," quoth he, " and [it is] not 
just for us to give fresh offence to 14 the Lord, or to destroy ourselves or 
to annihilate ourselves, that the Lord may not forfeit us to demons in 
the depth of hell and may not forfeit us again to Lucifer. For we are 
already in 15 punishment 15 and we are dying of cold and hunger, without 
food, without raiment 16 ." " good man," quoth Eve, " why dost thou 
not make 17 circuit on every side, to know whether there should be 
found for us anything we would consume ?" 

in. Uprose Adam after that and 1 made circuit, a-seeking food that I 
they would eat. And he found not food, save herbs of the earth and 
the pittance of the lawless beings. That was not sufficient for them 
after the savoury foods of Paradise. So that then said Adam unto Eve : 
" Let us do," quoth he, " penance and contrition, that we may put 

6 ~ 6 Lit., edge. More likely, edge or iron is a hendiadys = edged iron (weapon). 
7 Lit., in. 8 ~ 8 Lit., guilty against us. 9 Lit., and. 

10 Another quatrain (11. 1529-1532) is spoken by Eve in 8. R. It is an amplifi- 
cation of what is given here. n It is stands prefixed in the text. 

12 The textual word, pfnsal, means slaying a relative. 

13 The original phrase is adverbial. u Lit., on. 15 ~ 15 Lit., in our punishment. 
16 In S. M. the second clause of this sentence is spoken by Eve. She adds 

(11. 1557-1560) that they had food and raiment before transgression and neither 
one nor the other thereafter. 17 Lit., put. m. l Lit., so that. 

64 tebarc brcec. 

[m] m bi ap cincaib -j bi ap caipmceccup 9 ," ol pe. Qcbepc 6ua 
bino: "t)enapu mo cincopcpa," ol pi, " ap 10 nippecup 11 cinbup 12 
bO5nfcep penbaic 13 no aicpige." Qcbepc bino Qbam : "Qbpumm 14 
in Coimbib i benum cuibecc cen 15 comlabpa 15 bo neoc ppi 
apaile ocainb icep. 6pj5piu ]6 , a 6ua, i ppuc Cigip -] pegucpa 17 
i ppuc lopbanen," ol pe, " -\ bi cpi laa cpicac i ppuc Ci^ip i 
biacpu pecc laa cecpacac i ppuc lopbanen. Ocup bep 18 lac 19 
Ifcc cloci poc' copaib 20 -| poiceb in n-upce bo bpa^aic -| bfb 
[b']polc pcailce 21 pop cec 22 lee pop uaccap in c-ppoca. Ocup 
c6caib bo bf 23 Idim i n-aipbi ppipin Coimbib -\ bo pope ppip na 
nembaib ~\ guib in Coimbib um bilgub buic bapcenb c' imapboip." 
Qcbepc 6ua : " Nibae 24 glan 25 bo guibe t)6. Uaip ac elmje ap 
m-beoil lap comailc in ubaill [ubaib, Lifh.~\ hepgaipci." Qcbepc 
bino Qbam ppi 6ua : " Qiccem in 26 n-uli bthle 36 boponca 
P. 112 b. | cpia glaine co 27 n-guibec in Coimbib linb 28 im bilgub bun biap 
caipmceccup 29 -\ bena 30 amlaib pin bo mob -j bo monap -j comaill 
1 na cumpcai5 app." Secc laa 31 cecpacac lap pin bo Qbam i 
ppuc lopbanen ~\ cpi laa 31 cpicac 32 bo 6ua i ppuc Cigip. Ocup 
cicbip aingil 33 bo mm o t)ia cec lai 31 bo imacallaim ppi hQbam 
1 bia popcecul 34 , co cenb 35 noi la 36 n-be"cc 37 . Ip ann bino 
poguib 36 Qbam ppuc lopbanen co n-a ilmilaib co pocpoipceb 39 
laip co t)ia im bilgub bo bia caipmceccup. TCocaipip 40 cpa in 
ppuc inbpin i cec mfl beo boi anb, pocmoilpic im Qbam ~\ 
pogabucap 41 uli, icep mfl -\ ppuc, in Coimbib ~\ boponpac 
nuallguba moip ppi na hulib jpabaib pilec imon Coimbib, im 
bilgub bo Qbam i n-a imapbup 42 . Oopi^ne 43 cpa t)ia pop 44 
a gpabaib planbilgub cinab bo cabaipc bo Qbam ~\ aiccpeb 
i calmain bo -| nem lap n-eceppcapab anma ppi a copp. 
Ocup bopac bia cloinb bia 6ppi, accmab inci 45 cicpab bap 
pe6c t)e. 

9 capmceoc. 10 hucnp. i:i Tia6pecap. 12 cinnap . 13 pennainb. 
14 abpam. 15 ' 15 hi comlabpae. 16 eipsspiu. 17 pagpa. 18 beip. 
19 lee. 20 coppaib. 21 pcailci. 22 cac. 23 ba. 24 mbap. 25 slain. 
26 - 26 na huili buili. 27 - 37 cop'suibec. 28 lenn. 29 capimcecc. 80 t>eni. 

31 la. 32 cpicac. 33 ainseil. 34 -cal. 35 cenn. 36 laa. 37 h-t>eec 
. 39 cpoipceb. 40 cappapaip. 41 -bacup. 42 imm-. 

44 ap. 45 mc6 


put from us something of our crimes and of our transgression," quoth [m] 
he. Said Eve indeed : " Instruct 2 thou me 2 ," quoth she, " for I know 3 
not 3 how is done penance or contrition." 4 But said Adam : " Let us 
adore the Lord and spend 5 a time 5 without conversing, one 6 with the 
other of us, at all. Go thou, Eve, into the stream of Tigris and I 
will go myself into the stream of Jordan," quoth he, " and be thou 
three days [and] thirty in the stream of Tigris and I will be myself 
seven days [and] forty in the stream of Jordan. And take with thee a 
flagstone [to put] under thy feet and let the water reach thy throat 
and be thy hair loosened upon every side upon the surface of the stream. 
And raise thy two hands on high towards the Lord and thy eyes towards 
the heavens and pray the Lord for forgiveness to thee on account of 
thy offence." Said Eve: "We are not pure [enough] to pray the Lord. 
For defiled are our lips after the eating of the apple forbidden." But 
said Adam to Eve : " Let us beseech all the elements that were made 
in T purity, that they may pray the Lord with us for forgiveness to us for 
our transgression and perform like that thy measure and thy work and 
persevere and stir not out of it." Seven days [and] forty after that 
[were spent] by Adam in the stream of Jordan and three days [and] 
thirty by Eve in the stream of Tigris. And there used to come angels 
of heaven from God each day, to converse with Adam and to instruct 
him, to the end of nine days [and] ten. It is then, indeed, besought 
Adam the stream of Jordan with its many creatures, that it might 
fast with him to God for forgiveness to him for his transgression. 
Then stood the stream and every living creature that was in it, they 
assembled around Adam and besought they all, both 8 creature and 
stream, the Lord and they made wailing great to all the grades that 
are around the Lord, for forgiveness to Adam in his offence. But 
God caused for his grades full forgiveness of his crimes to be given to 
Adam and a dwelling on 9 earth to him and heaven after separation of 
the soul from his body. And he gave [the same] to his children after 
him, except whoever should transgress the law of God. 

2 ~ 2 Lit., do thou my instructing (possessive used objectively). 
3 ~ 3 Lit., know it not : the infixed pronoun (p) used proleptically. 
4 In S. H. another quatrain (11. 1581-1584) is given to Eve. In it she asks for 
instruction, that she may not err by excess or deficiency. 5 Lit., make going. 

6 Lit., for [=by] anyone. 7 Lit., through. 8 Lit., between. 9 Lit., in. 




n. Gecuala imoppo biabul in aicepc cucab bo Qbam o t)ia 
") bocoib pop amup 6ua bopibipe 1 i pice aingil : bia bpecab 
apin ppuc i t>o locc a aicpi^e impe. Co nb-ebepc ppia: "Ip 
paea 2 acai i ppuc Cigip, a 6ua," ol pe, " -j c6p' male bo^ne", 
poclaeclaip 3 cpuc," ol pe. ""Rocmapbaip 4 buben -\ caip co luac 
apin ppuc. Ocup t)ia pomcuippe boc' c-aipcipecc -j boe' cabaipc 
apin ppuc." Cic bino 6ua apin ppuc 5 , co in-bot oc 6 a cipmu5Ub 6 
pop cfp i came mpum nell 7 cuice, co capmaipc 6cc 8 cen 
anmain. Ocup mp'aicin 9 6ua co m-bab he Lucipep cfpab i pice 
m aingil ~\ boi 10 a Tnenma 11 1 cunncabmpc 12 moip ime. Qcbepc 
Lucipep: "Q 6ua," ol pe, " ip mop bo impacib 13 bo^nf ; uaip 
ip pe 14 popcongpa 15 1)6 bo mm canucpa cucuc. Ciagum app," 
ol pe, " bocum Qbaim, co n-^uibem t)ia lib im bfl^ub bo 
cabaipc buib ba bap cincaib." t)ocuacup 16 iapum co haipm 
i m-boi Qbam, oc ppuc Iopban6n. dmal 17 pobepcc 18 Qbam pop 
6ua i Lucipep, 19 popgab 20 epic -| spam pe gmjip biabuil. "Ulo 
nuap, a 6ua," ol pe, " pocmellupcap inci pocmell i papcup 21 . 
^P5 ? in ^T 10 ) DO cibecc a ppuc Cigip, co cfpab ain^el glan 

'n Choimbib boc' cabaipc app." Qmal 17 iccuala^Gua accopan 23 
Qbaim, bopuic 24 pop lapcalmain, comb bee na becaib bian- 
bap. Comb ann acbepc Qbam : " Q Lucipep, a biabul," ol pe, 
"cib cai biap lemtiain 25 ? Ocup popmnbapbaip a papcup i pop- 
cappacup ap cuipp ppi ap n-anmannaib ace bee -\ bopacaip 

1 cacc i i cuibpec. Ocup nf pmb pocgab 26 bo plaiciup i nf 
pmb poccuip a n-ipepn bo bingnaib picib (no pici^)*. Ni 
pmb bino po [pjupail pope biumup -j antjmla boc' cigepna." 

n. l t>opipe (syncopated form, to suit the metre). 2 cian. 3 pocoemcldip. 
4 -pocmapmaip. 6 c-ppuc. 6 ' 6 'cocip. 7 nel. 8 hec. 9 m haicgen. 
10 be. n -mai. 12 cumc-. 13 -ceib. u la. 15 popn5aipi, 16 -cap. 
17 map. 18 pot>eip[c]e. 19 -pup. 20 pofisab. 21 -bop. 22 ac-. 
23 abcopain. 24 boppuic. 25 lenamuin. 26 pogab. 

* Over the -ib of picib is placed no (in the contraction of the Latin wJ) 
5 or y- meaning that the true reading was perhaps picig. 


n. Howbeit, heard the devil the precept that was given to Adam 
by God and he went to 1 tempt Eve 1 again in guise of an angel 2 : to 
entice her from out the stream and to 3 injure her in respect to her 
penance. 3 So said he to her: "It is long art thou in the stream of 
Tigris, Eve," quoth he, " and though good is what dost thou, thou 
hast changed [thy] shape," quoth he. "Thou hast [almost] killed 
thyself and come quickly from out the stream. And God [it was] 
that sent myself to spare thee and to bring thee from out the stream." 
Then comes Eve from out the stream, so that she was a-drying herself 
upon land and there came afterwards a swoon to her, so that she had 
like to die without consciousness. And Eve did not know that it was 
Lucifer that would come in guise of the angel and her mind was in 
great perplexity regarding him. Said Lucifer : "0 Eve," quoth he, 
" many 4 are the [vain] thoughts thou hast 4 ; for it is by command of the 
God of heaven came I myself unto thee. Come we from this," quoth 
he, " unto Adam, that we may beg God with ye to give forgiveness to 
ye for your crimes." They went afterwards to the place wherein was 
Adam, at the stream of Jordan. When looked Adam upon Eve and 
Lucifer, took 5 he trembling and abhorrence at sight of the devil. 
" Woe is me, Eve," quoth he, "there hath deceived thee the one 
that deceived thee in Paradise. Sad [is] that in sooth, thy coming 
out of the stream of Tigris, until the angel pure would come from 
the Lord to bring thee thereout." When heard Eve the reproach of 
Adam, fell she down upon the very earth, so 6 that she nearly met 
with sudden death 6 . So that then said Adam : "0 Lucifer, 
devil," quoth he, "why art thou a-f olio wing us? And thou hast 
expelled us from Paradise and our bodies have all but 7 separated 
from our souls and thou hast given us into subjection and into 
bondage. And [it is] not we took thy kingdom from thee and [it 
is] not we put thee into hell from the heights of the [heavenly] 

n. 1-1 Lit., upon attack of Eve. 

2 S. . says (1. 1671), like a swan in guise of a white angel (map held 
af5il 51!). 3 ~ 3 Lit., to injure her penance respecting her 

4 - 4 Lit., [It] is much of thoughts thou malrest. 
5 Lit., he took them ; the pronoun (p) being used proleptically. 
6 - 6 Lit., so that it [is] little that she went not swift death. 
7 Lit., except a little. 


68 tebcm b^ec. 

o. Qebepe Lucipep : " Q 1 puapupa t>e ulc 1 ," ol pe, "ip cpec' 2 
baiginpe 2 puapup. Ocup t)ino inbippeepa 3 buic arnal 4 poncuipeb 5 
ap oen t>o mm : ibon, t>ia eapbab c'aimmpea o t)ia bocum 
bo cuipp i poecpueaig po copmailep 6 a belbi 7 buben q bia 
nb-e"bpab 8 ppia cec n-buil t>o aipmicnusubpa -\ bia 9 poppuib 9 
t)ia TTlicel t>o mm cucuc, co n-t)acpuc 10 t>o at>pat> in buileman 11 
1 o paabpaip t>o pi^ na n-amsel, popopcon^pat) pop cec n-btfil 
c'aipmicmpea t>o benam cpia bicu. Comt) annpin poppuit) t)ia 
TTlicel po na pecc mmib, co cipcaip aingil co n-a n-bpong- 
aib ilib t)O aipmicmu^ut) a t>elbepium 12 . Ocup popait) Tllicel 
P. H3a. ppimpa cu m-bab me bub coipec pempu. | lap pin imoppo bobe- 
cubpa pa 13 beoib cop'puibep 14 i piabnaipe in buileman 11 . Ocup 
acbepc 15 ppmb 16 in pi5 17 ,ibon, ppianoi n-^pabaibmme: "Cabpaib 
uile uapli i oipmicin 18 bom' combelbpea, 19 ibon, bo Qbam," ol pe. 
Ip annpin acbepc TTlicel: "Ip c6ip bi 30 cec spdb pil pop mm 
bo combelbaibpea 21 bo abpab ~\ bo aipmicin 22 ." Comb acbepcpa: 
"Nac 6 Qbam popap 23 na n-uli 24 bul 24 -j m c6ip in pinnpep bo 
aipmicmu^ub in c-popaip i nac 6 in popap bib coip bo 
aipmicmugub in c-pinnpip?" Qnnpin bino popaibpec cpian 
mumcipe mme, icep 25 aingel -\ apcam^eal, 25 co m-ba coip an 
ucbepcpa. Ip annpin acbepc in pig ppinne : " Ip e in popap 26 
bup 27 uaiple cen 28 beopa pop mm." " Qcbepcpa," op Lucipep, 
"napagaib pen bo aipmicmu^ub 29 Qbaim, c6 bicpeb cdc uile; 
uaip 30 bam 30 pimu olcdp. "Romlaabpa lap pin bo mm po cecoip 
cpiac' cinaibpiu, a dbaim," op Lucipep; "oip canuc i n-agaib 
roile mo ci^epna, ibon, Ipu Cpipc: co poncuipebne, Ifn ap 
flog, i pu&omam ippipn i cupa i pap cup 31 b'ap 32 n-6pi 32 . Ocup 
ba p6mmec bo becu ann, mina bee cumpcugub pope epci. 

o. 1 ~ 1 'no puapup b'ulcc. 2 cpiac' bagain. 3 abpiapa. 4 peib 

o. - na puapuf b'ulcc. 2 cpiac' bagain. 3 abpiapa. peib. 
6 boirpalab. 6 -liup. 7 beilbi. 8 n-epbpat>. 9 - 9 biap'pdib. 10 conocpuc. 
11 bul-. 12 beilbipeom. 13 bobecab. u co cappapap. 15 popdbi. 
16 pinn. 17 pi. 18 aipmiciu. 19 combeilbpi. 20 bo. 21 -belbpu. 22 -cam. 
23 6ppap. 2 *- 24 Ti-btile n-uile. 25 - 25 ecep afigle ip apcafigle. 2G c-popap. 
27 bap. 28 cein. 29 -nigub. 3 - 30 huaip im. 31 -bop. 32 - 32 bap ap 


kingdom 8 . [It is] not we, moreover, that enjoined upon thee 
haughtiness and want 9 of humility 9 to thy Lord." 

o. Said Lucifer: 1 ''What I have gotten of evil," quoth he, "it 
is through thy account I got [it]. And moreover, I shall tell thee 
how we were put together from heaven : namely, when was given 
thy soul by God unto thy body, and [God] formed thee in 2 likeness of 
.his own form and when it was said unto every element to reverence 
thee and when God sent Michael from heaven to thee, so that he 
took thee to adore the Creator and when thou didst adore the King of 
the angels, it was enjoined upon each element to 3 do reverence to 
thee 3 through ages. So that then sent God Michael throughout the 
seven heavens, that the angels might come with their many throngs to 
reverence his image. And said Michael to me that it is I should be 
first before them. After that indeed went I at 4 length 4 and 5 sat 5 in 
presence of the Creator. And said unto us the king, namely, unto the 
nine grades of heaven : ' Give ye all [of you] eminence and respect to 
my likeness, namely, to Adam,' said He. It is then said Michael : ' It 
is just for every grade that is in 6 Heaven to adore and to honour thy 
likeness.' So that said I : 'Is not Adam the junior of all the 
elements and [it is] not just that 7 the senior should honour 7 the junior 
and is it not the junior it were just should honour the senior?' 
Then, indeed, said 8 a third of the people of Heaven, both 9 angel 
and archangel, that what I spoke was just. It is then said the 
king to us : ' It is the junior is noblest whilst I am in 6 heaven.' " 
" Said I," quoth Lucifer, <( that I would not go myself to honour 
Adam, though every one else should go; for I was older than he. 
I was cast after that from Heaven immediately 10 through thy fault, 
Adam," quoth Lucifer, " since I went against the will of my Lord, 
namely, Jesus Christ : so that we were put, the whole of our hosts, in 

8 Six additional quatrains (11. 1733-1756) are spoken by Adam in 8. -K. One 
couplet (11. 1751-1752) corresponds (not very closely) to the final sentence of this 
section. 9 ~ 9 Lit., inhumility. 

o. i In S. H. Satan proceeds to remind Adam, in seven quatrains (11. 1757-1784), 
of the various evils inflicted upon himself on account of Adam. 2 Lit., under. 

3 - 3 Lit., to do thy reverence (possessive used objectively). 4 ~ 4 Lit., at the end. 

5 ' 5 Lit., so that I sat. 6 Lit., upon. 7 ' 7 Lit., the senior to honour. 

8 Plural in the original ; third (cpian) being a collective. 

9 Lit., between. 10 Lit., under the first hour. 

70 lebcm brcec. 

[o] Ocup acbepimpea ppicc 38 , a abaim," op lucipep, " cec olc -\ 
cec imneb po^ba, ip mipe po^ba buic i cec olc bo^n, ip 
ppicpa bo^ncap, a Gbaim," ol pe. "Ocup bino bobeppa bo 
clomb i c'lapGaige i cacaib -[ i n-gallpaib 34 ] cebmannaib i 
imnebaib mopa[ib], c6n co n-bicpec po calmain, cpiapin n- 
irnpepam pil ecpum i cu," ol pe. 

p. Came 1 bmo Qbam apin ppuc, lap popba na pe6c la 
cecpacac po aicpi5e i pennaic n-bicpa. Ocup bocoib 2 Lucipep 
uabib, co puppacaib Qbam i 6ua amlaib pin po rhepcin -j inela. 
bacapbmo in lanamam cpo^pm a n-oenup co cenb m-bliabna, 
cen papab bib no bige, ace luibepab ~\ p6p in caiman bo 
caicem, amal cec n-anmanb n-mbligcec apcena -\ upce bi a 
m-bapaib bo 615 paip : cen cec, cen cenib, ace po 3 popcabaib 3 
cpanb 4 -j uamaib 5 cipmaib caiman, -\ apaile.* 

33 ppic. 34 ii- 

p. l bopuapgaib (arose). 2 popdit). 3 - 3 hi popcabais. 4 na cpann, 
5 i n-huamaib 

* In the MS., -j. apaite is represented by -]c, the contraction for et cetera. 
Similarly, sed (once written in full, but in all other places represented by s with 
horizontal line overhead) is regularly put for ace (but). The Roman notation is 
likewise frequently employed to express the numerals. 


the depth of hell and thou [wast put] in Paradise in our stead. And [o] 
pleasant were thy life there, if 11 thou hadst not been disturbed 11 
therefrom 12 . And I say to thee, Adam," quoth Lucifer, " every 
evil and every misery you shall get, it is I shall cause [it] to thee 
and every evil I shall do, it is against thee it shall be done, 
Adam," quoth he. " And, moreover, I shall bring thy children and 
thy posterity into trials and into diseases and plagues and miseries 
great, until they go under earth, through the contention that is 
between me and thee," quoth he. 

p. Howbeit, came Adam out of the stream, after completion of 
the seven days [and] forty in 1 contrition and penance earnest. And 
went Lucifer from them, so that left 2 he Adam and Eve in that 
manner in 1 misfortune and deception. Now, were that wretched 
wedded couple alone 3 to the end of a year, without sufficiency of 
food or of drink, but to consume the roots and grass of the earth, 
like every other lawless animal besides and water from their palms 
for drink therewith 4 : without house, without fire, but under the 
shades of the trees and [in] dry caves of the earth, and so on. 5 

11-11 Lit., if there were not disturbance upon thee. 

12 Two additional quatrains (11. 1865-1872) are spoken by Satan in 8. R. 
p. l Lit., under. 2 Lit., left them ; the infixed pron., r>, heing used proleptically. 

3 Lit., in oneness. 4 Lit., upon it. 

5 The phrase and so on (lit., and the rest] refers, perhaps, to the fact that the 
poem in S. It. contains thirty-one quatrains (11. 1897-2020) in addition. The chief 
contents of these are : Birth of Cain; sending of Michael by God to teach Adam 
agriculture and use of animals ; birth of Abel ; Eve's vision of Cain drinking 
Abel's blood ; building of house for each son by Adam ; Gabriel's announcement 
that Cain would kill Abel and Seth be born ; seventy -two sons and as many 
daughters born for Adam ; Abel killed at the age of 200 years ; Adam's children 
commanded by God not to kill Cain, whose forehead is marked by a protuberance 
which struck against a tree and killed him, in the valley of Jehoshaphat (thence- 
forth barren in consequence) ; birth of Seth in place of Abel. 


[Figures denote the pages of the Lecture ; Roman letters, the sections of the 
Lebar Brec text, pp. 38 to 71.] 

a (poss. 3 sg. masc.), 24, 25, a, b, c, d, 

h, i, k, 1, m, o. 

a (poss. 3 sg. fern.), 27, e, h, n. 
a(Uecut>, poss. 3 sg.fem.), h. 
a (poss. 3 sg. neut.), i, m. 
a (poss. 3 p.), 28, c, f, h, i. 
a n- (p. poss.), a, b, c, e, f, h, o, p. 
a (pron. infix. 3 p.), bapisne, 24. 
a (prep.), 15, 24, 25, f, k, 1, n. 
a 0, prep.), f. 
am' (i mo), 1. 
a n- (i n-), f, h, i, n, p. 
a (rel.), gr, o; an- (rel.), i. 
a (voc.), 15, 16, 20, gr, h, i, 1, m, n. 
abaill, d. 
abaip, gr. 
ac (ic), 25. 
acallam, gr. 

ace, c, gr, i, 1, m, n, p ; a6c co, gr, 1. 
accmab, b, m. 
acuf (ocuf ), 20, 26, 27, 28. 
Qbam (n., d., ac.), passim. 
Qbaem (gen.), 25. 
dbaim (g.), 24, 26, b, e, f, gr, n; 

(ac.), d. 

Qbaim (voc.), 1, o. 
n-abampa, c. 
abbap, 28. 
abbuib, f. 
abilon, 24. 
abrmlliub, f. 

abpab, f, gr, o ; poabpair bo, o. 
abpumm, m. 
n-abuacmap, h; -maip (g.), k. 

aen, 27, gr, k. 

aeop, 25; aeo[i]p, 24. 

('n-a) asaib, e; (i n-)a5aib, o. 

Qsoyie, e; Qsopia, 25. 

aibnep, 1. 

p'ai6m (710 aicin), n. 

aicneb, e. 

aile, d, 1. 

aille, 1. 

aimlep, 1. 

n-aimfip, 1. 

am, d. 

(n.), a, i, n ; (ac.), o; (g.p.), c, 
,o; -5il(g.),d; (n.p.),k,m,o. 
(d.p.),d, i; ainsliu (ac.p.),k. 

ainm (name), d, e, o; (soul), 25. 

aip, 27. 

aipbpib (d. p.), c, d. 

aipbpiu (n. p.), d; (voc.), i. 

aipcainsel (g.p.), 

aipcifecc, n. 

aipbe, a, b; aipbi, m. 

aipbpig (n.s.), a. 

aipe (ap and pr. suf. 3 s. neut.), e. 

aipem, c. 

n-aipilliub, k. 

(h)aipm, n. 

aipmicm, d, 1, o; -niusub, f, o. 

aippopcac (d.,ac.), a; (g.p.), a. 

aippopcais (g.s.), a; (n.p.), a. 

aipcep, d. 

aipneip, b. 

n-aicbep, 1. 

aiccem, m. 



aicepc, e, i, n. 

aicmela, 1. 

aiopise, i, m, n, p; -560, b. 

aicce, 1. 

aiccpeb, m. 

alainb, c; -aen, 24. 

aibain, 15. 

allup, k. 

am, d. 

amac, a, b, k. 

amainpe, f. 

am at, h, n, o, p. 

amlaib, 25, a, c, m, p. 

ampa, a, b; ampai, 1. 

amuis, b, gr, f. 

amup, f, h., n. 

an (art.), k. 

an (rel.), o. 

anat>, b. 

anail, 25 ; anailt, h. 

ananacap, h. 

Qnacale, e. 

ant> (a (i) and pron. suf. 3 s. neut.), a, 

b, h, i, m. 
anbpin, b, f, k. 
amm, 24; animm, h, k. 
anma, e, k, m; anmain (ac.), e, n. 
anmanb (n. p.), f,l; (g. p.),8r,m,p. 
anmanba (n. s.), f. 
n-anmanbaib, 1, m, n. 
anmann (g. p.), gr. 
anmanna (n. s.), gr. ; (n. p.), e. 
anmtmb (n. p.), e; anmtmba, c. 
ann, 26, a, b, c, gr, h, i, k, 1, n. 
annpibe, e. 

annpin, d, e, gr, i. k, 1, m, o. 
anoip, f. 
antimta, n. 

ap (poss. 1 p.), f, g-, 1, m, n, o. 
ap-m (poss. 1 p.), m. 
ap-n (poss. 1 p.), f, 1, n. 
ap (prep.), 26, 28, d, e, f, gr, 1. 

ap oen, e, o. 

ap (conj.), d, f, gr, 1, m. 

ap (vb.), g-. 

Qpabia, 25 ; -ion, 24. 

Qpabon, 24. 

apaile, a, b, d, g-, i, 1, m, p. 

apcamsel (ac. s.), o ; (g. p.), d. 

apcansil (g.s.), i; (n. p.) c. 

ap6ena, e, gr, p. 

Qpccop, e. 

apb, 24. 

(n.), c; (g.), f, i; (ac.), c. 

(g.), a. 
n-apmac, 27. 
appoec, e. 
Qpcon, e. 
ap (prep.), e. 
ap (vb. rel.), 1. 
appein, e; apin, n, p. 
aplac (g. p.), k. 
apna, e. 

app (a and pron. suf. 3 sg. n.), m, r , 
ac (ind. pres. 3 p.), m. 
aca, c, gr, h, 1; acai, h, 1, n. 
acam, h, 1. 
acamup, 1. 
acap (g.), c. 
acac, 25, d. 
acbelam, 1. 

acbepac, d; acbepimpea, o. 
acbepc, d, g-, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o. 
acbepcpa, o. 
acbepuc, d. 
accomapc, b; -cc, a. 
acconnaipc, e. 
accopan, n. 
accuala, n. 
acimcell, d. 
acmai, i. 
acpacc, m. 

acpuc (ecip and pron. suf. 2 s.), h. 
accac, a, c. 



acu, g. 
acuaib, h. 

Qupbpo6aic, -Gib, b. 
i, f. 

ba, 24, 26, gr, h, i, 1, o. 
(co m-)ba, o. 
bab, 1. 

(co m-)bab, n. 
bae, 17, 25, 26, 28. 
baile, i. 
(nip)baippeb, 1. 
bam, d, o; bamap, 1. 
ban (g.p.), 27. 
bcmnpcal, e. 
bap, e, gr, n. 
bap-m, gr. 
bap-n, gr, i, k. 
bap, gr, 1. 
m-bapaib, p. 

(bia m-)ba[c], k. 

bacap, 1, p. 

(pop)bean, d. 

bee, n. 

bemic, h. 

ben, 26, 27, gr, i. 

(pop)ben, h. 

beniamin, 27. 

benna6, 20 ; bennacub, f. 

beo, m; -ba, 27. 

m-beoil, m. 

beop, a, k. 

beopa, o. 

bep, m; bobeppa, o. 

(no)bepca, e; bepcaip, b. 

(bo)bepcep, k. 

bep, k. 

bee, e, f, h, i, 1, o. 

beta, gr, k, 1. 

bicbeca, 1. 

becab (g.), i, k. 

becaib, f, k. 

bo)be6ea, i. 
becic, i. 
becu (n.s.), o. 
bi, g-, m. 
bia, d. 
(nip)bia, f, gr. 
(pop)bia, k. 
(poc)bia, f, g*. 
biab, 1, m ; m-biabaib, m. 
biacpu, m. 
biblon, e. 
bice (ac.), k. 
bfb (g.), m, p. 
bib (vb.), b, o. 
m-[b]ile, b. 
bip, e. 
bic, d. 

bic, f, 1; bicbermac, 20. 
bicbuan, b, 1; bicbuain (g.)> k. 
bicnua, b. 
bioip, f. 
bicu, i, o. 

blabmaip (g.), k. 

blaeb, 26 ; -c, 26. 

blaippea, k. 

blaice, b. 

blapmb, k; blapca, m. 

blac (d.orac.), a. 

bloc (g.p.)> b - 

blaei, 1. 

bliabain, 15, k; -in, 15. 

m-bliabna (g.s.), p; (n.p. bl-), 25. 

bliaban (g.p.)> 20, d. 

m-boecpais, k. 

boi, 1, m, n. 

(co m-yboii n. 

bolub, b. 

bolcnugub, b. 

bopb, d, gr. 

bpaplacc, 16. 

bpasaic (ac.), m. 

bpac, 24, b. 



bpec (bpon), 24; bpecab, n. 

bpe6, 20. 

bpec, d. 

bpisic, 20; -ce, 9, 16. 

m-bpoga, b. 

bp6n, 24, 1. 

bpu, 24, 25, e. 

bptiise, a, 1. 

bpumbi, 25. 

bpunne6op, 24. 

bub, f, o, 

buben, n, o ; -bnib, 24. 

bui, e, f, h, 1; pobui, 1. 

bup, o. 

ca6, a, b, f, i, k, o ; cdic, f. 

caec, n, g. 

cam, b. 

caipbep, f. 

caicem, gr, p; (no)6aicpicip, m. 

caicmip, gr. 

6alle6, 20. 

canaic, c. 

ccmae, c; canuc, c. 

capcpaibep, f. 

cac, 21, 27; cacaib, o. 

cacip, a; cacpais (ac. s.), a, b. 

c6, (conj.), n, o. 

cecmb, e. 

cec, 20, 24, 26, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, i, k, 

1, m, o. 

ceca (g.), a, b; ce6 n-, a, b, c, o. 
ceimen, b; ceimenb, a. 

c6n (conj. temp.), 26, 1, o. 

cen (prep.), b, c, d, e, g, h, k, 1, m, 

n, p. 
cena, 1. 
cent), 25, m, p. 
cemul, b. 

cenmoca, e; cenmocac, a. 
cenn, 24. 

ceol, a, b, o, d; ceolaib, a. 

cepc, 28; cepclec, d. 

cec (first), e. 

cec (num.), 15, 28, a, b, c. 

cecmp, b; -ap, 17. 

cecna (the same), f, h, i. 

cecna (num.ord.), 15, a. 

(po) cecoip, o. 

cecpaca, a, c. 

cecpa6ac, b, m, p. 

cecpi, o, d, e; -pop, 26. 

cia (pron. inter.), f, gr. 

cia (conj. concess.), g. 

cib (pcle. inter.), 1, n. 

cit) (conj. concess.), gr, 1. 

cm, f, i. 

cmab (ac.s.), 1; (g. p.), m. 

cmcnb (ac.), o. 

6mt>, f. 

cinbup, m. 

cmmocac, a. 

cmca6, 1; cmcaib, 1, m, n. 

(po)claeclcnp, n. 

claen, 26 ; clanb, b, i. 

claenne, 26; clcmna, k. 

claipceclaib, a ; claipcecul, i. 

clapa (p.), i. 

clapp, b, c. 

clappe, b. 

claupenaip, 9, 16. 

cleib, e. 

cloci, m. 

(po)cloe6la, h. 

cloecoc, k. 

clomb (d.), m ; (ac.), o. 

clumncep, i. 

clupail, 15. 

cltfpenaip. 15. 

clue, k. 

co (prep.), a, b, i, m, n, p. 

co m- (co n-), 26, b. 

co Ti- (prep.), b, c, d, i, 1. 



co (peib), d. 

co (caebno6c), 1. 

co (cpuas), 1. 

co (conj.), 25, b, d, e, gr, h, i, k, 1, m, 

n, o, p. 

co n- (conj.), c, e, f, gr, h, i, m, n, o. 
co no- (conj.), n, o. 
co6mpab, 1. 
coempacip, b. 
coi, 25. 

coic, 26 ; -ca, 26, 27 ; -aec, 26. 
(bo)coib, g-, i, n, p. 
cofbce, h. 

Coimbe (n.), d, f ; coimbeb (g.), c, 1. 
coimbelbaib, d. 
Coimbib (d., ac.), i, 1, m, n. 
Coimbiu (n.), d, e, f, 1. 
coimec, b; 6oimecup, gr. 
coimpcepccnp, b. 
c6ip, f, 1, o. 

coiccinb, e, k, 1; coicccenn, 16. 
col, f. 
colcnnrt, 26. 

col[lec] (co n-), (prep.), d. 
col[lin] (co n-), d. 
com (co n-, conj.), comba, h, o ; 

combab, e, n; combicip, f; 

combui, b. ; comblapmb, k. 
com mil, m. 
comammmu5ub, f. 
6omcnp, a. 
comaiple, f, gr. 
comaiccpeb, f. 
comaf , g, 1. 
comcoema, c. 
combail, i. 
combelb, o ; aib, o. 
comla (n.s.), a; comlabaib, b. 
comlabpa, m. 
comlcm, c. 
comlecan, a. 
comluaca, c. 

compab, 1. 

Conaccu, 20. 

concnp, b. 

comce, d. 

comb, d, f, gr, h, i, k, 1, m, n. 

connipab, c. 

copcaip, a. 

copn, i. 

copp, 25, e, k, m. 

coppaib, e, g. 

coppa, 24, 25, e ; copaib, m. 

copmailiup, o. 

cocac, f. 

cocappna, 1. 

cocmc, 24. 

Cocpaise, 17. 

(po)cpcnbpim, 1. 

cpamb (g.), h. 

cpcmb (n.,d.), e, gr, h, i; (g.p.), P. 

cpann, gr. 

(bapo)cpacap, 27. 

cpebem, 20. 

cpebuma (g. s.), a. 

cpi, f. 

epic, d, h. 

cpme, e, k. 

Cpipc, e, o. 

epic, h, n; cpicldm, k. 

cpocab, e. 

6pomb (g.s.), f, g, i, k. 

cpomb (g.s., n.p.), i. 

cpoip (d.), a; -pe (g.), a. 

cpop (n.), a; cpopi (g.), a. 

cpunb (d.), gr; cpurm (d.), gr. 

cpuc, h, n; pocpucab, e. 

(poc)cpucai5, o; cpucusub, d. 

cu (prep.), gr. 

cu n- (co n-, conj. : cu n-ecea), h. 

cu m- (co n-, conj. : cu m-bab), o. 

cuaipc, 1, m. 

(bo)cuabap, k; (bo)cuacup, n. 

cualu[b]appi, i. 



6uca, i ; cucamm, 1 ; 6ucuc, n, o. 

(co and pr. suf. 3 p., Is. and 2 s. 

cmbpe6, gr, n. 
cuice (co and pr. suf. 3 s. f.), n. 

CU1T151TT1, g. 

(poc)cuip, n. 

cuipe, 1. 

(pon)cuipeb, o; (pon)cuipebne, o. 

cuipib, k; cuiprmp, m. 

(pom)cuippe, n. 

cuipp(g.s.), g,li,i,o; (n.p.), h, n. 

cuic, m. 

Culi-bpemne, 21. 

cumacca, e. 

curnpcais, m; cumpcusub, o. 

cunnail, 1. 

cunncabaipc (ac.), n. 

6upp (d., ac.), f, 1. 

cupin (co and art.), g. 

cucpurna, a, e; cucpumma, a. 

b' (be, bi), 25. 

b' (bo, poss. 2 s.), m; (prep.) 26. 
ba (do), n. 
ba (num.), 26, a, c. 
ba (prep.), 1. 
, 24. 

bam (bo and pr. suf. 1 s.), 27, d, g-, h, i. 
bampa (bo and pr. suf. 1 s.), 16, f. 
ban, b, 1. 

bap, 20, b, e, f, k, m. 
bap(cenb), m. 
Dapb6en, 15. 
b'ap n- (be ap n-), o. 
bac, i. 

06 (g.), 24, 25,b,l, n; n-fce, b. 
be (prep.), a, c, d, 1, o. 
be (be and pron. suf. 3 sg. masc.), h. 
be (be and pron. suf. 3 sg. neut.), g:, h. 
beac (num.), 26. 

beapb, e. 

bee (num.), 25, a, d. 

n-beec (num.), m. 

becaib, n ; bobecaib, h ; bobe- 

cubpa, o. 

be6paib, i; be6pam, f. 
bei6 (num.), a. 
beilb, g-. 
beip (g.), e. 
beipcepc, e. 
belb, h; belbaib, b. 
belbe, o; belbi, (g.), o. 
bemnaib, 1. 
be'n (be in), 15. 
bena, gr, m. 

benam, e, gr, o; benamm, f. 
bene, d; benum, m. 
beocaip, gr, h. 
beoib, o. 
beoin, 24. 
beolaibe6c, k. 
bep, 25. 
(po)bepcc, n. 
beps, c. 

bep sop, a, b; bepgoip, a, b, d. 
bepmaip, a, 1. 
bepnab, e. 

bepnaip, i; -ncaip, 16. 
bepcepc, e. 
becib, i. 
Oepeb, 20. 
Deup, c. 

bi (prep.), a, e, 1, m, p. 
bi (bo), o. 
bf (num.), m. 

bi (bo and pron. suf. 3 sg. f.), h.. 
Dm, 24, 25, a, d, f, i. k, 1, m, n, o. 
bm (conj. temp.), o. 
bm nb- (conj. temp.), o. 
bm (conj. conditional), gr. 
bm m-[b]ab, i. 
bm (be and a, poss. masc. 3 sg.), 24, m. 



bid (be and a, poss. fern. 3 sg.), e, f. 

bia m- (conj.), 17. 

bia n- (be and rel.), e. 

bid (bo a), f, g, k, m, n. 

t)ia-TTlaipG, 16. 

biap (bo ap), m, n. 

biap n- (bo ap n-), 1. 

biabul, e, f, n; biabuil (g.), k, n. 

biaipmib, a. 

bian-bap, n. 

t)iapmaic, 15. [f, g;, i. 

bib (be and pron. suf. 3 p.), a, b, d, 

bib (bo and pron. suf. 2 p.), g. 

bibpin, a, b ; bibpium, h. 

n-bibub, 1. 

n-bi6pa, p. 

biopeb, o; -ec, o. 

bicup, 1. 

big, 1, p; bige (g.), P. 

(nop)bi5bann, 26. 

bit, d. 

n-bilcenb, 1. 

bflsub, m, n. 

biliu, e. 

(po)biVpi5ea, 1. 

bimnri (bi and pron. suf. 1 s.), h. 

bimmac, 1. 

binb (bi and pron. suf. 2 p.), m. 

binsnmb, n. 

bino, a, b, c, d, e, f, 1, m, n, o, p. 

n-bip, f. 

Dipip, e. 

bice (bi and pron. suf. 2 s.), h. 

biumup, d, n. 

blescnb, 15. 

n-bli5te6, b, gr. 

blomab, g; -par, k. 

bo (vbl. pcle.), bobeppa, o : 

bobepcep, k; bobecea, i~; 

bocoib, g, i,n, p; bocuabap, k; 

bocuacup, n; bobe6aib, h; 

bobecubpa, o ; bopuic, n ; 

bollospaicea, i; baipisne, 24 ; 

bopisne, a, d, m; -i, 25; 

bo locc, n; bolluib, i; 

bopac, d, h, m; boppac, f ; 

bopaciup, n; bopacaipiu, i; 

bo (prep.), 17, a, c, d, f, h, i, k, 1, m, 

n, p. 
bo (bi, be), 24, 25, 26, 27, a, b, c, d, 

e, g, k, m, n, o. 

bo'n (bi (be) and in, art.), d, , h. 
bo'n (bo and in, art.), g:. 
bo (bo with pron. suf. 3 sg. masc.), 24, 

e, 1, m. 

bo (poss. 2 sg.), f, gr, h, i, k, m, n, o. 
bocpaib, h. 
(po)bocc, d. 

bo6um, b, d, f, g:, h, i, k, n, o. 
bobdil, d. 
bospai, k. 
bogpepu, c. 

boib (bo and pr. suf. 3 p.), k. 
boimb, b. 

boippe, b; boippib, a. 
bom' (bo mo), d, 1, o. 
bomain (g.), a, b, d, e. 
bomenma, k. 
bominacionep, c. 
Domirmp, c. 
bommai, k. 
bo'n (bo in), 26. 
bopaip (g. sg.), a, b; (n.p.), a. 
bopibipe, 1, n. 

bopup, a,gr,li; (ac.), a; (, a,b. 
boc' (bo, prep, and bo, poss. 2 sg.), n. 
bpeic, f. 
bponsaib, c, o. 
bti, 20. 
buaib, h. 
bual, h. 

buib (bo and pron. suf. 2 p.), e, er, n. 
btiil, 1, o. 



buile, (ac. p.), m; -i(n. p.), 25. 

builemain (ac.), i; buileman, gr,i,o. 

buille, i ; buillepab, c. 

buine, 25, b, d. 

buic, f, g-, h, i, m, o. 

bul, e, f, g, h. [1, m. 

bun (bo and pron. suf. 1 p.), 15, 16, 

btin (sb.), k. 

btip, 1. 

e (pron.), 26, a, c, e, f, h, o. 
(noco n-)ebep, h. 
ebepc, n. 
(po)eblap, g. 
ebpab, o. 
ecoip, 27. 
eb (pron.), 26, c. 
ecc, n. 
eccaip, f. 

m; elmspicea, e. 
elniub, c. 
en, a, c. 
n-enbacc, o. 
enlaic, c. 
ennacc, c. 
eol, 27. 
epcib, i, k. 
n-epcoicecpa, i. 
epcpai, c. 
ep6pm, 1. 
epbfbab, b, 1. 
epailem, f ; epailim, gr. 
(pur)epali, f. 
Gpenn (ac.), 20. 
epspiu, m. 
epim, k; epimm, k. 
c-epmebon, i. 

h-eppopcacaib, a; eppopcaib, b. 
ep (ip, ocup),20, 26; ep (ip,vb.), 27. 
6p, 25; 6pe, 20; epi, f, o. 
epbaib, gr. 

(g.), e. 
epibe, m. 
epium, 1. 

eppi, e, m; eppibe, i. 
epci (a (app) and pr. suf. 3 s. f .), o. 
eta, h. 
eca6, 1. 

n-ecan (g.p.), k. 
(poh)eceppcapab . . .ppi, k. 
n-eceppcapab . . . ppi, m. 
ecpam (ecep andpr. suf. 1 s.), gr. 
ecpocc, 24; ecpoccslain, c. 
ecpum (ecep and pr. suf. 1 s.), o. 
ecci, c. 

Gua, 25, 26, d, e, f, g-, h, k. 
Guppacen, d. 
epcamla, k ; epcamlaib, a, h. 

pa (ba), 26. 

pa (po), o. 

(pup)pacaib, p. 

(co nup)[p]acca, h. 

pa5uba, a. 

pai6ci, a, b; -cib, a, b. 

pailci, b. 

paip (pop and pr. suf. 3 s. masc. or 

neut.), 27, f, p. 
paipneip, b. 
pac, 24; paca (g.p.), e. 
paca (adj.), n. 
peib, h. 

pel, 15 ; pell, i. 
pen, d, f, g-, i, 1, o. 
pep(n.s.),24,27; (ac.),26; (g.p.),27. 
pep, P. 
pepabaip, e. 
pepam, gr. 
(po)pepp, e. 
peppin, b, c. 
pepca, h. 
pecap, h. 
pecup, h, m. 



(poc)pia, g. 

piab, b. 

piabnaipe, o. 

pial, fc. 

piccomTnna, i. 

pici, 26; picec, c; -cic, 26. 

pibbuib, i. 

pil, a, b, c, d, gr, h, o. 

pilec, a, b, m. 

pin, d. 

pfna, b, d. 

pfnb, c. 

pinbpuine, a. 

pfnsal, 1. 

pip (g. s.), 26-7 ; (n. p.), 27 ; pip 

(TOO.), 1- 
pipu (ac. p.), 20. 
pfp, d, gr. 
pipinbe, e. 
pipinne (g.), b. 
pipmaTmnc, a. 

PI?, ; PiTT, 

pippon, d. 

piuspab, e. 

plaiciup, n. 

po, a, c, d, h, i, 1, o, p. 

po beap, b, d. 

po leio, b. 

popuca, k. 

poccpa (g.), i. 

pocpaicc, b. 

poebup, 1. 

posnarn, 17, d, k. 

poelaip (fut. 2 s. of polan^im), h. 

posup, b. 

POipp (g.) k. 

(nop)pollaninai5ent), f. 

pole, m. 

pom' (po mo), e. 

pomamup, f. 

po'n (po in), d, e, f. 

ponb, a. 

pop, 16, 27, a, b, c, d, e, f, gr, h, i, k, 

m, n, o. 
popaib, b. 
popba, p. 

popcenb, d; -Tin, 24. 
popcectaib, k. 
popcecul, i, m. 
(po)popcon5dip, k. 
popconspa, n. 
(po)popcon5pab. .pop, o. 
poppacpum, 1. 

popm (pop and pr. suf. 3 s.), i, 1. 
popmac, c. 
(po)popmci5, e. 
popopba, b. 

poppi (pop and pr. suf. 3 s. f.), f. 
poppa m- (pop and rel.), i. 
pope (pop and pr. suf. 2 s.), gr, n, o. 
popcpa (pop and pr. suf. 2 s.), 1. 
popcnsep, a. 
popcabaib, p. 
poppcermul (d.), c. 
poc (n.s., g. p.), e. 
poc' (po and bo), d, m. 
ppepcal, gr. ; -til, gr. 
ppi, a, d, e, f, gr, h, i, k, 1, m. 
ppia, b, f, 1, n, o. 
ppim (ppi and pr. suf. 1 s.), gr, h. 
ppimpa (ppi and pr. suf. 1 s.), o. 
ppinb (ppi and pr. suf. 1 p.), gr, 1, o. 
ppinne (ppi and pr. suf. 1 p.), o. 
ppipin (ppi and art.), a, b, f, gr, m, o. 
ppip na[ib], m. 
ppic (ppi and pron. suf. 2 s.), h. 
ppic' (ppi bo), h. 
ppic (vb.), i. 
ppicailem, gr. 
ppicmuip, a. 
ppicoilib, k. 

ppicpa (ppi and pr. suf. 2 s.), o. 
ppicc (ppi and pr. suf. 2 s.), 1, o. 
ppomab, gr. 



puacc, h, 1. 

puaip, f, m; puapup, o. 

pubomain, d, 1, o. 

(pop)puib, o. 

puibbernip, gr. 

puisbicea, 1. 

puil (sb.), 24, 25, 1. 

puil (ind. pres. 3 sg.), d. 

puipec, g 1 , k. 

puippi (pop and pr. suf. 3 s. f.), a. 

(bo)puic, n. 

po[p]upail, n. 

pucib (po and pr. suf. 3 p.), a. 

'50 (oc a), g. 

(pop)5ab, n; gabaib, h. 

5aba, 27. 

<5abpiel, i. 

500, 25. 

, 24. 
, h. 

(po)5abucap, m. 
Salap, 1; galaip (g.s.), k. 
gallpa, k; sallpaib, h, o. 
5alup, e. 
<5apab, 24, 25. 
(nopbi)5bann, 26. 
(cop')5apc (co posapc), gr. 
(mr)5ebab, 1 ; geib, f, h. 
5el, 26. 
Sell, 24. 

56TT11U, a. 

gen, 20, 26. 

(bo)5en, o; (bo)5ena, g,l. 
(bo)5enac, d. 
(no)5enpicea, e. 
(bo)5encap, o; (bin)5encup, 1. 
5eon, d. 
5 il (g.), a. 

5laen, 26; glam (d.), a; (n. p.), k. 
(sb.), m. 
, to; glamebaib, b. 

glan, 24, k, m. 

gle, 24, k. 

Slespeim, k. 

gliccup, g. 

gloin, e; sloine, a. 

5lu apace, f. 

(bo)sn6, n. 

(bopi)sne, a, d, m ; (bopi)5ni, 25; 

(bopi)?)Tie, 24. 
(bo)5necea, e, i. 
(bo)snf, &, n. 
5mm, 24, i. 
n-Q-nimpaba, k. 
(bo)5nfcep, m. 
Snuip, b, n. 
gnuipib, c. 
gopcai, k, 1. 
<5ol5ocha, e. 
5pab, (n., d.), b, f, i, o. 
Spaba (n.p.), d. 
Spabaib, c, m, o. 
5paib (g.s., n.p.), c. 
5pain, n. 
, 26. 
(bo)spep, c, f. 

, 26 ; -nba, 24. 
(imp.), m. 
(po)suib, m. 

, m. 

hdbam, e, k, 1, m. 
, c. 

(ac.), k, 1. 
haipm, n. 
hanmain, h. 
hapcainslib, c. 
haccomaipc (n.p.), b. 
he, e, 1, n. 
heips, f. 
hepcoic, h. 




hepsaipce, h ; -ci, m; -gapci, It. 

heppopca6aib, a. 

hepcai, a. 

h6ua, g, k. 

hi (pron.), e, f, li ; hi (rel.), a. 

"hi (prep.), a, i, 1. 

h[f]il, 27. 

hile, k. 

himapbup, d. 

himepbp6c, d. 

himpet), 27. 

hinsnab, li. 

hipuphin, c, i. 

hipca, k. 

hice, a, b. 

hosaib, c. 

huain, g. 

huaipi, d. 

h[p]uil, 24. 

huile, f, 1 ; hulib, m. 

hulc, h. 

i (pron. 3 s. fern.), 15. 

J (prep.), 26, c, e, h, i, 1, m, n, o. 

i r\- (prep.), 20, 25, a, o, d, e, gr, i, 1, 

m, o. 

i m- (i n-), k. 
im(boi i n-), n. 
i p-(i n-), 15. 
i n-agaib, o. 

i (rel.), g, i ; i P-0 "-)> 15 - 
lacoib, 27. 
lap, 26, e,h, k, m, p. 
lap m-, f, m. 
lap n-, k, 1, m. 
lapput), m. 

lap pin, a, c, f, gr, h, m, o. 
lapcaise, o. 
lapcain, e. 
lapcep, e. 

lapum, e, f, h, i, k, n. 
me, b, f, h ; lacpibe, b. 

ic, 17, i. 

ibon, 25, a, b, d, k, 1, o. 

lepupalem, e. 

ipipn, d, h ; ippipn, k, 1, o. 

il (i n-), b, d. 

il(ceolaib), d. 

lie, d; ilib, o. 

ilte, e. 

im, 26, 28, a, m, n. 

im' (i mo), f, h, 1. 

ima6, g. 

iTnacallami, m. 

imab, k. 

imaicbep, 1. 

imalle, h, k. 

imapbaip (g.), e. 

imapboip (g.), k, 1. 

imapbup(ac.),m;n-imapbuip(g.), 1. 

imdpirn, 26. 

imbip, 1. 

imbfcen, h. 

ime, n; imme (imb and pr. suf. 3s.),i. 

imeccpa6, a. 

imluat), c. 

innmac, a, f. 

imrnepc, f. 

immpocpaiccib, b. 

irnneba, 25 ; -baib, o. 

imon (irn in), a, c, m. 

imoppo, a, b, c, d, f, n, o. 

impe (imb and pr. suf. 3 s. f.), h, n. 

impu (imb and pr. suf. 3 p.), h. 

impacib, n. 

himpeb, 27. 

impepain, i, o. 

in (art. n. s.), 26, 29, a, b, d, e, f, gr, 

h, i, 1, m, o, p. 
in (art. g. s.), 16, 24, 25, 26, 27, b, c, 

d, e, f, gr, h, i, k, 1, m, o, p. 
in (art. ac. s.), 25, b, c, d, f, gr, h, 1, 

m, n. 
in n- (nom. s.), m; (ac. s.), e, i. 



in n- (ac. p.), m. 

in (conj.), 1. 

in (interrog.), g, i. 

in (in which), e. 

inb (i and pron. suf . 3 sg. masc.), h. 

fnb (i and pron. suf. 3 sg. neut.), e, gr. 

mat), f 

(popn)inbapbaip, n. 

i n-biaib, c. 

inbippecpa, o ; inbipimm, d. 

inbiu, 15, 16. 

, gr; n-inbli5ce6, m, p. 

, b. 
mbpin, h > m. 
inbclecc, gr. 
inbup, e, f. 
insen, 26, 27. 
ingnab, h; n-ingnab, b. 
msnaip, h. 
inn (art. g. s.), c. 
info, e. 

in c- (art. n. s. m.), 28, a, c, e. 
in c- (art. g. s. m.), o; (n.), m. 
mci (he who), h, m. 
inn Gib (i and pr. suf. 3 p.), b. 
lobip 5alab, 27. 
lopbanen, m. 
ip (vb.). 15, 16, 25, 26, 27, a, b, c, d, 

a, f, gr, h, i, k, 1, n, o. 
if (conj.), d. 

ipm (i and art.), 15, b, c, i. 
Ifu, o. 

ic' (i and bo, poss. 2 sg.), f. 
ic, e. 

iccualet, n; iccualab, i. 
icep (adv.), k, m. 
icep (prep.), g-, m, o. 
Tuba, 27. 

la (g.p.)> m, p; laa (n. p.), m. 

la (prep.), h. 

(cop')laa (co polaa), m. 

(pon)laab, 1; polab, 27. 
(pom)laabpa, o. 
Laban, 24. 
laei, a; lai, d, m. 

, 20 ; Laigen, 15. 

Idim (d. s., ac. dual), h, m. 

(la and pr. suf. 3 s. m.), e, h, i, 

lamaim, gr. 
Ian, a. 
lanamo-m, p. 
lap, c, i; lapoalmain, n. 
lac (la and pr. suf. 2 s.), m. 
loci, k. 

lebenbaib, b ; lebeunn> 16. 
lecaib, b; lecca, b. 
lecib, k; (al)lecub, h. 
lee (la and pr. suf. 3 s. f.), h. 
(bo) legab, h. 
(nac)leicc, gr. 
leic, d. 

[Iemna6c], d; Iemna6ca, d. 
lenriiam, n. 
lenna, b. 

leo (la and pr. suf. 3 p.), h, m. 
lep, 26. 

lep (le and pr. suf. 3 s. masc.), 24.. 
lee, a, d, e, gr, h, 1, m. 
leci, e. 
Leui, 27. 
lia, 24. 

lib (la and pron. suf. 2 p.), i, a. 
lica, a; Ifcc, m. 

In (hi ?), 26. 

lim(pa) (la and pr. suf. 1 s.), d. 

Ifn, 26, d, o; linaip, h. 

linb (sb.), b. 

linb (la and pron. suf. 1 p.), m. 

loc, d; loco, L 

Io6c, d. 

Lobain, 25. 



165, f ; bollospaicea, i. 

losmaip, a; losmapa, b. 

losmapaib, b. 

(po)loioTec, i. 

(nin)loipcpeb, 1. 

tomnacc, h. 

lop, 1; loip, 27. 

bo locc, n. 

luag, k. 

(co) Vuac, n. 

Lucipep, d, e, f, g-, 1, n, o, p. 

luibe, 1, m; knbib, a. 

Vuibepab, p. 

luicc, c. 

(bol)luib, i. 

luinbe, k. 

m (pron. inf . 1 s.), pomcinol, 9; 

pomboecaibpea, h; 

pomcuippe, n; pomlaabpa, 05 

Tiinicaip, g-; nimcaipbepiub, d; 

apbomcapa, f. 

m for n (m m-ananacap), h. 
m' (mo), 20. 
ma, 16, gr, i. 
mac, 27 ; -cc, 26. 
maic, g-, k, 1, n. 
mmciup, i; maicup (g.), g-. 
maiciupa, h. 
TTIalon, e. 
manepcpe6, 16. 
mannup, f. 
map (aen), i. 
mapbab, 28 ; (poc)mapbaip, n ; 

(po)mapbac, 15 ; -bpac, 27. 
me, o. 

mebon, d; mebonao, e. 
meic, k. 
TTI61-bpi5ce, 16. 
mela, d, p. 

(poc)mell, n; (no)mellpab, f. 
(no)rhelmaip, 1. 
(poc)mellupcap, n. 

menma, n. 

mepcin, p. 

mepa, h. 

mec, a. 

TTlicel (n.,ac.), o; TTlicil (g.), i. 

mil, m. 

mile, 27, 28, a, b, d. 

mfn, 26, 27. 

mina, 1, o. 

mine, 1. 

mip, e. 

mipe, g. I. 

TYlipimbpia, e. 

mna (p.), k ; mnae (s. and d.), 26, 

27, 28. 

m o (poss. 1 sg.) , d, f, g:, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o. 
mo (comp.), g. 

mob, m. 

ITIoel-bpisce, 9, 15. 

moip (ac.), m, n. 

molab, c. 

monap, k, m. 

mop, 26, 27, a, b, f, h, 1, n; 
mopa[ib], o. 

mopcacpac, b. 

mopplos, i. 

mop (adj.assb.), b. 

moci, 1. 

muigib, b. 

muip (n.p.), a. 


muincep, i; muncep, 27. 

mtnncipe (g.), o. 

TTluman, 20. 

mtip (n.s.), a,d; (g.s.), a; (d.s.), a; 
(ac.), b; (n. dual), a; (g. p.), a. 

mupaib, a, c. 

'n (i n- aphseresis of i), b, c, e, h. 

n (pron. inf. 1 p.), poncuipeb, o ; 
poncuipebne, o ; popninbap- 
baip, n ; nmloipcpeb, 1 ; 
ponmell, h. 



na (art.g. s. f.), b, c, gr, i, k. 

na (art. n. p.), 25, a, b, d, f, h, 1. 

na (art. g. p.), 26, a, b, c, d, e, i, p. 

na (, a, c. 

na (conj. neg), b, d, f, gr, 1, m, n, o. 

na (naib, d. p. of in, art.), 20, a, c, 

e, i, m, o. 

na m- (na n-, art. g. p.), b. 
'n-ap (for i n-ap ; aphaeresis of i), f. 
no n- (art. g. p.), a, b, c, e, f, g, o. 
no nn- (art. g. p.), 26. 
nac (conj. neg.), i, k. 
nac (interr. neg.), o 
nab, 24. 
nama, e. 
nacip, f, g-, b.. 
nacleicc, g-. 

nacpac (g.s.), gr; nacpaig, f, g-, h. 
neam, e. 

nee, c; nei6 (g.), gr. 
nell, n. 

nem, k, m; nembaib, m. 
nemelnisci, c, e. 
nemloccac, c. 
neoc, m. 
nephm, c. 
nepa, c. 

nt (sb.), b, g, h, k, 1, m. 
ni (neg.), 16, a, b, c, d, f, g-, h, i, k, 

1, m, n, o. 

nico n-(pecup), h; -(poelaip), h. 
m m-(ananacap), h. 
mm, c, d, 1, m, n, o. 
nime, c, d, f, i, k, o ; nimib, i, o. 
no (vbl. pcle.), nobepca, e; 

nocaicpicip, m ; conup- 

[p]acca, b.; noppotlam- 

naisenb, f ; nopbigbann, 26. 

nosenpicea, e; nornellpab, f ; 

norhelmaip, 1 ; nopopbaigeb,!; 

nopmaccab, f ; nocegcip, f. 
no (conj.), 24, c, f, g-, 1, m, p. 

noco m-(luapu), d. 

noco n-, h.. 

n6eb, 20. 

noem, b; -maib, b. 

noemanmanb, d. 

noemcacpais, b. 

noerhi, e. 

noi (num.), e, nx, o. 

noim (n.p.), b; noime, 1. 

noimuasa (n.p.), b. 

noi n- (num.), c, d. 

nuallsuba, m. 

nuap, n. 

o (prep.), a, b, d, e, m, n, o. 

o (conj. temp.), 1, o. 

obenn, 16. 

oc, c, e, f, gr, b., i, 1, m, n. 

ocainb (oc and pron. suf. 1 p.), m. 

occaib (oc and pron. suf. 2 p.), gr. 

occu (oc and pron. suf. 3 p.), 1. 

occmab, e. 

ocup (i), passim. 

ocuc (oc and pron. suf. 2 s.), h. 

oemenn, 15. 

oen, 26, 28, a, b, c, d, e. 

oeip, e; oep, k. 

05, b. 

oip (conj.), o. 

oipecup, g-. 

oipec, k. 

oippiceb, 1; oippiciub, f. 

oiprmcin, i, o ; oipmiciu, d. 

oipcep, e. 

ol, 20, d, e, g-, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o. 

olai (n.g.), d. 

olc, gr, h, o. 

olbap, d, g. 

olcap, f, g 1 , o. 

o'n (o in), e, n. 

on, 26, d. 

n-onoip, 1. 



opunb, h. 

op (sb.), a, c ; 6ip (g.), 20. 

op (vb.), d, f, o. 

(po)opbais, c, d. 

(nop)opbai5eb, 1. 

opucpa (cup and pron. suf. 2 s.), 1. 

or, c. 

opin, b, e, k. 

oplaic, g-; oplaicep, gr. 

oplaicib, h. 

oc' (o bo), gr. 

pop' (po pa), h. 

pailme (g.), i. 

papiach, e. 

Papbaip (g.), e ; -tup (g.), e, g:, i. 

Papbup, f, gr, h, i. 

pappbaip (g.), f. 

Pappcaip (g.), d. 

Pappcup, d. 

Papcaip (g.), i; -tup (g.), m. 

Papcup, d, i, k, 1, n, o; -cup, e, 1. 

Pacpa6c, 20. 

peinn, 1. 

penbaic, m; pennons, p. 

pongc, e. 

Pecaip, 15. 

pocepcacep, c. 

ppimcacpms, > c. 

ppimboippib, a, c. 

ppimbopup, b. 

ppfmbun, b. 

ppincipacup, c. 

pdb, 24. 

pabapcc, e. 

pagaib, o. 

paib (po bai), g-, h. 

pahopbaiseb (=po-), e. 

popdib, e, k, o ; popaibi, k. 

popaibpec, o. 

pannmaip (g.), k. 
(po)pannap, gr. 

(bo)pac, d, h, m; (bop)pac, f. 
(bo)pacaip, n; (bo)pacaipiu, i. 
pe (le), b, d, i, n. 
pecc, m. 
peblannaib, e. 
pesucpa, m. 
peill, h, i. 
peip, d. 

pemipin, h; pempu, o; pemum, g-. 
pempa, a. 
pepin, h. 
pi, 15, k. 
pia, 15, i. 
pia-n, d, e. 
piacc, b, h. 

picib, a, g, k, n; pi6is (g.), n. 
pice, n. 

pig (n.), c,d,i,k,o; (g.),c; (d.),a,o. 
piSan, 26. 
pigboippe, a. 

pi5popcnb, c; pispoppab, c; -ub, c. 
T^sCrlPOcaib, b. 
pfSpuibe, c, i. 

a; piscise, a. 
pic, h. 
po (vbl. pcle.), po abponp, o; 

p'aicin, n; pohaicneb, gr; 

paib (pobai).h; pobopbae, 28; 

mp'bac (m pobac), m. ; 

popbean, d ; popben, b. ; 

popbia, k ; pocbia, f, g- ; 

pocboecais, h.; pobui, 1; 

pocaic, d; poclaeclaip, n; 

pocloecla, b.; poclaibpim, 1; 

pocpucab, e; pocpucais, o; 

poccuip, n; poncuipeb, o ; 

poncuipebne,o; pomcuippe,n; 

pobepcc, n ; pobilpisea, 1 ; 

poblompac, k ; poeblap, gr; 



po (vbl. pcle.) continued. 

pup epali, f ; poheceppca- 
pat>, k; puppacaib, p; 
popaplaig, i; popepp, e ; 
pocpia, gr; popopconsaip, k; 
popopconspab, o; 
popopmcis, e ; poppuib, o ; 
po[p]upail, n ; popsab, n ; 
posabupa, b. ; posabucap, m ; 
cop'gapc, gr ; pogebab, gr; 
posuib, m; pocsuib, h; 
popnmbapbaip, n; nacpoic, b; 
poiceb, m ; cop'laa, m ; 
poplai, gr; polab, 27; 
ponlaab, 1; pomlaabpa, o; 
poleic, h ; poloigpec, i; 
poEmapbaip, u ; 
pomapbpac, 27; -bac, 15; 
poopbais, c, d; 
pahopbcnseb, e ; pop', h ; 
popdib, e, k, o; popaibi, k; 
popaibpec, o; popannap, gr; 
popapms,!; popapmsep, i; 
popapaispimap, 1 ; 
popepnab, i; popocic, b; 
popoic, b; cop'puibep, o; 
pupca, k ; pocaipip, m ; 
pocaipmcemms, e; pocecc, f; 
poceipeb, e; pomcinol, 9 ; 
pocinoilpic, m; pocomail, h ; 
pocpapcpab, d f 
pocpoipceb, m; puc, 26; 
poppuc, 25; conbacpuc, o; 
pocupmeb, f. 

po (vbl. pcle. infixed), appoec, e ; 
bapo6pacap, 27 ; bepnab e; 
bepnaip, i; bopagapa, gr; 
bopibna6c, 24, 1 ; bapisne, 24 ; 
bopigne, a, d, m; -m, 25; 
bopimapc, d; bopo6aip, h; 
bopoine, i; boppoine, c; 
boponpaic, g-, m ; 

boponca, c, e, m ; popuca, k ; 

capbab, o ; capmaipc, n. 
po (intens.), poapba, a; 

PoCFlP^clSTiiTni, 25; popis, 26. 
poinb, h. 
pope, m. 

p (pron. infix. 3 s. m.), popgab, n ; 

poppuib, o; poplai, g:. 
p (pron. infix. 3 s. f.), poppuc, 25. 
p (pron. infix. 3s. neut.), nipbia, f, gr; 

popbia, k ; pupepali, f ; 

conup[p]acca, li ; 

nippeoup, m ; mpca, k ; 

nocupoa, k; pupca, k. 
p (pron. infix. 3 p.), pobopbae, 28; 

puppacaib, p; 

noppoVUnrmcnsenb, f ; 

nopopbaiseb, 1 ; boppoine, c. 
pa, 15, 16, d, e, f, h, i, m, n, o. 
Sabaoch, c. 
paec, 1; paecaib, h. 
paecap, k, 1. 
paip, d. 
pamaigpec, d. 
pamail, a; pamailoep, a. 
pancc (g.p.), c. 
Sanccup, c. 

(po)papais, 1; -aispnnap, 1. 
(po)papai5ep, i; papusub, i. 
Sapaphin, c. 
papab, d, 1, p ; papap 
pappab, b; papcai, m 
pcailce, m. 
pcapab, k; pcapab . . 
(po)pcappacup . . . ppi 
pcac, i. 
pcepcaip, b. 
pcoloca, 16. 
Scpepcpa, e. 
pcpibenba, d. 
pcpibfca, c. 


papcap, c. 

.ppi, h. 



pe (pron.), d, e, f, gr, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o. 

?e, o. 

pe (num.), c. 

f ea, d, h, 1, o. 

pe6, a. 

Secna, 26. 

pecc, f, i, m, o, p ; pecc n-, a. 

peccaip, f. 

pe6cniain, 1; -cmosaec, 26. 

pecuc (pec and pron. suf. 2 s.), f. 

peincep, i. 

Sepaphin, c. 

peps, 25. 

popepnab, i. 

pep[c]i5, k. 

pepca, 27 ; pepcac, 28, c. 

pi, a, f, gr, h, i, 1, m. 

piap, d. 

piac, a, c, k. 

pit>e, 15, c, e. 

pil, 27, b, e, k. 

Sil, 26. 

pin (dem.), 25, a, b, c, e, f, s, h, k, 1, 

m, n, p. 

pint), 1, n ; pinne, 1. 
pine, d ; piniu, o. 
pinnpep, o. 
c-pinnpip (g.), o. 
pipliSi, 25. 
pippanbup, 1. 
pippaecpais, k. 
pin, m. 
pium, d, o. 
planbilsut), m. 
planci (n. s.), 1. 
pleib, c. 
plebci, e. 

(n., ac. and d. s.), a, I), c, i ; 
(g.p.), b, c, d, o. 

d-s.), a. 

(n. p.), b, c, f. 
u (voc.p.), i. 

pmacc, e, i, k, 1. 

(no)pmaccab, f. 

pmsep, d. 

pmmai5, k. 

popocic, b. 

popoic, b. 

polup, 26. 

poillpe, b. 

pofnmec, o. 

pomblapca, b. 

pomilip, b. 

popab, c. 

poppab, b, c, d. 

poppait) (g.), b. 

popap, 26, d, f, o. 

c-popaip (g.), o. 

popca, a ; popcaib, a. 

ppeac (g.p.), b; ppeic, a, i. 

c-[p]peib, a. 

c-ppoca (g.), m ; ppocaib, b. 

ppuc, d, m, n, p. 

pcocc, i. 

pu, m. 

puaill, k. 

(cop')puibep (co popuit>ep), o. 

pum, 1. 
pucac, d, i. 

c (pron. infix. 2 s.), pocbia, f, g:; 

, o; poccuip, n; 
, n ; pocmapbaip, n ; 

pocmell, pocmellupcap, n; 

conbacpuc, o. 
c (pron. infix. 3 s.neut.), pocsuit), h; 

nacleicc, gr. 

c' (t>o, poss. 2 sg.), f, k, m, o. 
ca, i. 

(apbom)capa, f. 
(pup)ca, k. 
(nocup)ca, k. 
cabaipc, e, f, 1, m, n. 



cabpaib, o. 

caebno6c, 1. 

caecaippa, 1. 

cai, n. 

cainic, e. 

caip, e, gr, n. 

caipbepc, f. 

(po)caipip, m. 

(po)caipTn6enini5, e. 

caipmce6c, d. 

caipmceccup, d, m. 

caicnemac, h; -a6a, b. 

calmain (d., ac.), a, e, h, 1, m, o. 

caiman (g.), i, k, m, p. 

calum (n., d., ac.), 25, 1. 

can, 20, f, g:, h, k. 

canac, 15, n. 

came, k, n, p ; canuc, o. 

cap (vb.), 1; cap (prep.), e, i. 

capbab, o. 

capmaipc, n. 

capno6c, h. 

capuc (cap and pron. suf. 2s.), h. 

ceap, 25. 

ce6, 1, p. 

ce6eb, i. 

(po)ce6c, f. 

cebmannaib, o. 

cesbaip, d. 

ceseb, f; ceigeb, f. 

cemib, 25. 

(po)ceipeb, e. 

ceic, b, g. 

cene, 1; -nib, 1, p. 

cepcc, e. 

cepmebon, i. 

(nip)cepcpab, 1. 

ci, k. 

cia5um, n. 

cibep (fut.), d. 

Cibpip, d. 

cic, n ; cicbip, m. 


cicpab, m; -paic, f. 

cibe6c, h, i, n. 

(bop)ibna6c (bopofeibnacc), 24,1; 

cis, k; cige, 16. 

, f, gr, n, o. 
, m, n. 
cim6ell, 27, a. 
cim6uaipc, c. 
cimna, f ; -naib, k. 
cimnai, i. 
cin6opc, m. 
cmpe&, 25 ; -piub, 24. 
(pom)cmol, 9; (po)cinoilpic, m. 
cip, 24, 25, n; cipe, b. 
cipmaib, p; -mugub, n. 
cip, g:. 

cfpab, 1, n ; cipcaip, o. 
cla6c, h. 
clacca (g.), h. 
claic, k. 
cnuc, c. 
cobup, d. 
cocaib, m. 
cobdileb, 1. 
coeb, e. 
cosaecab, gr. 
coile (g.), o. 
coimleb, e. 
coippib, b. 
(bo)coipmipc, d. 
coippi, b. 
coipec, o. 
comailc, f, gr, m. 
comli, gr. 
comup, a. 
copab, f, gr, k. 
copaib, b. 
coppa6, e. 
coppi, k, 1 ; -Pi5> k - 
copci, e; -cib, b, d. 
copub, k. 
copa6, b. 




cpa, 25, e, m. 

(po)cpapcpab, d. 

cpac, e; -ca, k. 

cpeb, 17 ; -be, 27 ; eib, 27. 

c-[p]peib, a. 

cpen[p]ep, 28. 

cpec (sb.), c. 

cpec' (cpe bo), o. 

cpi (num.), 28, a, b, d, e, m. 

cpia, d, i, 1, m, o. 

cpia n- (prep.), d. 

cpian, a, o. 

cpiap, b. 

cpiapin TI-, o. 

cpiac' (cpia bo, posa. 2 sg.), o. 

cpi6a, 20, 28 ; -6ec, m. 

cpi6caibe, e. 

cpocaipe, 1. 

epos, n, p, 

(po)cpoipceb, m. 

cpomba6c, h. 

Cpom, c. 

cpuag, 28, e, 1; -5015, k; -ge, h. 

cti, f, s, o. 

cnai6li, f. 

[cuaib], d. 

cuaipcepc, d, e. 

cuap, c. 

cu6, g, 1. 

cuca, ar; -ab, n; -ap, gr. 

cucpac, i. 

cuibe6c, m. 

cuipem, b. 

eup, f. 

cup, d. 

cupa, 1, o. 

cupca, f. 

(po)cupmeb, f. 

uabop, 26. 

ua6cap, m; -a6, a, e. 

uaba[ib], a ; -ib (ua with pr. suf. 

3 p.), P. 

noimuasa (n. p.), b. 
uaill, d. 

uaimm (ua and pron.suf. 1 s.), h. 
uain (g. s.), c. 
(h)uain, gr. 
uame, a. 
uaip (sb.), d, e. 

uaip (conj.), d, e, f, gr, i, 1, m, n, o. 
(h)uaipe (p.), d; huaipi (p.), d. 
uaipliu, d. 

uaic (ua and pr. suf. 2 s.), gr. 
uamaib, p. 
uan, c. 

uapaib (uap and pr. suf. 3 p.), c. 
uapalacpa6 (g. p.), e; uapli (sb.), o. 
uapum (uap and pron. suf. 1 s.), d. 
ubaill (g.), h, m ; (ac.), h, m. 
uball, d, gr, h. 
u6c, 25, e. 

uilc (g.), gr; uilcc (g.), g-. 
uile, b, c, e, g-, i, o. 
(h)uile, , 1. 
uile6umacca6, a. 
uile6uma6cai5 (g.), c. 
uipb (n.p.), d. 
uipcucep, c. 
(b)ulc, h. 
ule, 28; uli (n.p., g. p., ac. p.), g-, 

m, o. 

(b)ulib, m. 
urn, m. 
upapbaib, c. 
upce, 24, p ; uipci[u], 26. 
Ulcu, 20. 



No. 830. 



NO. 830. 




T folio 15 b, Marianus inserted the following catalogue of Irish 
kings who belonged to the northern half of Ireland : 

In punc plachi [ppmcipep] Tiibepmae qui e;c bimebia papce 
eiup, ib epc, bo Lech Chuinn [e;c bimebio Connn], pegepunc, 
o Chunn cecchacach co plant), mac TTIail-Sechnaill. 

Conn, Qpc, Copmac, anmp 1.x. 
Coppni, mac Conmaic, anmp 
piache TTlullecan, anmp ^.xu. 
TTIupebeach Cineach, anmp mi. 
Guchu Tnu^meboin, anmp ;c;ci]. 
Conlae "Roipp, anmp mi. 
Ni all,. arm ip 

These are the princes of Ireland of the moiety [called] the Half of 
Conn, that reigned from Conn of the Hundred Battles to Flann, son 
of Mael-Sechnaill. 

Conn [of the Hundred Battles], Art, Cormac, 60 years. 

Corpri, son of Cormac, 30 years. 

Fiache Mullethan, 25 years. 

Muredeach Tireach, 4 years. 

Euchu Mugmedoin, 25 years. 

Conlae Eoiss [read Colla Uais], 4 years. 

Niall, 27 years. 

I 2 


"Nadu [t)achi], anmp l;c. 

loesaepe, mac "Nell, anmp t;cui. 

Qillill TTIolc, mac n[t)]achi, anmp ??. 

Lu^aet), mac Loegaepe, anmp ;c;ciii. 

TTlupchepeach, mace Gpcca, anmp ;t;c. 

Cuachal TTlailsapb, anmp pcuiii. 

thapmeac, mac Pep^upa, anmp ( x < x. 

pepgup i t)omnall, t>a mac TTluipcepcaig meic Gpcca, 

anmp ttt. 

TTluipet>ach ITIunbeps, anmp .xn. 
Qnmipe, mac 86cnai, anmp 1111. 
baican, mac THuipchepcais -\ Gchoib, mac t>omnaell, 

meic THupchepcaig, anmp nn. 
baecan, mac THupchaba, anmp ^ui. 
Qnmipe, anmp un. 
Colman bee, mac t)iapmaca i Qet), mac Qnnmepach, 

anmp ;cm. 
Suibm, mac Colma[i"]n moip, anmp ui. 

Dathi, 60 years. 

Loegaere, son of Niall, 66 years. 

Aillill Molt, son of Dathi, 20 years. 

Lugaed, son of Loegaere, 23 years. 

Murchertach, son of Ere, 20 years. 

Tuathal Mailgarb, 18 years. 

Diarmait, son of Fergus, 20 years. 

Fergus and Domnall, two sons of Murchertach, son of Ere, 

30 years. 

Muiredach Muinderg [Red-neck], 12 years. 
Anmire, son of Setna, 4 years. 
Eaitan, son of Muirchertach and Echoid, son of Domnall, son 

of Muirchertach [son of Ere], 4 years. 
Baetan, son of Murchad, 16 years. 
Anmire, 7 years. 
Colman the Little, son of Diarmait and Aed, son of Anraire, 

13 years. 
Suibni, son of Colman the Great, 6 years. 


Get) Slcme, mac thapmaca, anmp 1111. 
Get) Qlaeinn, mac t)omnaill, anmp uii. 
Oengup, mac Colma[i]n, anmp mm. 
Suibm TYlent), mac pachcna, anmp un. 
t)omnall, mac Get>a, anmp tppu. 
Conall i Cellach, t)a mac TTlailecoba, anmp ;cu. 
blabmecc i "Oiapmaic, t)a mace Geba Slane, anmp unn. 
Sechnapach, mac blabmeicc, anmp u. 
Cenbpaelat), mac blabmeicc, anmp mi. 
pinnachca, mac "Ounchaba, anmp ;cum. 
Longpech, mac Oen^upa, anmp unn. 
Cembali, mac Pep^uppa, anmp un. 
, mac TTIaelet)uin, anmp ^jcn. 
, mac Cepnaig, anmp n. 
Cinait), mac Ipgalais, anmp mi. 
plaichbepcach, mac Longpig, anmp ui. 
Get), mac pep^ael, anmp p. 
t)omnall, mac TTIupchaba, anmp . 

Aed Slane, son of Diarmait, 4 years. 

Aed Alaeinn, son of Domnall, 7 years. 

Oengus, son of Colman, 9 years. 

Suibni Mend, son of Fachtna, 7 years. 

Domnall, son of Aed, 35 years. 

Conall and Cellach, two sons of Mailcoba, 15 years. 

Bladmecc and Diarmait, two sons of Aed Slane, 9 years. 

Sechnasach, son of Bladmecc, 5 years. 

Cendfaelad, son of Bladmecc, 4 years. 

Finnachta, son of Dunchad, 18 years. 

Longsech, son of Oengus, 9 years. 

Congall, son of Fergus, 7 years. 

Fergal, son of Maelduin, 12 years. 

Fogartach, son of Cernach, 2 years. 

Cinaid, son of Irgalach, 4 years. 

Flaithbertach, son of Longsech, 6 years. 

Aed, son of Fergael, 10 years. 

Domnall, son of Murchad, 20 years. 


I, mac pep^aele, annip ;cu. 
t)onnchab, mac t)omnael, annip ;cuni. 
det>, mac Neil, annip ;c;tn. 


Conchobop, mac t)onncbaba, annip ;cunn, 
Niall, mac Qeoa, anmp ;cin. 
TTlaelpechnaell, annip ^n. 
Get), mac Nel, anmp ,1111. 
plann, mac TTIoilpechnaill. 

Niall, son of Fergael, 15 years. 
Donnchad, son of Domnall, 18 years. 
Aed, son of Nial, 22 years. 

Conch obor, son of Donnchad, 19 years. 
Niall, son of Aed, 1 3 years, 
Mael-Sechnaill, 12 years. 
Aed, son of Mai, 13 years. 
Flann, son of Moil-Sechnaill. 

"With respect to the transcription, the word TDullecan was first 
written TDullachlecan. Marianus then placed a deletion-dot under 
each letter of loch. 6ppca, of TTIupchepcach, mac 6ppca, was 
originally ceppca, but a point was put over, and another under, 
the initial c. These and such variants as ITIinpcepcaig TTluip- 
chepcaig TTlupchepcais, TTlupe&each TTluipebach, "Nell "Neil 
were probably the result of oversight. 

The following, however, cannot be accounted for in a similar 
manner. They show how early, and to what extent, phonetic forms 
and the consequent corruption made their appearance in the tran- 
scription of Irish MSS. Passing over the vox nihili, "Nacbi, in which 
the radical t) was omitted, as not being pronounced when eclipsed 
by n, we have evidence under his own hand that the copyist, 

* A line is drawn here in the original. 



whether he worked from memory or from an exemplar, had the 
accurate forms available. Yet he wrote the same words correctly 
or corruptly at haphazard. 

Corrupt forms. 


Correct forms. 










ITIael ) 

TTloil ) 



This confirms the conclusion already drawn, that, namely, the 
presence of such phenomena can form no linguistic basis whereon to 
determine the date of a composition. 

.Respecting the subject matter, the list was manifestly drawn up 
to show that since the bipartite division of Ireland, in the second 
century of the Christian era, between Conn of the Hundred Battles 
and Eogan Mor, or Mogh Kuadhat, the Half of Conn, namely, the 
northern moiety, supplied nearly all the over-kings. "WTiy the com- 
piler stopped short at Mann (ol. 916), it is apparently useless to 
suggest ; especially, as Donnchad, son of Plann, reigned from A.D. 
919 to A.D. 944. 

There is no break to correspond with the native division of 
national history. Irish chroniclers divide our annals into Pre- 
Christian and Post-Christian : the point of discrimination being the 


advent of St. Patrick as missionary. The pagan portion of the 
Catalogue of Marianus includes from Conn to Dathi. The errors 
contained therein are considerable. Conlae Koiss is an unaccountable 
form for Colla Uais. The true sequence is : Fiacha, Colla Uais, 
Muridech Tirech, Coelbad, Eochu Mugmedon, Niall. This will be 
apparent by comparison with the poem appended from the Boole of 
Leinster (L) with variants from the Hook of Ballymote (B). 

The author, Gilla Coemain (Devotee of St. Coeman ; of, perhaps, 
Kussagh, co. Westmeath), flourished in the second half of the eleventh 
century. The other chronological poem composed by him and already 
referred to* is dated A.D. 1072. One of the additional verses in L 
calls him son (mac] ; the B copy, grandson, or descendant (ua\ of 
Gilla Samthainne Devotee of [abbess] Samthann (ol. 739). He 
may thus have belonged to the Ui-Cairbre : a sept that inhabited 
the barony of Granard, co. Longford, in which the establishment of 
the saint in question was situated. 

He gives the names, regnal years and modes of death of the 
over-kings who ruled Ireland from the grandson of ]SToah to Loegaire, 
the contemporary of St. Patrick. To discuss the reliability of the 
information thus afforded is beside the present purpose. f The piece 
is here given for two reasons. It presents in a convenient form 
the traditional knowledge of the subject. The chief object of the 
selection is, however, to illustrate the metrical form Debide in 
which the great bulk of native poetry has been cast. In connexion 
herewith, one fact is of special significance. The synopsesj sub- 
joined relative to Concord prove that, as regards one of the chief 
elements, B is superior to L, fresh proof that an older MS. is not 
necessarily the more reliable. 

The data to my knowledge appertaining to Debide are as follows : 

Tne authorities in MS. number five. They will be found, text 
and translation, appended to the present Lecture. I. -IV. are taken 
from the Booh of Ballymote. I. is contained in a tract upon metric 
forms ; II. in a treatise explanatory of the measures peculiar to 
the different orders of bards. III. and IV. belong to the Book of the 

* Lect. I., p. 23. 

t The chronology derivable from the text is annexed, for comparison with that 
of the Synchronistic Tracts appended to Lecture III. 
J Notes L, M. 


Ollam, or Professor of Poetry : the former, to a section treating of 
metres ; the latter, to a recapitulation thereof. V. is from the JBook 
of Leinster. The a and b verses are respectively the eighth and 
ninth of fourteen quatrains descriptive of twelve chief kinds of poetry 
(ard aiste in dana). The c stanza occurs amongst verses illustrative 
of bardic technical terms. 

I., in the present recension, to judge from one of the examples, 
was compiled in the latter half of the eleventh century. Flannacan 
O'Kelly, king of Bregia (the eastern portion of Meath), died, according 
to the Annals of Ulster, A.D. 1060. In the following year, his son, 
Flann, was slain by Garvey O'Casey, head of a rival family, who 
thus acquired the kingship.* This Flann was, perhaps, the person 
to whom the bardic exhortation in in was addressed. 

The Tract is one of the two authorities which give details of the 
metres. It opens, somewhat inauspiciously, by reproducing without 
comment a statement calculated to render dubious the distinction 
between Regular and Irregular Debide. According to what is given 
below under Rule 3, the a quatrain would seem to belong to Regular 
Debide. The Clithar mentioned therein was probably a wooded plain 
either near Dundalk, or in Fir-Cell (barony of Eglish, King's Co.). 

The lines in c show the vitality of tradition, being the most 
ancient to be found in the five pieces. They deal with a subject 
that is purely pagan, and were apparently composed to deride the 
inemcacy of the Lobe Charm.f Of the author, the TJltonian poet, 
Flann, I know nothing more. 

In the Hook of Bally mote, \ the opening line of the example in 
d is given as an instance of Emain, or Duplication (of the initial 
letter). The authorship is there ascribed to no less a personage 
than Cuchullain : the doughtiest hero of the Scots thus acquiring a 
fresh title to fame.]| 

That the Composite in e was not merely theoretical, but brought 
into operation at an early period, is proved by the occurrence of the 

* Note A. t Note B. J P- 302 a, 11. 46-7. 

Fortissimus heros Scotorum, Tigernach. 0' Flaherty, as if not to be outdone, 
calls him decantatissimus puyil (Ogygia, Pars III., cap. xlvii., p. 279). 
f Noted 


same metre in the Tale of the Swine of Mac Datho, given in the 
Book of Leinster* 

The similar formation in g is of interest, as being that in which 
the "Ten poems [= 94 quatrains] of the Resurrection" appended 
to Saltair na Rann are composed. It likewise supplies the name, 
which has not been given in the published transcript of the Psalter.} 
In the Rules, to be mentioned hereafter, the measure is one of those 
included under the term Oglachus. 

The metre of 1 is employed in a quatrain upon St. Mochta of 
Louth (Aug. 19), quoted in the Martyrology of Tallaght, in the 
Hook of Leinster. The verse is mutilated, but another copy occurs 
amongst the Lebar Brec glosses on the Calendar of Oengus.\ 

The versification, such as it is, of the final section (o) reflects 
more credit on the composer than the biographical and historical 
knowledge displayed therein. 

II., if Donnchad the Brown (a) be the same as Donnchad the Brown 
of a quatrain in the Annals of Ulster (A.D. 929), cannot date, in its 
present form, beyond the second quarter of the tenth century. 

The references in the c stanza are explained by another entry 
(A.D. 840) in the same Annals: which likewise has a copy of the 
verse that fortunately preserves the true reading, hostages, instead 
of the unmeaning words of II. and III.|| 

Attention may be directed to the charming description (j) of the 
blackbird in song. It will bear comparison with the two similar 
quatrains on the margin of the St. Gall Priscian (foil. 203-4), of 
which Mgra^f wrote with such true feeling. 

Amo figurarmi il povero monaco che, or fa piu di mille anni, 
stava copiando il manoscritto, e, distratto un istante dal canto dei 
merli, contemplava dalla finestra della sua cella la verde corona 
di boscaglie che circondava il suo inonastero nelF Ulster o nel 
Connaught, e, dopo avere ascoltato 1' agile trillo degli uccelli, recitava 
queste strofe e ripigliava poi piu allegro 1'interrotto lavoro. 

Mael-fabaill (k) may have Seen either the king of Carrigabracky, 

* Note D. For the text, with the variants of two other MSS., see Windisch :' 
Irische Texte, pp. 96 sq. t P. vi. 

I Note E. Note F. || Note G. 

^ Reliquie Celtiche : II MS. Irlandese di San Gallo, Torino, 1872, p. 23. 


in Inishowen, co. Donegal, who died A.D. 881 ; or the king of Aidhne, 
a territory in Galway, co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacduagh, 
who died in 891.* 

III. is of equal authority with II. The example in the opening 
section may be taken as showing that the authorship was different. 
The same writer would hardly have varied in the illustration of one 
measure. In a poetic eulogy of king Aed, preserved in an eighth- 
century MS. of the Monastery of St. Paul, Carinthia, Rairiu (the hill 
of Reerin, co. Kildare) signifies the province of Leinster. It has 
probably the same meaning here ; not Rairiu = Offally, Queen's Co., 
as in Gilla Coemain's poem (f 6). 

In accordance with the quatrain in k, the composition may date 
from the last quarter of the ninth century.f 

The verse (g) ascribed to the national patroness is more in 
keeping than the similar attribution in Terminational Debide given 
in the Tripartite Life.\ 

The connexion of St. Columba (h) with the Cauldron, or 
Charybdis, of Brecan (between Rathlin Island and the northern 
coast of Antrim) took place, according to the Life of St. Ciaran of 
Clonmacnoise, when the saint was returning to lona after his final 
visit to Ireland, a few years before his death. 

With reference to the stanza in m, Robartach and Suibne, sons 
of Maenach, died as stewards of the monastery of Slane, co. Meath, 
A.D. 787 and 814, respectively. || The quatrain in question, with its 
mention of meal-sifting and door-keeping, may accordingly embody the 
complaint of a lay-brother of that establishment respecting the com- 
parative lightness of the duties assigned to the Son of Cu-abba by one 
of the above mentioned oeconomi. 

IY. is chiefly valuable for the statements respecting the abbre- 
viated line in Short Debide. The substitution of the opening lines 
as mnemonics instead of the full text of the examples is proof that 
the piece was transcribed, perhaps composed, with knowledge of 
II. and III. 

V. a, b are intended to exemplify in themselves the formation 
of the measures they respectively describe. The author belonged 

* Note H. | Note H (a). t Rolls' Ed., p. 150. 

Quoted in Adamnan, p. 263. II Note I. 


to the sept of O'Rooney, hereditary poets of Mac Gennis, king of 
Ulidia (cos. Antrim and Down). His death took place, according 
to the Annals of Ulster, A.D. 1079.* Y. c supplies independent 
authority for Lobe Debide. Its chief importance, however, consists 
in the reading of the example. 

The pieces, it will be seen, afford no information, except in a few 
instances, beyond the name and example of the metre. They were, 
in fact, mere memoranda for proficients. The principles of the art 
and the application thereof must consequently have been imparted 
orally. That instruction of the kind existed in active and con- 
tinuous operation is sufficiently attested by the magnitude, influence 
and vitality of the Bardic Order. 

The metric doctrine thus delivered finds a partial echo in the 
Rules formulated by the Franciscan, O'Mulloy, in his Grammatica 
Latino- Hilernica, published at Rome in 1677. (From that work 
they were transferred by O'Donovan into his Irish Grammar.) In 
the author's time, versification was still cultivated as a hereditary 
avocation. To judge, however, from accessible material, bardism 
had already in part become a lost art. 

In reference to the present treatment, it has to be mentioned 
that the lines of the verses are written without a break in the MSS. 
Furthermore, the labour of discrimination is rarely relieved by punc- 
tuation, or otherwise, Not infrequently indeed it is aggravated by 
considerable illiteracy of transcription. To these difficulties has to be 
added the meagreness of the native vocabularies within reach. (For 
obvious reasons, the illustrative character of the examples can seldom 
be preserved in the translation.) Under the circumstances, no finality 
is claimed for the conclusions arrived at in this Lecture. 

To illustrate the Rules, I set down the opening lines of Gilla 
Coemain's poem : 

ant), imp nappfg, Eriu sublime, isle of the kings, 

molbcac na mopsmm, Laudible scene of great deeds ; 

Noco n-picip bum a biac, Nor knows any person its state, 

Co noppuaip hua Lamfac. Until the grandson of Lamech found it. 

* Note J. 


1. The verse or quatrain is called rann iomlan, and consists in its 
normal form, as seen above, of four quarters (cethramhna}, or lines. 
Each quatrain must make independent sense. Not infrequently, each 
distich is similarly complete. The first half-quatrain is called the 
leading (seolad] ; the last, the closing (comhad). 

To this Eule, I. i, j, n, o form exceptions. The example of 
heptasyllabic Laid Luascach (o) given elsewhere in the Book of 
Ballymote* has five (not six) lines in the verse. 

2. Each line is made up of seven syllables. In the numeration, 
what is called vowel-droivning (lathiidh guihaiglie] is taken into 
account. "When, namely, a word ending in a vowel is followed by 
a word commencing with a vowel, elision of the first takes place, 
when necessary for the scansion. Thus, line 3, bum a tnac, is to 
be pronounced tmn' a t)iac, three syllables. In all other cases, they 
are retained, each being counted separately. Thus we have, a 1, 
hGriiu apt) (three syllables). 

By means of this Rule we can conclude, for instance, that the B 
reading of a 1, which omits bich, is correct. The L lection makes 
the line hypermetrical, ua being a dissyllable. t)ich was, accord- 
ingly, a gloss that crept into the text. 

Aphaeresis is likewise employed to produce the requisite number 
of syllables. Thus we have (a 4) : 

'Sin TTluTnain t>o mall cpine. 

In [S]lecc Scairin 'pin bebait) t>uint> (b 3), the omission of i was 
owing to the scribe of L reading Seairm as a dissyllable. Ipin is 
correctly given in B. 

To the Rule relative to heptasyllabic lines, there are the following 
exceptions : namely, four (opening) syllables are wanting (1) in the 
first line (II.-III. b, d, h, i, 1, IV. c, e, g : the authority for the 
amount omitted is IV. d) ; (2) in the first and fourth lines (II.-III. e, 
IV. a, V. c) ; (3) in the second and fourth (I. k, 1) ; (4) four syllables 
in the first line and six in the fourth (I. b, c, II.-III. f, if my 
arrangement be correct) ; (5) three in the fourth (I. i, according to 
my division). 

* Note K. 


How completely the short initial line, which is so well authen- 
ticated, had become forgotten is shown, to take a typical instance, 
in the first volume of the new edition of the Annals of Ulster* 
The opening lines of a quatrain are printed thus : [The metre is 
Rannaidacht Bee.] 

Q muilirm, 

Ce po mile mop bi cuipinn. 

At foot is a note : "Q muitinn. These words should be repeated, 
to complete the line, according to a practice frequently followed by 
Irish poets." 

But, in the first place, repetition of the words will still leave 
the line a syllable short ; secondly, this distich is proof in itself 
that the abbreviation took place in the beginning of the line. For 
muilinn is in Correspondence (Rule 5) with cuipinn. The collo- 
cation accordingly is : 

Q muilinn, 
Ce po mile mop bi euipinn. 

3. In every line, two words, whereof neither is to be the article, 
possessive pronoun, preposition, or conjunctive, must begin with a 
vowel, or the same consonant. This is called Concord (uaiin). Hence, 
line 1, we find Gpiu apt) (vocalic); 1. 2, maiden molbehach na 
mop^nim (consonantal) : where na, being the article, does not hinder 
the Concord. 

(a) In compounds, the Concord is formed by the initial letters : 

Coica in^en ifinacac (i i), a 2. 
ImTTIais Ruaib pobacaofn (p p), h 4. 
t)e5 mac Sldnuill, m paeb-p6 (p p), j 4. 
Gppin 5r e ^ c uaemaip, acgaipb (u a), b 5. 

(b) The verbal particles bo and po (when not joined with other 
particles), no and negatives do not form Concord: 

t)ocep coembor-p Cinbmapa (c c), p 6. 
"Noco n-pieip burn a biac (b b), a 1. 
Co pocoglab Cop Conainb (c c), to 6. 
Co noppuaip "Ua Lamfac (u u), a 1. 

* Pp. 110-11. 


(c) The eclipsing letters are not employed in Concord : 

"Nucttm Gpsacldm na n-ec (a e), d 6. 
Gpim cpi n-beic m-bliaban bpap (b b), g 1. 

From this it follows, either that Concord was introduced "before 
Eclipsis ; or that the eclipsing letters were rightly regarded as not 
radically connected with the words to which they were prefixed. 

(d) Similarly, p, p and c are not available for Concord: 

(p) 1 copcaip dp p[h]ep h-hepenb (e e), g 2. 
t)' h6pinri6n ip t>'6bep polccaem (e o), ffl. 

(p) C6ic bliabna t>o Shecna ape (e a), Ii 6. 
bliabain t>o Shldne, to'n laec (I 1), d 1. 

(c) Co n-epbailc be cam lapcain (a i), a 6. 
t)ocoit) "Neimeb 6c t>e cam (e a), b 2. 

The quiescence of these letters was accordingly established prior to 
the Rule relative to Concord. 

(e) According to the Rule, p, when followed by a vowel or 
consonant, requires a vowel or the same consonant to form the 
second alliterative. This, however, has to be modified with respect 
to I, n and p. Thus : 

Sldnoll ptjaipc (i 6) ; S6cna pldin (1 4) ; 

Sldnuill paeb (j 4) ; Siplam pallet) plua^ (m 3); 

Sipna placccafn (j 5); P^ a 5 F ae P (<1 !)> 

Sfpna ppfanaib (j 6) ; pnimai^ pippaecpais.* 
Sipna pleccaib (i.); 

It may consequently be concluded that p forms Concord with 
pi, pn, pp and vice versa. 

Concord is twofold Improper and Proper. The Proper, or true, 
Concord (firuaim) takes place when the vocalic or consonantal agree- 
ment (as defined above) is found in the two final words of the line ; 
otherwise, it is called Improper (uaim gnuise). Hence we have, 

* Lecture I., p. 58 k, supra. 


1. 2, molbchach rnopsnim ; 1. 3, bum tnach, Proper Concord: 
1. 1, 6piu apt) ; 1. 4, (p)uaip ua, Improper Concord. 

The Improper Concord, it is laid down, may replace the Proper 
in the first and second lines ; but the Proper must of necessity occur 
in the third and fourth. "With respect to Irregular Debide, however, 
V. b and the poem of Gilla Coemain show that this Rule has to be 
taken with some exceptions.* The test of Regular and Irregular 
Debide may be respectively denned, according to these, as the 
presence or absence of Concord (whether Proper or Improper] in 
all, or from any, of the lines of a quatrain. 

It may be well to quote a few examples to show the textual value 
of Concord. In the Annals of the Four Masters,] 0' Donovan gives 
the text and translation of the second line of a quatrain as follows : 

" liic ac cuma in c-peipip At Ath-Cuma-an-tseisir : i.e. the 
Ford of the Slaughtering of the Six. This name is now obsolete." 

In Vol. I. of the Annals of Ulster, % we have : 

" hie accumai int) peipip. The Ford of the Slaughter of the 
Six. Not identified." 

Here the Concord is plainly between the a of a ecu men and 
the e of peipip. This proves that etc is the inseparable particle ; 
not the substantive etc, a ford. The meaning is consequently : 
"At the cutting-of? of the six" (whose names follow). Besides, 
there is no ford at the place in question. 

In the Rolls' edition of the Tripartite,^ the following occurs : 
11 Aed . . xxuii . color chair icath Da Fherta Aed [reigned] twenty- 
seven [years] and fell in the battle of Da Fherta." That is, the 
combination icach is resolved into i each, in the battle. In the 
poem from the Hook of Ballymote\\ appended to Lecture IV., there 
is a quatrain (q 4) on the subject, which presents the same MS. 
grouping. But the Concord gives the true division : 

Ic Gc-t>a-pepca innpuap At very cold Ath-da-ferta. 

This agrees with the Annals of Ulster (A.D. 819), which have the 
Latin equivalent :^f lupcca Uat>UTn-t>uapum-uipcucum near the 
Ford of the two (marvellous} feats. 

* Note L. f Vol. I., pp. 244-5. J Ed. Hennessy, pp. 96-7. Pp. 320-1. 
|| P. 50 b. If Most probably, the meaning is Ford of two tombs. 


The conditions above laid down respecting Concord are verified 
in V. a, the typical example of Terminational, or Regular Debide. 
Herewith agree II. a, b, III. b. The Concord of I. a, 1. 2, is 
Improper: peapaib-peapcan ; not b'[p]eapcan-t>eipeoil, which 
was a scribal error. Hence, doubtless, the statement with which 
the quatrain is introduced in the text : namely, that the verse, ac- 
cording to some, was Irregular Debide. II. b is included as amended 
by the reading of III. b. III. a is excluded ; the first distich being 
obscure to me, I am unable to restore the Concord.* 

Irregular Debide may accordingly be defined as that which con- 
tains a hemistich without Concord. This is the criterion in V. b, in 
which the final line is thus composed. The same holds good of I. a 
(1. 2), II.-III. c (1. 1). From Y. b we likewise learn that the metre 
was peculiar to historical poems. In illustration of this, synopses 
are appended, giving the references of (1) first, (2) second, (3) third 
and (4) fourth lines not containing Concord.^ On verifying these, 
the reason, it will be seen, was that proper names, as a rule, did 
not accommodate themselves to the requirements of Concord. 

4. Termination, or Rinn, is the characteristic of Debide. It 
signifies that the second and fourth lines of the quatrain shall re- 
spectively exceed the first and third by one syllable. The ending 
of the first and third is called rinn (imrinn) ; that of the second and 
fourth, ardrinn (cenn- imrinn). Thus, in the quatrain quoted, pfg 
is the monosyllabic rinn ; whilst mop 5111 m, the corresponding ardrinn, 
is dissyllabic. Likewise, t>ia6, the second rinn, is exceeded in one 
syllable by its ardrinn, Lamiac. 

Compounds and words with proclitics may be employed to produce 
this excedence. When the rinn consists of two syllables, the ardrinn 
has three ; when the rinn has three, the ardrinn has four. The present 
poem contains but three instances of a distich without Termination : 
pfjaib nfpais, c 3 ; pintail inbaig, x 4 ; pfg pfp, y 5. 

To this Rule are to be referred the statements in I. e, f, g, i. 
To understand them, an explanation of the technical terms employed 
therein becomes necessary. 

Terminational Debide (a) is a quatrain with the first and third 

* Very probably, it is a-i (phacep-immcenn). III. a can thus be included, 
t Note M. 



lines ending in monosyllables and the second and fourth in tri- 

Duplication of Termination (aa) is a quatrain with the first and 
third lines ending in dissyllables, the second and fourth in trisyllables. 

Rannaidacht Mor (/?), 
Casbardne (y), 
Ac freslige (8), 

Rannaidacht Bee (e), 

A quatrain / Monosyllables. 

of hepta- Trisyllables. 

syllabic -I Alternate Trisyllables and 
lines end- Dissyllables, 
ing in : \ Dissyllables. 

Now, transpose a (given in I. d) : that is, replace the first and 
third lines by the second and fourth respectively and vice versa. The 
result (I. e) will be a Composite of y and ft. 

The text heads the example y, from the opening line being in that 
measure. The previous textual statement respecting the Composite 
of /? and y has reference to I. d, in which the first line belongs to j3. 
I. d, in fact, by having a monosyllabic ending in the first and third, 
with a trisyllabic in the second and fourth lines, is one of the irregular 
kinds (made in imitation of the normal measures) to which the Rules 
give the generic title of Oglachus. 

In the same way, transpose aa (given in I. f). The result (I. g) 
will have a twofold appellation : 8 and a Composite of y and . In 
the text, it has the same heading and for the same reason as I. e. It 
likewise comes under Oglachus. 

The distinction with which I. g closes is this. The example there 
given is 8. Separate the lines by transposition (as described above) : 
the result (f ) will be a Composite of and y. 

With reference to I. h, i, great imrinn signifies trisyllabic rinn ; 
to correspond with which the head imrinn , or ardrinn^ must (according 
to Rule 4) be quadrisyllable. It is called great, because thereby the 
ardrinn can be duplicated : a process confined, it is stated, to the rinn 
in the other Debides. In h accordingly, paca paft> forms the rinn; 
placa pintmaip, the ardrinn. How the latter is doubled, appears 
in i. Whatever metrical arrangement be adopted (that given below 
being merely tentative), the change, it will be seen, has transformed 
the original almost out of the semblance of Debide. I. i, as it stands, 
is a Composite of ft and . 


That the alteration is purely arbitrary seems proved by the fact 
that the ardrinn of the second distich has not been similarly treated. 
In fact, h is a good example of Regular Debide, with monosyllabic 
rinn (pato-mail) and dissyllabic ardrinn (pintmairi-tnnsbcnl). 

5. The final requisite is what is called Correspondence (comharda). 
To understand this, the native classification of vowels and consonants 
has to be attended to. 

The vowels are divided into broad: a, o, u, and slender : e, i. 

The consonants are classed as follows : 

1. p. 

2. c, p, c (smooth). 

3. 5, b, t> (middle). 

4. c, p(p), c (aspirates). 

5. II, m, nn, 115, pp (strong). 

6. b, 6, 5, I, , n, P (light). 

Perfect Correspondence means that in each distich the last syllable 
of each line shall agree with the last syllable of the other in vowels 
and consonants of the same class. This frequently approaches, and 
occasionally becomes, rhyme. Initial consonants need not be taken 
into account, unless when two or more (whether belonging to the 
last syllable, or partly thereto and partly to the penultimate) come 
together in (1) one, or (2) both of the syllables in question. Cor- 
respondence then takes place (chiefly in the finals), in (1), between 
the single consonant and one of the group ; or, in (2), between one 
consonant of one group and one of the other. Thus, in pf$ and 
mopsnirn, the agreement between 511 im and pfg is perfect: consist- 
ing of the same vowel, i, with the light consonants 5 and rii (which, 
although not thus marked in the MSS., were aspirated), p and n. In 
the second distich, La in Lamfa6 is not taken into account. The 
vocalic consonance is identical (t>iac rnfac) ; the consonantal is 
also perfect, 6 and rh (for the m in Lamfac was infected) belonging 
to the light division. 

Imperfect, or broken, Correspondence (Comharda briste) is defined 
a vocalic consonance, without any regard to consonantal agreement. 
This species, it is added, allows one word to terminate in a vowel 

and the other in a consonant. 



An example of this rarely-occurring Correspondence is found in 
the opening distich of w 5 : 

pep5\ir ftubbecac, cen bianblaib, 
Cen ecna6, pi oen bliabne. 

But the instance is more apparent than real ; for the final t) of 
'oianblait) was not pronounced. 

Under this Rule are to be classed the examples of which the 
characteristic is Correspondence without Termination (Rule 4). They 
fall into three classes : quatrains having Correspondence (1) between 
all the lines (II. i) ; (2) between those of each distich (I. b, II.-III. 
e, f with a sub-division of monosyllabic, II.-III. j and dissyllabic, 
II.-III. k) ; (3) between the first and third, second and fourth, lines 
(IL-III. g, h). 

Of these, e, g, k belong (not to Debide, but) to e ; h and j to ft. 
II.-III. 1, being a Composite of ft and e, is misnamed. With it 
are to be grouped I. b, II.-III. f, i. 1. c is an imitation ( Oglachus} 
of ft', II.-III. e and Y. c are modelled upon e. 

Debide, it may thus be concluded, was applied generically to a 
quatrain, of which the basis was a heptasyllabic line. 

II.-III. g, h enable us to correct with certainty a scribal error 
which possesses a prescription of more than a thousand years, and 
which may be quoted as an instance of the conservatism of copyists. 
The MS. of St. Paul, Carinthia, contains two verses of a poem (in ft), 
preserved in its entirety in the Book of Leinster and elsewhere.* The 
first quatrain is as followsf : 

If 6n ITTITTIO n-iaba fdp, 
Ip nau coll bicm c-eplinn suap, 
Ip lepcap pdp, ip cpcmb cpfn, 
Nab beni coil inb nfs cuap. 

He is a bird, around which closes a snare, 
He is a leaky ship, to which is fated destruction, 
He is an empty vessel, he is a withered tree, 
Whoso doeth not the will of the king ahove. 

* For the Poem and the legend connected therewith, see The Calendar of 
Oengus (R. I. A. edition), pp. civ.-vi. 
t "Windisch : Irische Texte, p. 319. 


Throughout the poem, Concord (Rule 3) is subordinated to Corre- 
spondence. The clauses of the third line have consequently to be 
reversed, and the reading will thus be : 

Ip cpanb cpfn, ip lepcap pdp. 

He is a withered tree, he is an empty vessel. 

Some of the terms (e.g. Meagre Debide, I. c, II.-III. m, Distiched 
Debide, I. j, etc.) it has not been deemed necessary to deal with in 
detail. The explanation of them lies in the application of the general 
principles and will present no difficulty, when these have been 

To facilitate reference, the accompanying Tables exhibit the 
results derived from the foregoing discussion respecting the con- 
nexion between the Rules and the MS. authorities. 

They will likewise show that the fresh material amounts very 
closely to two fifths. "When it is added that the present texts form 
but a small portion of the general subject, as treated in the Book of 
Ballymote, the native language will be conceded to have been rich in 
forms of versification. To what extent the bardic compositions, as 
a whole, are entitled to rank as poetry, in the present state of our 
knowledge it is impossible to decide. 



ii iT I i'.l * 




03 ^ * 

JD 05 fjt^ 



a .^ 

1 ^ % 


^ 6 


-J ^ r-, 

i i 1 .'- 




^> ^ ^^ 

d J ^ 


*i O- 

*rf r^i ^E 



Jj C^ CO^ O^ 

S 2 o ^ 

-g ^4 PH 







I 1 






i - 
^ i i 

? i 







H "' 


^r * 
a < 


6 ^ .2 

s si 






g a 

w o K 


1 II 



^ "I 

* a a 

1 & s 




* ^ pSf 

.1 N & 




^ * .pij 

s 2 

_fH ^ > 
-J ^3 0> 








1 1 


^ - fct J> 




n a 

:i i * 

r c^ * * cj 


1 1 a" 

g o ^ 

H-3 f 1 HH 

| I" 

I *: 

g HH* a 



^ o 


~ M 

- - 

rt ,fl HH 

O "" HH 




o b 

H O 

^ 1-1 







+ denotes Example ; - denotes Exception. 































[=e II.] 

+ + + + + 

















[= m II.] 

+ + - + + 












[=b II.] 

+ - + 








- c II.] 
[=d II.] 

















[= S II.] 












[=h II.] 



























































































+ denotes Example ; denotes Exception. 


















































47 4 

27 24 

12 39 

19 32 

48 3 










Q.D' TT>. pp. uin. Sicpiuc, mac A.D. 1028. Sitriuc, grandson of 

mic amlairn, pi f^all -] plannacan, Amlam, king of the Foreigners and 

hlla Ceallai<5, pi bpes, a n-bul Flannacan O'Kelly, king of Bregia, 

t>o TJoim. went to Rome. 


Q.t>. ni. l;c. plannacan hUa A.D. 1060. Flannacan O'Kelly, king 
Ceallai<5, pi bpejj, bo ec i n-a of Bregia, died in his pilgrimage. 


[Q.D. Tn.l;] planb hUa [A.D. 1061.] Flann O'Kelly, king 

Cellaig, pi bpes, bo mapbat) t)O of Bregia, was slain by the Saitni.* 
na Saicmb. 

Saipbpec hUa Cacupaig, pi Garvey O'Casey, king of Bregia, 

bpeg, mopcuup epc [in peni- died [in penance. Annals of Ulster]. 
cencia. Qnn. Ulc.]. 

(a) Cormac's Glossary (Lebar Brec, p. 264 a). 

bpi 506 n-[p]accaip (no, cao Sri is every contiguity, as in [the 

n-[p]occup), uc epc a m-bpeoaib Brehon Law Tract called] The Laws of 

Nemib[-eb]. Ibon, bpiamon pmec- the \_primleged~\ Grades. Namely, bria- 

P. 264b paige : ibon, ainm | nemceoppa mon smethraige : to wit, the name of a 

bosmac pilib [im n]ec abacoing. charm the poets perform respecting one 

TTlelib pmicc in buine icep a bd who has forsworn them. He [the poet] 

riiep i boecci in buine im a grinds the lobe of the person between 

n-b6m nemcepp. pip inpon, amal his two fingers and the person respecting 

ap ppia in buine a n-eccaip aca whom he performs the charm dies. That 

in ball po, ip ppia buine[-i] a [comes] true [thus] : as it is externally 

* A sept in Fingal, East Meath, the chief family of which was O'Casey. 



n-eccaip aca in buine peo. Qmal 
ap cimme -\ ip claci in ball po 
quam alia membpa, pic ec hie 

this member is upon the person, so in 
regard to people this person is external. 
[Or,] as this member is thinner and 
weaker than the other members, so 
[is] this man also. 

(b) Boole ofLeinster (p. 187 a). 

bpiamon pmefcpa6 : ibon, bpi, 
bpiacap ~\ mon, clef ; ibon, clep 
bpiacapba fin bosnfcip inb pilib. 
Ibon, cen6le nemciupa in pin : 
ibon, pmico a cluapi bo sabdil i 
n-a Idim : ibon, amal n<5 pil cndim 
anbpm, ip amlaib na pil ene6, no 
nepc aeon cf 6cnai5ep in pile. 

Briamon smetrach : that is, Bri, word, 
and Mon, feat ; namely, a verbal opera- 
tion [is] that which the poets used to 
perform. That is a species of charm : 
namely, to catch the lobe of his ear in 
his hand : to wit, as there is not bone in 
that, it is thus there is not honour or 
strength in the person whom the poet 

(c) Book ofBallymote (p. 326 b). 

bpimon pmecpa6. bepla na 
pileb po: ibon, in gne beibena6 
ipunb. Ibon, bpi, ibon, bpiacup ; 
mon, ibon, cleap -\ pmic, ibon, 
cluap i poppac, ibon, pisi. No, 
bpi, ibon, bpiacup i mon, ibon, 
cleap i pmecpac, ibon, pmic- 
poppac: ibon, co poppisibip neac. 
Cleap bpiacupba pin bonibip na 
pilib oc esnuc : ibon, pmic a 
cluaipi bo sabail i n-a laim : 
ibon, amal nac pil cnaim punb, 
ni paib eneac hicon ci 
in pilib [pile]. 

Brimon smetrach. The language of 
the poets [is] this : to wit, the last 
species [is] here. Namely, bri = word ; 
mon = operation, and smit = ear, and 
forrach satirizing. Or [thus] : bri 
word, and mon = operation, and smetrach 
(that is, smit-forrach) [= lobe-satiriz- 
ing] : they used to satirize a person. 
A verbal operation [was] that which 
the poets used to perform in satirizing : 
to wit, to catch the lobe of his ear in 
his [the poet's] hand. That is, as there 
is not bone here, there [is] not honour 
for the person whom the poet satirizes. 

Cmam eli bino, Cu-Cullain : 

O bo besan, sabup 


Another Duplication indeed [is the 
verse] Cu-Cullain [sang]: 

Since he was small, he took pasture, etc. 
Book of Ballymotc, p. 302 a, 11. 46-7. 



Cucab cupbaib coculca There was caused disturbance of sleep 

Do Iliac Dac6 co [a] ceo : To the son of Datho [Two Mutes] with 

his house : 

TCopbtfi nf no comaipleb, There was a thing he used to counsel 

Cen co labpabap ppi ne6. Without his speaking to any one. 

Book of Leinster, p. 112 a. 


Nip' bo boc[h]ca bo TTIoccu Not strait was for Mochta 

Lusmaib [lipp* : The fort of Louth : 

Cpi cec pacapc, cect epcop, [For] 300 priests [and] 100 bishops 

Qpaen ppip?]- [Were] together with him. 

Book of Leinster, p. 361, marg. inf. 
Lebar Brec, p. 94, gloss between 11. 5, 6. 


Q.D- bcccc.;c;c .i;)c. Slogab la A.B. 929. A hosting by Donnchad 
t)onncab co l/iac[h]-bpuiTn ppi to Liath-druim against [Muircertach] 
[TYluipcepcao] mac Neill. the son of Niall. 

Gbbpeb nee ppi Donncab Oonn, Let some one say to Donnchad the Brown, 
"Ripin ponncab plaibi clann : Unto the protector of the raiding of the 

clans : 

Cia beic Liac-bpuim ap a 6inn, Though Liath-druim be in front of him, 
Qca gilla biapbamb ann. There is a very stubborn wight there. 

* The parts of the text within brackets are from Lebar Brec ; the place in the 
Book of Leinster having been illegible to the f acsimilist. 

f L. B. has ap cec above a hundred ; to the ruin of the metre. 

Colgan (Acta S.S., p. 734 : quoted in the Martyrology of Donegal, p. 224) is 
far worse. He reads, in the first line: Nip' bo bocca muinncep THocca 
Not straitened was the community of Mochta and, in the third: Cpi ceb pasapc 
um ceb n-eppoc Three hundred priests, along with one hundred bishops: thus 
making each of the lines a syllable too long. 

The L. B. copyist altered boc[h]ca (strait] into boccai (poverty}. Mr. Stokes 
(CaL Oengus., p. cxxxii.) adopts and improves upon this by translating the nom.' 
lipp " in the burgh," as if the text were illipp. Throughout the edition of the 
Calendar, he prints the short lines as though the abbreviation took place at the end, 
not at the beginning. 



a.D- bccc.;cl . peibilrm&, pi 
TTIumaTi, bo mnpiuti) TVhbe ~\ bpes, 
conibbeipis 1 GempcnS. Cc in 
ilia nice inbpeb Cell ~\ beicpi la 
Niall, mac Qeoa : 

Ip he peiolirmo in pi, 

opaip oen laici, 
Connacc cen cac 

Ocup TTli&e bo mannpac. 

A.D. 840. Fedilmidh, king of Munster, 
plundered Meath and Bregia, so that he 
sat down in Tara. And on that occasion 
[took place] the plundering of [Fir-]cell 
and Beithre by Niall, son of Aed : 

Feidhlimidh is the king, 

To whom it was the work of one day, 

[To get] the hostages of Connacht with- 

out battle 
And Meath to devastate. 



Q.t). bccc.l,x;r,r .i . THael-pa- A.D. 881. Mael-fabaill, son of Loing- 
baill, mac iomspij, pe^ Caipse- sech, king of Carraig-brachaide, dies. 
bpacaibe, mopicup. 


a.t). bccc. ^c . 1. TTlael-pa- A.D. 891. Mael-fabhuill, eon of 
buill, mac Cleipig, pi Qi&ne, Cleirech, king of Aidhne, died. 
mopcuup epc. 



Q.O- bcc .!^^ .!!!! . "Robapcac, A.D. 787. Robartach, son of Moenach, 
mac TTloenaT(5, econimup Slane ~\ steward of Slane and abbot of Cell- 
abbap Cille-poibpig [mopcuup Foibrigh [perhaps Kilbrew, co. Meath], 
epc]. died. 

Q.D. bccc . Suibne, mac A.D. 814. Suibne, son of Moenach, 
THoenaig, ecommup Slane [mop- steward of Slane, died. 
cuup epc]. 

a.D- m.l;c,x.i;co. Ceallac hUa 
TJuanaoa, apb ollam 6penn, 
quieuic in pace. 


A.D. 1079. Ceallach Ua Ruanadha, 
chief bardic professor of Ireland, rested 
in peace. 



Incipic to laib 


It beginneth concerning Laid Luascach : 

O bacuip m saec a n-bep 
pop cip Sacpan pciacan slap, 
t)o cpapcaip conn inpi Scic, 
Dopeap bocuip Calab me, 
a bpac Luimneac liacan slap. 

When put the wind from the south 
O'er the land of the Saxons a fresh wing, 
Overwhelmed a wave the Island of Sky 
As it put Calad nit [under water], 
Luimnech grey-green. 
Book ofBallymote, p. 292a, 1. 23 sq. 



Quatrains containing Improper Con- 
cord in third line : 

a 1.* n 3. 

3. o 4. 

4.* r 3. 

b 6. u 6.* 

d 2. * 3. 

f4. ,,5. 

h 6. w 1. 

14. y 1. 
k 4. 

1 1. 
m l.f 

* No Concord in L. 
t Proper Concord in B. 


Quatrains containing 

Improper Con- 

cord in fourth line : 

a 1.* 

p 6. 


q L 

b 2. 

s 4. 


t 5. 

c 1. 

u 5. 

e 3.* 

v 4. 

J 3. 

w 1. 

k 3. 

x 1. 

1 4. 

y i. 

m 2.* 


P 4. 

No Concord in L. 


Quatrains not containing Concord in 
first line : 

b 4. 
c 3. 
e 1. 
f 1. 

h . 


a 5. 


c 2.' 







d 3. 





e 4. 

j ? 



Quatrains not containing Concord in 
second line: 

e 6. 
S 2. 

h 5. 

i 5. 

J 1 

k 3. 


k 4. 





T 5. 






^ 2. 

1 2. 






o 4.* 





y i. 

q 3. 









y 4. 

t 4. 




Proper Concord in B. 

* Proper Concord in B. 

t If the author took Daci [recte, 
n-t)aci] to be the correct form of the 
name, this line has Proper Concord. 

$ In y 5, the Concord is p[= p]ac- 

Quatrains not containing Concord in 
third line : 


Quatrains not containing Concord ia 
fourth line : 

a 4.* 

ii 1. 

a 2. 

j 6. 

b 3. 

,, 2. 


k l.f 

,, 5. 


4 * 

1 3. 

c 4. 

r 4.f 



d 1. 

s 3. 

c 2. 

m 2.* 


t 1. 



e 1. 


d 4. 




,, 5. 

ii 1. 


u 1. 

e 2. 


h 4. 


,, 3.* 





P 14 

f 2. 

w 3. 

f 3. 

q 4. 

,, 3.t 

x 2. 

S 3. 

t 3.f 





j 4. 


h 1. 

T 5. 

m 3. 

y 2. 

i 1. 

w 2. 




x 4. 

J I. 

y 4.t 

* Improper Concord in B. 
t Proper Concord in B. 


* Improper Concord in B. 
t Proper Concord in B. 
Proper Concord in L. 

( 120 ) 

bain IN rrioca, P . 239 a. 

a Cm Ifn afpce an aip[ce]bail? "Nin. Q cui;5 peapcac 
ap cpi cet)aib, ap e a Ifn. O t)eibibib imoppo a efnbpcebul. 
t)eibit>e Scailce cpa po ap cup, lap paipint) : 

Uap in abais i TTloin riioip, 
peapait) b'[p]eapcan*, ni t>eipeoil: 
t)oppt>an popcib in gaec glan, 
5eipi6 op cailli Clicafp. 

b t)eibi&e baipi pe coin anb po : 


In c-obaip : eocu ap buana ; 
t)obep inbi ip bucaig bo 

c t)eibibi Smoc ann po q plann, pill, bo Ullcaib, bopombe : 


Cho buioi bop : noppobe 
t)ia ep[i] ap a mac 

t)eibibe pocael acubai6 ann peo. Q imallsupa, nibac 
nerhni : ni ganb bopala buic b'a pcpibeanb. 

d Obpa becan, ^abup glee 

a cfp caic, gan piappai^id: 
"Noco n-[p]aca beolu eic, 
Qmal beolu in liacanaig. 

* Over this word is a gloss : it>on, pneacca namely, snow ! 



a "What is the number of the kinds of Versification ? Not 
difficult [to answer]. Five and sixty above three hundred, that 
is their number. Now, from the Debides [is] the beginning. 
Irregular Debide, indeed, is this [which is placed first], according 
to some : 

Cold is the night in Moin-mor [Great Bog], 
It pours rain, not trifling : 
A loud noise has the pure wind laughed, 
That shrieks over the Wood of Clithar. 

b Debide laisi re torn \_palmae (gen.) ad podicem follows] here : 

I have heard of 

The deed, horses [to be given] for poems ; 
I shall give that which is due thereto 

A cow. 

c Lobe Debide [follows] here. And Flann, the poet, of Ulster, 

made it : 

He caught the ear 

"With [his] yellow palms*: [but] there was 
After that upon the youth 
A lobe. 

Meagre Non-Correspondent Debide [is] here. Its enticements 
are not [a mere] nothing [i.e. they are considerable] : not seldom 
[i.e. often] chances it [to be convenient] to you to write it. 

! Since he was small, he took pasture 

In the land of every one, without question : 

I have not seen the mouth [lit., lips] of a horse, 

Like the mouth of the grey. 

* Literally, yellowness of palms. 

122 iebcm bain IN 

[I.] e t)eibibi Impinb ann po. Q himpoo po -j ip eao papap 
be pin, co nac t)eibi6i Impinb, ace Cpo Cumaipc ecep 
"RanbaiftacG TTIoip i Capbaipm. Capbaipbni anbpo : 

1 cfp caic, can piappaigib, 
O bup becan, [^abup] gleic: 
Gmal beolu in liacanaig, 
n-[p]aca beolu eic. 

Ip e pin in Cpo Cumafpc. 

f ip pipi6 caibi t>eicbep it)ip t)eibit)i Impint) i Gamain 
Impinb. Nin. Q hlmpinb &eamna6 com6 coimbeap a cumapc 
ppi ceaccapna t>a Rannaibacc. Ip i peo in eamain Impint) : 

Ip inn&a buine t>aca 
Ocup cuipe ip cialbpaca, 
Ip imba pamcac paba 
lg pluag babcac t)fapmaba. 

g Ip e po a himpob na h6amna. Ocup papaib ba aipbe 
be : ibon, Qe [p]peplf5e, ibon, aipbepc popaiglige [ppepli^e] 
1 Cpo Cumaipc ibep Rannaibacc m-bic i Capbaipbni. Cap- 
bapbne po : 

Ocup cuipe ip cialbpaca, 
Ip imba buine baca 
15 plua^ babcac t)iapnriaba, 
Ip imba pamcac paca. 

Qei [p]peplf5i [p]pia ha cancain i n-aen baili -j Cpo 
Cumaipc ppi a n-beliugub. 


c Tenninational Debide [is the verse just given] here. [Pro- [I.] 
ceed] to invert this and what arises therefrom is that it is not [any 
longer] Terminational Debide, but a Composite of [lit., between] 
Rannaidacht Mor and Casbardne. Casbardne [follows] here : 

In the land of every one, without question, 
Since he was small, he took pasture : 
Like the mouth [lit., lips] of the grey, 
I have not seen the mouth of a horse. 

That is the Composite. 

f It is to be known what is the difference between Termi- 
national Debide and Duplication of the [first-and-third-line] Termi- 
nation. Not difficult [to tell]. From Duplication of the [first- 
and-third-line] Termination [arises] that its Composite is suitable 
to each of two Versifications. This is the Duplication of the [first- 
and-third-line] Termination : 

There is many a worthy person 
And troop and deadly banner, 
There is many a battle-axe lengthy 
In the warlike host of Diarmaid. 

R This [which follows] is the inversion of the Duplication. 
And there arise two species therefrom : namely, Ae Freslige, that is, 
normal Ae Freslige and a Composite of [lit. t between] Rannaidacht 
Bee and Casbardne. This [is] Casbardne : 

And troop and deadly banner, 
There is many a worthy person 
In the warlike host of Diarmaid, 
There is many a battle-axe lengthy. 

Ae Freslige [is applied] to pronouncing them [the lines] in the 
same place [as they are in the example just given] ; and Composite 
[of Rannaidacht Bee and Casbardne], to their separation [by inversion]. 


124 leboiR bain IN rtioca. 

[I.] h If i F in ^eibibe Impinb TTlofp : 

Ricpac mopainn, paca pafb, 
Co hUa plaint), placa pinbnaip ; 
Cpinmamb cpainb capt>[p]aic mail, 
In bislaim t)aill bo bfngbail. 

i Ip aipe ip t)eibibe Impinb .lTlo[i]p, uaip ip bf papap 
eaman im ceanbunpinb. Ocup m papann bo t)ebibe ele, ace 
Impinb nama. Ip i po beipmtpecc : 

t)o bingbail in bi^knm baill, 
Capb[p]aib cpuap, cpinmainb cpamb : 
Capb[p]aib mail co hUa plamb, 

placa pinbnaip 
Co hlla pinbnaip placa plainb, 
"Raca pafb, capc[p]aib mopainb. 

j t)ebibe Scaillce coppanac annpo : 

a mic Conleamna, a laip 

bean bo cleamna ni coicgleann : 

a copp liacpoici lubain, 

a colbcac, a cenbac n-baim, 

Q ol opblac b'aipseclaib, 

a iucpa maigpi a THumain. 

t)ebibe Impinb eccoiccenn inbpo : 

Noco n-popleacan in 

t)oc' buabaib, 
TTIaine copp^iceap pa bairn 

t)o buanaib. 


h This [which follows] is the Debide of Great [first-and-third- [I.] 
line trisyllabic] Termination : 

[of saying], 

There shall come many, felicitous the words [lit., felicities 
To Ua Flaind of sovranty fair, noble ; 
Seasoned [spear-]wood heroes shall bear 
The vengeance blind to repel. 

i It is for this it is [called] Debide of Great [first-and-third-line 
trisyllabic] Termination, because it is therefrom arises Duplication 
respecting the Head [second-and-fourth-line quadrisyllabic] Termina- 
tion. And there arises not from any other Debide [any Duplication], 
except Duplication of the [first-and-third-line] Termination alone. 
This is an example [of the Inversion and Duplication] : 

To repel the vengence blind, [wood : 

[Heroes] shall bear hard [lit., hardness] seasoned [spear-] 
Heroes shall bear it to Ua Flaind 

Of sovranty fair, noble 

To Ua Flaind of sovranty fair, noble : [bear [it]. 

Felicitous words [lit., felicities of saying], many shall 

j Distiched Irregular Debide [follows] here : 

son of Cu-leamna, 
The wife of thy son-in-law 


Her heifer, her ox, 
Her great of silver, 

Her salmon from Munster. 

k Unusual Terminational Debide [follows] here : 

Not full-wide [is] the burgh 

For thy spoils, 
Unless they are prepared by poets 

For poems. 


126 lebaR bain IN itioea. 

[I.] 1 t)ebibe Scaitee ecoiccenn annpo : 

Gicneao [Q cneb] in milec pobmapb, 
Ip asapb, 

6cep bomuincip bolam 

t)o leppa&. 

m t)ebibi Impinb cenncjiom annpo : 

a mic plannacain 1 Ceallaig, 
a pi in cipi caicet>bennaf, 
Q gabail ppenbpufnfg, bennaig, 
Op TTluinsaipfs a cecpellafg. 

P. 289 b n | t)ebit>i Impint) popbalac annpo: 

Q mic TTlupcaba moip, 
"Rip [?pic] na geib pi& na piabinoin, 
TTlait)iTi ap bap n-Jemcib cu bom, 
"Ria bap n-saillmeipsib gpianppoill. 
8ceipt)ic[-ac] bpoi$ pnecca ap a ppom 
Occaib, t>ap Gccga im lapnoin. 

o Ip aipe na ceccann t)ebi&e "Impinb coppanac, ap na 
pocomnaicep co m-bab Lai6 Luapcac. Qp aepin, bocuabap 
na pileb ap a cuigpin, co n-beppnpabap coppan poppain, 
amal aca i n-ap n-biai& : 

peaccup bocuaib Cip, mac t)aip, 
t)o cpiall popbupe i n-Gbafl, 
Qippcep na cfpe cappneap; 
8iblai& po cpec ip po cam 
Qu^afpc ip Choili ppecam[-am] ; 
pop in Sicile ppaigleap. 

bo na t)ebibib. 


I Unusual Irregular Debide [follows] here : [I.] 

His wound [it was] that killed the warrior, 

It is very bitter, 
Amongst ill folk [and] slow 

It was [badly] healed. 

in Heavy-headed Terminational [second-and-fourth-line trisyl- 
labic, or quadrisyllable] Debide [follows] here : 

son of Flannacan O'Kelly, 

king of the princely-peaked country, 

reign [lit., possession] victory-leading, pre-eminent, 

noble-minded [ruler] over Mungairech. 

II Terminational Excedent Debide [follows] here : 

son of Murchadh the great, 

To whom [? thee] may neither wood nor hare belong, 

[May] defeat [be inflicted] upon your Foreigners, down to a cow, 

Along with your foreign banners of sun [-bright] satin. 

May flakes of snow issue from the nostril [of each man] 

With ye, [as ye retreat] over Echtga* towards evening [?]. 

o It is for this that Debide does not possess a Distiched Termi- 
nation, that it may not be supposed that it is Laid Luascach. For 
all that, the poets came to understand it, so that they made an 
[excedent] final distich [lit., distich of the end], as it is in the fol- 
lowing [lit., after us] : 

Once went Cyrus, son of Darius, 

To essay conquest in Italy, 

The east of the territories subdues he ; 

Places [lit., pours] he under raid and under tribute 

Augusta and the Frentani ; 

Greatly Sicily scourges he. 

It endeth concerning the Debides. 
* Slieve Aughty, on the confines of Clare and Galway. 

( 128 ) 

bain IN itioca, P . 293 a, i. 44). 

t)o t)hebi6ib po pip. 

a t)ebi&e Impinb paca -| t)ebi6i n-lmpmb gaipec -| t)ebi&i 
Scailci [poca i] gaipec i t)ebioi bafpi ppi com i t)eibi[6i] 
Smfcac ) t)ecubait) poca -| t)ecubait> 5 al r ec 1 t)ecubait> 
[t)ebibe] Chenelac -\ t)ebeci S 111 ^ 1160 ^ bealcac ~\ t)ebeci 
^uilbneac pecomapcac i t)eibeci Cumaipc -\ t)ebi&e bacel 

Deibi&i n-lmpmb poca po pip: 

Gipift puapp, a t)honncai& &uinb, 
P.298b pop poblai pfnf|5aill, popuill : 

bi& bo cepc op copplae Cuinn, 
Q hUi cafn copcpai Conaill. 

b t)ebi6e n-lmpinb gaipec, uc epc : 

In saec glap, 

Luai^ep innais, m[?pa] [epjbpap, 
Qcciu ppipnai$-nuall a ppap, 
t)obebaib co [n-puac] bup[ep-]5lap. 

t)ebeci Scailci poca bono, uc epc : 

Ip e peblimec in pf, 
t)iap'[b]a monup aen laici, 
Qpbpigi [aicipij Connacc cean cac 
Ocup TTlft)e bo mannpa&. 

t)ebece Scailci gaipec, uc epc : 

Roppac puab, 
O papcuigiceap in plua, 
Cacig mop peap ocup eac 
t)ocuni Cpaibi pipe Lugac. 

( 129 ) 
(BOOK OF BALLYMOTE, p. 298 a, 1. 44). 


a Long Terminational Debide and Short Terminational Debide 
and Irregular Debide [Long and] Snort and Debide laisi fri torn 
and Lobe Debide and Long Double [Alternate-]Correspondent 
[Debide] and Short Double [Alternate-] Correspondent [Debide] and 
General [Quadruple-Correspondent] Debide and Monosyllabic 
[Double] Binary[-Correspondent] Debide and Dissyllabic [Double] 
Binary[-Correspondent] Debide and Composite Debide and Meagre 
Non-Correspondent Debide. 

Long Terminational Debide [follows] here below : 

Arise up, Donnchadh the Brown, 
Over Fodla fair-valorous, very noble : 
Be thy right over the portion of Conn, 

descendant excellent, brilliant, of Conall. 

b Short Terminational Debide, as is : 

The fresh wind, 
That sweeps swiftly [with great] force, 

1 hear the pelting-roar of its rain-drops, 
Fell strife of [lit., with] very fresh [fury]. 

c Long Irregular Debide, indeed, as is : 

Fedlimidh is the king, 

To whom it was the feat of one day, 

[To get] the hostages of Connacht without battle 

And Meath to devastate. 

d Short Irregular Debide, as is : 

Rossach red, 

When reached it the host, 
Great [was] the recourse of men and horses 
Unto the branching Tree] of the Grave of Lugaid. 

130 tebcm bam IN rlioca. 

[II.] e t)ebi6e Smfcac po : 

Ip caingin 

bee poppin leap ni[Tn]bai[n]5en, 
Ocup saipin neic 'n-a t>opup 

t)oponiup [boppoinup]. 

f t)ebeci baippi ppi coin po : 

Cp[u]aban cpuab, 
"Noco cabaip bo neoc luag; 
t)obep mt)i ip cuTnun5 t>o 


g t)eacnet) [t)ecubait)] poca, amal abubaipc 

ba hec apsnum t>o filaca, 
TTla[t)] bian [t>pon]ca t>o c[h]umul, 
Q pf bepup na bpeaca, 
t)o peapc ocup bo omun. 

li t)ecneb [t)ecubaio] 

Ip apt) n-uall, 

piceap m coipi na n-opuab: 
t)ippan, a pi peiceap spe[i]n, 
"Nac a cen bompala uao. 

i t)ebeci Chenelac, bono : 

"Nf 6cap, 

Cfa peap pe paicpea 6can ; 
Qcc popecep Cacan an, 
"Noco n-pai[c]pea a henapan. 

j t)ebeci 5 u1 ^ bTiea c bealcac, uc epc : 

In c-e"n gaipeap ipm c-fait, 

Qlafnb n-gulban ip glan gafp ; 

"Rainb [Rinb] bmb buibi pipbuib n-bpum, 

Capp cop cuipcep guc in luin. 


c Lobe Debide [is] this : 

It is a peril 

To be upon the fort [that is] unfortified, . 
And the shout of the person in its door 

That has conquered. 

f Debide bam fri torn \_palmae ad podicem is] this : 

The wretchock wretched, 
He gives not to anybody recompense ; 
I shall give that which is possible to him 

A cow. 

S Long Double [Alternate-]Correspondent [Debide], as said 
[St.] Brigit : 

It were access to [&'., of] thy kingdom, 
If fervently were done thy service, 
(0 king that gives the judgments) 
Thy love and thy fear. 

h Short Double [Alternate-]Correspondent [Debide], as is : 

Loud is the roar, 

That seethes the Cauldron of the druids : 
Alas, king that makes the sun to run, 
That afar I betook me not therefrom. 

i General [Quadruple-Correspondent] Debide, indeed [is as 
follows] : 

I know not 

What man will Etan smile upon [##., with] : 
But knows Etan the brilliant 
That she will not [always] smile alone. 

j Monosyllabic [Double] Binary [-Correspondent] Debide, as is : 

The bird that calls within the sallow, 
Beauteous [his] beak and clear [his] call; [bird], 
The tip [is] charming yellow of the true-black glossy 
A trilling lay is warbled the note of the merle. 

132 tebcm bam IN ihoca. 

[II.] k t)ebeci Juilbneac pecomapcac pip mpo : 

PIU mop bo maic TTlael-pabaill, 
l[n]ma[i]n pf, ariipa, alaint) ; 
Gbpocc liapp [MS., bapp] po benb [buabaill], 
buibi pole pop pinn gulbainb 

1 t)ebeci Cumaipc po: 

"Noco ["Nom-]5eib 

Ppi cac n-immap, ac[b]c mo oealg ; 
gae [Cia] ceip cpe mo bepnamb, 
[p]pippit>e nf beappnaim. 

t)ebioe poceil acubaib : 

TTlac Conaba, noc[o] bein 
TTIoba, ace cpiacpa[o] mine; 
t)o'n [mac] TTlhaenaig i pmeall, 
ip [ocup] boipppeopacc. 

bain IN itioca, p. 303 a, i. 28.) 

a dipbi bobaipb annpo pip : ibon, t)ebibi n-lmpmb 
t)ebibi Scailci ecep pob i gap [i apaile]. 
t)ebibi n-lmpinb poca, ibon : 

bo p[h]acep imm imcenn, 
Q cpiac caicib, a c-uibell : 
Ip pfpbligeb beic, ni pell, 
t)an mic pigpileb Ruipenb. 


k Dissyllabic [Double] Binary[-Correspondent] Debide [is] [II.] 
here below : 

"Worth much of excellence is Mael-fabaill, 

Beloved king, distinguished, handsome : 

Brilliant eyes [lit., brilliancy of pupils] beneath a [very 

Yellow hair upon a fair shoulder. [haughty] head, 

1 Composite Debide [is] this : 

Me seizes anger 

Against every treasure, except my brooch-pin ; 
Although it goes through my palm, 
Anger against this I do not display. 

Meagre ^on-Correspondent Debide : 

The son of Cu-abba, he doeth not 
Tasks, except sifting of meal; [favour [?], 

With [lit., for] [the son] of Maenach [he was] in 
So that he asked for that [lit., it] and door-keeping. 

(BOOK OF BALLYMOTE, p. 303 a, 1. 28.) 

a The species of the Bo-Bard [follow] here below : namely, 
Terminational Debide and Irregular Debide, both Long and 
Short [etc.]. 

Long Terminational Debide [is as follows], namely : 

Say thy Pater 

chief worthy, thou flame : 

It is true right for thee, not a mistake, 

The avocation of the son of the royal poet of Rairiu. 

134 tebcm bain IN rhoca. 

[III.] b t)ebibi Inipinb ^aipic bino : 

In sen [gaec] 
[Lu]aij5ep amg [innaig] pa n-epbpap, 
Gpfu ppipnaiQ-, n-uall cen cap, 
Ip t)ot>eabai6 co n-[p]uac epglap. 

c t)ebibe Scailci poca : 

Ip e pet)limi& in pf, 
t)iap' bo monup aen aibci, 
Qicpfge [aicipi] Connacc cen cac 
Ocup TTli&i bo mannpa&. 

d t)ebit>e Scailci 

"Roppan pua6, 
O tnipcuijebap in pluaj, i apaile. 

e t)ebit>e Smicac : 

Ip caingen 
bee ppipin [poppin] lip [MS., bp], i apaile. 

f t)ebibe bopp ppi coin : 


Moco cabaip bo neoc luab ; 
t)obep, i apaile. 

g t)ecubeb poca, picuc bpijfb DI.XIC, ibon : 

ba ec ap[c]nain ipin plaic, 
TTlab biann bponca a comul, 
In pi bepup bpeic[h] pop cac, 
G p[b]epc ocup a omun. 


b Short Terniinational Debide, indeed [is as follows] : [HI.] 

The fresh wind, 

That sweeps swiftly with great force, 
I hear the pelting a roar without ceasing, 
It is fell strife of [lit. t with] very fresh fury. 

c Long Irregular Debide : 

Pedlimidh is the king, 

To whom it was the feat of one night, 

[To get] the hostages of Connacht without battle 

And Meath to devastate. 

d Short Irregular Debide : 

Rossach red, 
When reached it the host, etc. [II. d.] 

e Lobe Debide : 

It is a peril 
To be upon the fort, etc. [II. e.] 

f Debide boss fri torn \_palmarum ad podicem] : 

The wretchock wretched, 
He gives not to anybody recompense ; 
I shall give, etc. [II. f.] 

8 Long Double [Alternate-] Correspondent [Debide], as [St.] 
Brigit said, namely : 

It were access into the kingdom, 

If fervently were done his service, 

(The king that gives judgment upon every one) 

His love and his fear. 

136 lebaR bain IN ihoca. 

[III.] h t)ecubeb gaipie, [picuc] Colum-cille [bi;cic] ppi Coipi 

m-bpeccam : 

Ip apb n-ual[l] 

L[u]ai5ep im coipe na n-b[p]uab : 
t)ippan bo'n [? a] pi peicep 
a cein pomlapa ua6. 

i t>ebit>e Cenelac : 

"Ni et>ap 

Cfa lapa -mfbia Gcan [~| apaile]. 
[Read: Cfa lapa in-bia.] 

t)ebit>e ul ^ nea c t)ialca iton : 

In c-en ^aipep apin c-pail, 
Qlainn guilbnen ip glan 
"Rinn linn [binn] bui&e pipt>uib t>puin, 
Capp cop cupcaip guc inb luin. 

k t)ebit>e 

ptu mop bo maic TTlael-pabaill, 

Inmain o^pi, apt), alamo; 

Gcpocc liap [MS., bap] po bemb buabaill, 

buibi pole pop pint) gualamb. 

1 t)ebibe Cummupc : 

"Norngeb peps 

Ppi 506 n-mnmup, ace mo 6elg ; 
Ci[a] cep cpia m[o] bepnamb, 
ppi puibi m bepnnuim. 

m t)ebibe poceil acubaib : 

TTlac Conabba, noco bene [bein] 
TTIob[a], ace cpiaepab mine, 
La mac TTIaenaig [i pineall], 
ocup boipppeopacc. 


h Short Double [Alternate-]Correspondent [Debide], [as St.][IIL] 
Colum-cille [said] to tlie Cauldron of Breccan : 

Loud is the roar 

That sweeps around the Cauldron of the druids : 
Alas for the [? 0] king that makes the sun to run, 
That afar I betook me not therefrom. 

i General [Quadruple-Correspondent] Debide : 

I know not 
Who [is he] with whom Etan shall be [etc. II. i.]. 

j Monosyllabic [Double] Binary[-Correspondent] Debide, 
namely : 

The bird that calls from out the sallow, 
Beauteous [his] beak and clear [his] call ; [bird], 
The tip [is] charming yellow of the true-black glossy 
A trilling lay is warbled the note of the merle. 

k [Dissyllabic Double] Binary [-Correspondent] Debide : 

Worth much of excellence is Mael-fabaill, 

Beloved young king, noble, handsome : 

Brilliant eyes [lit., brilliancy of pupils] beneath a very 

Yellow hair upon a fair shoulder. [haughty head, 

1 Composite Debide : 

Me seizes anger 

Against every treasure, except my brooch-pin ; 
Although it goes through my palm, 
Anger against this I do not display. 

in Meagre Non-Correspondent Debide : 

The son of Cu-abba, he doeth not 
Task[s], except sifting of meal ; 
"With the son of Maenach [he was in favour ?], 
[So that he asked for that] and door-keeping. 

( 138 ) 

bcnu IN rhoca, p. sorb, 1. 1.) 


a Gca bino aipbi aili ann -\ ip ppi t)uanbapbne bobepap, 
ibon, Rannaisacc. Gcac t>mo pot)la pop TCannaigacc, [ibon,] 
Cecapcubaib -| TCannaigacc Scailce6. 

Ibon : 

Ip caingen 

bic ppipin [poppin], uc puppa. 

1.6 b | Qea gne n-aill pop t)ebioe Scailci, it>on, "Rannaigacc 
boceil acubaib, ibon : 

TTIac Conaba, -| apaile. 

c Qcac ba pobail pop "Rannaigacc, ibon, Cecap[cubaib 
1 Scailce6]. Ocup m ppipin b-apa n-af apbepap t)ebibe 
n-lmpinn, uc epc (ibon, t)ebibe Impinn <5 ai F ec 

In ^aec glap [i apaile]. 

1. 19 d | Ocup "Rannaigacc Scailcec bino, acac ba gne puippi : 
ibon, a t)ebibe poca i a t)ebibe 5 a1 P ec - ^F iTiunn a t)ebibe 
5aipec Cecapcubaib i comup : ibon, cecpi [cpi] claibemni i 
lapcomapc in cac haei. Ocup ip pelup cepca be, co ba 
buan. Ocup nopaencaigecap bono ; ap ip bialc popcenbaip 
popba gaca cecpamun i ceccap n-aei. Ocup ip lancomup 
buaine bono in tDebibe poca. Ocup ni gnaice i popba in 
bialc olbap in pecomapc, uc epc : 

Ip e peblimio in pi, uc puppa. 

( 139 ) 

(BOOK OF BALLYMOTE, p. 307 b, 1. 1.) 

a There is indeed another species and it is to Duanbardne 
it is referred, namely, Eannaigacht. There are also divisions in 
[tit., upon] Eannaigacht : [to wit,] Quadruple-Correspondent [Ean- 
naigacht] and Irregular Eannaigacht. 

[Irregular Eannaigacht is] namely : 

It is a peril 
To be opposite the, as above. [II. e, III. e.] 

b There is another kind in [tit., upon] Irregular Debide, namely, 
Meagre Non- Correspondent Eannaigacht, to wit : 

The son of Cu-abba, and so on. [II. m, III. m.] 

c There are [as said above] two divisions in Eannaigacht, 
namely, Quadruple [-Correspondent and Irregular]. And it is not 
to one of them [alone] is applied [the term] Terminational Debide, 
as is (namely, Short Terminational Debide [is] this below) : 

The fresh wind [etc. II. b, III. b.]. 

d And indeed [with regard to the second division, to wit] Ir- 
regular Eannaigacht, there are two species therein [lit., -on], namely, 
its Long Debide and its Short Debide. Its Short Quadruple-Corre- 
spondent Debide is the same [as the normal Short Terminational 
Debide] in scansion : that is, there are three heptasyllabics and a 
trisyllabic in each [of them]. And it is a quadrasyllabic that is 
wanting from it to be a stanza [in scansion]. And [the Long 
and the Short Eannaigachts] agree nevertheless [in Termination] ; 
for it is a monosyllable completes the ending of every quarter in 
each [of them]. But the Long Debide is the full measure of a 
stanza. And not more usual in termination [is] the monosyllable 
than the dissyllable, as is : 

Fedlimidh is the king, as above. [II. c, III. c.] 


140 lebciR bam IN rhoca. 

[IY.] e Qn t)eibit>e 5 ai P ec t>mo, ip aipi nf puba an 
ap a binnup ~\ ap a pestmce la cac, uc: 

Roppa6 puat>; no: Rupcac pua&. 

f t)eipiTnpecc ap t)ecubet> poca, uc 
t>a he apcnum ipin plaic. 

g t)ecubet> 

Ip apt) nail, uc puppa. 


Cellac h"Ua Ruan[aba] cecimc. 

Ip aipci pacmap cop-pinb, 
Ip eicpiu aclam, int>lim : 
bagaiTn conit) baipt>m bint), 
t)ebit>i alaint) Impint). 

t)ebit)e Scailce na peel, 

Ni hfpit>e nab ac^en ; 

Ipp hi peo int) aipce blaic bpapp, 

In h-gnacaiscep in pencapp. 

(Ib., p. 37 b.) 
Can Rogaip. 

Ip caingen, 

bic ppipin [poppm] lepp 
Ocup gaipin nei6 'n-a t>opup, 

Rapomup [pappoinup]. 


e [With respect to] the [Irregular] Short Debide, indeed, it is [IV.] 
for this it does not cut off the short [line], for its sweetness and 
for its stateliness in the opinion of every one [lit., with every one], 
as : 

Eossach red ; or : Euscach red [etc. II. d, III. d.]. 

f An example of [lit., upon] Long Double [Alternate-]Corre- 
spondent [Debide is], as said [St.] Brigit : 

It were access into the kingdom [etc. II. g, III. g.]. 

g Short Double [Alternate-] Correspondent [Debide is] this : 
Loud is the roar, as above. [II. h, III. h.] 

(BOOK OF LEINSTEE, p. 38 a.) 


It is a felicitous species with Termination, 
It is a pliant poesy which I compose : 
I engage that it is bardism melodious, 
Beauteous Termination al Debide. 

Irregular Debide of the Tales, [recognise it] : 

It is not this I will not recognise [i.e. I shall willingly 
This is the species blooming, vigorous, 
In which is practised History. 

(Ib.,p. 37 b.) 
Yery Short Correspondence. 

It is a peril 

To be upon the fort [that is] unfortified, 
And the shout of the person in its door 

That has conquered it. 



oemain cecinic.] 

P. 127 a a TiGpiu 1 apt), imp 

TTlasen molbcac 2 na 

Noco n-picip 3 bum 4 a tnac 

Co noppuaip 5 bic, hua 6 Lamfa6 7 . 


lat>pu ip bic, pincan 1 pdcac, 
Coica ingen insnacac, 
Luce pocecgab 2 banba bmt> 3 , 
Cecpaca la 4 pia 5 n-t)ilmt). 


Qcbac Ceppaip t>o cdm 1 cpaic 2 
C[p]fap, i 3 Cuil Ceppa 4 , a 5 coicaic 6 
t)o'n pobanuc 7 , puacap gant) 8 , 
Qcbac Lat>pu 9 1 n-Qpt) Lat>pant>. 


a 1. ^pfu. 2 molpcac. 3 noco n-ecip. 4 buine. 5 cinnup[p]uaip. 
6 ua. 7 l/ampiac. 2. l pmbcan. 2 cebsatt. 3 Tn-ftfnb. 4 no cpdch (or 
periods), placed above in a modern band as an alternative reading. 5 pe. 

3. l no eib (or jealousy), given overhead in a modern hand as an alternative 
lection. 2 cpicc. 3 a. 4 Ceppac. 5 om. 6 coicafb. 7 bu'n pabana6. 

9 iabpa. 

a l Eriu. Regarding tbe derivation of this name : 

Philologi certant et adbuc sub judice lis est. 

Tbe legendary origin is given in L.L. [Book of Leinster] : pocla, ben TTlic Cecc ; 
banba, ben TTlic Cuill; h6piu, ben TTlic 5pene (p. 10 a) Fotla (c6) [was] 
tbe wife of Mac Cecbt (e 5) ; Banba (e 5), tbe wife of Mac Cuill (e 6) ; Eriu, tbe 
wife of Mac Grene (e 5). 



Erin 1 sublime, isle of the kings, ]>c.*] 

Laudable scene of great deeds ; 

Nor knows any person its state, 

Until Bith, grandson of Lamech, found it. 


Ladru and Bith, Fintan prophetic, 

[And] fifty maidens wondrous, 

[ Were] the folk that first occupied Banba pleasant, 

Forty days before the Deluge. [2635] 


Died Cessair of a sudden plague, 

West, in the Angle of Cessair 2 , [with] her fifty [maidens] : 
Of [grief for] the great destruction, fatality rare, 
Died Ladru on the Height of Ladru 3 . 

[* The regnal dates are those of the initial years.] 

2 Angle of Cessair (Cuil-Cesra). In Connaught, according to the Book of 
Leinster (p. 4b). O'Flaherty (Ogygia, Pars in., cap. i., p. 162, Londini, 1685), says 
it was near Cam Ceasrach (Mound of Cessair), in the Barony of Clare, co. Gal way. 
O'Donovan (F.M. i., p. 4) states this must be wrong : "for inEochaidh O'Flynn's 
poem on the early colonization of Ireland, as in the Book of Leimter, fol. 3, Cam- 
Ceasra is placed 6p btiill mer-paio, over the fruitful [River] Boyle." But the 
reading (p. 5, 1. 13) is: 

Ocon Carm, ic rnuip meppa, At the Cam, at the fruitful sea, 
TTIapb Ceppaip i Cuil Ceppa. Died Cessair in the Angle of Cessair. 

Herewith agrees the Book of Ballymote (p. 24b, 1. 9), which has cip rnup meappa, 

on the fruitful sea. 

3 Height of Ladru (Ard Ladrand). Co. Wexford (O'Flaherty, ti.). O'Donovan 
(F.M. i., p. 3) thinks it is the place called Ardamine, "where there is a curious 
moat near the sea coast." 

144 ledR LQ156N. 


[a] Gcbac 1 pmcan 2 , pac pfpe 3 , 

'Sin 4 TfluTnain bo mall 5 cpine 6 : 
bic i n-a pleib 7 bf 8 aibeb peipc 8 , 
TTlapb 9 be cumaib 9 a oen mic. 


Oen 1 bliat>ain be"c, bacca 1 in blab, 
lap 2 n-bflmb cpi cec m-bliat)an, 
t)o'n 3 h-Gpinb Calais can 
Conappagaib papcolon 4 . 


papcolon 1 puipc Sl 1 ^ 02 5^ 
Cpi cec 4 bliaoan bdi i 6 n- 
Co n epbailc be 6 cdm lapcain, 
"Noi mile pa hoen 7 peccinain. 


Oe'n 1 cpica bliaban, can 2 bp6n, 
ba pdp h-6piu 3 iap papcolon 4 , 
Co copacc "Neimeb 5 anaip 5 , 
t)ap 6 muip co n-a mop maccaib. 

4. 1 mapb. 2 pinbcan. 3 ip pac; pfpf. 4 'pa. 5 Tnaill. 6 cjimi. 
7 i n-a pleb. 8 - 8 luaibet) pepc. 9 - 9 cuai& t>o cumai&. On the 

margin, no map"5 (or dead}, the reading of L., is given. 

5. 1 - 1 aen bliabam bes, baca. 2 ap. 3 ~ 3 bu'n n-Gpinn salai& 
gan. 4 50 nupposab pappcolon. 

6. l pappcolon. 2 S^eS- 3 Slain- 4 cpi6a, with no cpi cec 
(or three hundred], the L. lection, on margin by modern hand. 5 _ 5 a n-6pinn. 
6 bo. 7 pe hen. 

b 1. i cepc. 2 son. 3 6pi. 4 pappcolon. 5 - 5 Nemeo anaip. 
6 cap. 

4 Fintan.For the legend of Fintan, see Keating' s History of Ireland, ehap. v., 
and O'Donovan, F.M. i., pp. 4, 5. 


4. [B.C.] 

[a] Died Fintan 4 , prophet of truth, 
In Monster, of slow decay : 
Bith on his Mountain 5 died a death of affection, 
Died he of grief for 6 his only son. 


One year 7 [and] ten, pleasant the fame, 

[And] three hundred years after the Deluge, 

[Were] for valiant Eriu without renown, 

Until Partholon occupied it. [2324] 


Partholon of the very vigorous Grecian Land, 

Thirty 8 years was he in Eriu, 

Until died he of a plague afterwards, [2294] 

[With] nine thousand in one week. 


b One thirty years without sorrow [2024] 

Was Eriu deserted after Partholon, 

Until arrived Neimed from the East, [1994] 

Over sea with his mighty sons. 

5 His Mountain. That is, Sliab Betha (the mountain of Bith) ; anglice Slieve 
Beagh, on the confines of Fermanagh and Monaghan. 

6 For. Literally, of. 

7 One year, etc. 

ba pdp cpa hGpiu mp pain ppi Now, Eriu was deserted after that 
p6 cpi cec Th-bliabcm, no .;m. ap for the space of 300 years, or of twelve 
.ccc., quob uepiup epc. i.i.,p. 6a. above 300, which is more true. 

8 Thirty. The reading of B.B. [Book of Ballymote']. The text has three 
hundred; on which 0' Flaherty observes : Proinde triginta et tercentum non adeo 
Hibernice praeter quantitatem absonant, quin cpfceub, ter centum, pro cpfocab, 
triginta, imprudenter usurpatum censendum sit (Oyygia, Pars in., cap. v., p. 168). 
But cpf cec (three hundred) and cpica (thirty) are readily distinguishable. The 
meaning is, no doubt, as stated in the poem of O'Flynn (L.L., p. 6 a), that the race 
of Partholon occupied the country for three centuries. 



[b] Cecpi 1 ineic in laic 2 bo'n lint) 2 , 

Scapn 3 , Pep^up, Gpbdn 4 , Gnninb 5 ; 
t)ocoib 6 Neimeb 6c 7 be cdm 7 , 
PICI c6c i Cpfc Liaed[i]n 8 . 


[8]lecc Scaipn 1 'pi* 1 bebaib 2 bumb, 
La pebail i C6p 3 Copamb; 
TTIapb[c]a 4 t>e gallint), ni c6l 4 , 
Qnnint> 5 ocup Iapbon6l 6 . 


dnbpin 1 luit) Pepgup 2 pi a claint), 2 
Co pobpip 3 Cacpaig Conamt) 4 , 
t)opocaip Pepgup na pepg 5 
La TTlopc, mac t)eilet) 8 t>pect>eip5. 


t)a c6c bliat>an, blaD cec 1 bpuing 1 , 
'O'n maibm pin Cacpac Conamt), 
Co cancacap 2 clanna Scaipn 3 
Qppin 4 Sl 16 ^ 4 uacmaip, acgaipb 6 . 

2. l ceicpi. 2 - 2 laeic bu'n Ifnb. 3 Sbapnn. 4 lapbcm. 6 Qmb. 
6 bocuaib. 7 ~ 7 b'es t>o cam. 8 Cuint>af6 Copcaige (of county Cork], on 
margin in modern hand. 

3. l Sbaipn. 2 ipm bebai&. 3 Ceip. 4 ~ 4 mapb bu'n 
no6o eel. 5 Qinninb. 6 lapmuinel. 

4. l lap pin. 2 - 2 peap5up le cloinb. 3 no cop'bpip. 4 
5 om. ; co pep 5 given on margin in modern hand. 

5. This quatrain follows 6 in B. 1 ~ 1 bu'n bpoins. 2 cancabap. 

3 Sbaipn. 4 - 4 apan Speig. 5 

b. l Ardan. Read larbonel (L.L., p. 6 a); which, being trisyllabic, could not 
be introduced into the line. 


2. [B.C.] 

[b] Four sons of the hero [were] of the party, 
Starn, Fergus, Ardan 1 , Annind ; 

Underwent Neimed death from plague, [1978] 

[Along with] twenty hundred, in the district of Liathan 2 . 


The destruction of Starn [took place] in the noble corn- 
By [the son of] Febal 3 in Ces-Choraind ; [bat, 
Killed by a valiant host, I shall not conceal it, 
[Were] Annind and larbonel. 


Then went Fergus with his children, 

So that he broke down the Fortress of Conand 4 ; 

Fell Fergus of the heroes 

By More, son of Deiled the red-faced. 


Two hundred years, general the fame, [1978] 

From that destruction of the Fortress of Conand, 
Until came the children of Starn 5 
From Greece dreadful, very stern. 

2 District of Liathan. The Barony of Ballymore, co. Cork. 

3 Febal. pi mac pebuip, by the son of Febor (L.L., p. 7 a). 

4 Conand. Son of Febor, or Febar, who gave his name to the fortress, or 
tower, of Tory Island, off the north-west coast of Donegal: mac pebaip, bia 
cd Cop Conamb, pipi n-apap Cop-imp Cecni inbiu son of Febar, from 
whom is [named] the Tower of Conand, which is called Tor-Island of Cetne 
to-day (Z.Z., p. 6 a). 

5 Starn. After the destruction of the Tower of Conand, More engaged and 
defeated the victors at sea. Starn escaped to Greece, where his posterity were 
subjected to such slavery (carrying clay in bags hence Firbolg, bagmen to rough 
mountains, so that they became flowery plains), that they fled to their original 
country, 230 years after the time of Nemed (L.L., p. 6b). 



[b] 86 bliatma beV ip t>a ce"c, 
Re dpim 2 nf himrnapbpe"c 3 , 
Rocaic Neiiiieb co n-a clainb 4 , 
Co 5 pocoglab 5 Cop Conamb 8 . 


c Coic 1 pfs pippin mupiucc rnapp 1 
Cancacap 2 bap 2 rnuip Tnop^lapp ; 
In 3 cpi lon^pib 4 , ni pdc pant) 4 , 

, pipbolj, pip Dominant). 


plaic pep Th-bolg, "Ruopai^e 1 in pf, 
Jabap 2 pop Cpacc 2 Rtjopai^i 1 ; 
1 n-lnbiup 3 Slaine na ppfan, 
Slaine pe pepaib 


pip Oomnant) 1 co cpf 
Lam oep ppi 2 h-6pinn n- 
Sengano, ^enano 4 ocup 

bacca 6 t)omnanb. 


Oen 1 cofceb ic 2 pepaib 
Coiceb pep 5 ae ^ aTl3 cen 4 anopb 4 , 
Ocup cpi cofcib in panb 
Rucpac 5 pip bacca 6 t)omnanb 6 . 

6. l t)65. 2 pe n-aipim. 3 himipbpes. 4 cloinb. 

5 " 5 no cop'coslat). 6 Conatns. 

c 1. 1-1 0015 pi pepin mupacc map. 2 ~ 2 cansabap cap. 

3 'n-a. *-* loinspib co lin clano. 2. l "Ruspaibi. 2 - 2 pogab a Cpacc. 
3 n-lnbep. [P. 46 a.] 4 gailiun. 3. 1 Domnann. 2 pe. 

3 pipslain. 4 5 eTiaT1T1 - 5 a n-lppup. 6 om. 4. l aen. 2 05. 
3 n-ailiun. 4 ~ 4 n-slan opt). 5 sabpac. 6 - 6 baca Oomnann. 

6 Six years, etc. From this distich (with seven for six], the second distich 
of b 1 (with since for until] and the second of b 5, Keating (History of Ireland, 


6. [B.C.] 

[b] Six years 6 [and] ten and two hundred, [1994- 

To count, not excessive falsehood, 
Spent Neimed and [lit., with] his children, 
"Until \_Read: By whom] was razed 7 the Tower of Conand. 


c Five kings [there were] with the sea-farers excellent 
That came over the great green sea ; 
In three fleets, not paltry the cause, 
[Were the] Gailions, Firbolg, Men of Domnand. 


The prince of the Firbolg, Rudraige the king, 
Landed he upon the Strand of Rudraige 1 , 
In the Estuary of [the river] Slaine 2 of the bridles, 
[Landed] Slaine with the Men of Galion. 


The Men of Domnand with [their] three kings, 
[Sailed they with] the right hand to Eriu 3 of the plains ; 
Sengand, Genand and Gand 
Landed in famous R/os-Doinnand 4 . 


One Fifth 5 [was assigned] to the Firbolg, 
A Fifth 6 [was the portion] of the Men of Galion without 
And three Fifths [were] the portion [murmuring, 

The famous Men of Domnand received. 

chap, viii.) makes a verse, to certify the interval hetween the advent of Nemed 
and that of the Firbolg ! 

7 By whom was razed. I suggest O jio coslat) by whom \Nemetf s children'] 
was razed ; thus giving 216 years as the Nemedian period. 

c. l Strand of Rudraige. In Ulster, according to 0' Flaherty (Ogygia, Pars in., 
cap. viii., p. 171). 

2 Estuary of Slaine. The mouth of the Slaney, Wexford Harbour. 

3 Right hand to Eriu. That is, sailed up along the western coast. 

4 Ros-Domnand. The Promontory of Domnand, in the north-west of Mayo. 

5 Fifth. Ulster : from Assaroe, near Ballyshannon, to Drogheda. 

6 Fifth. Leinster : from Drogheda to Waterford Harbour. 

150 tebcm 


[c] ttopacpac 1 in cecpup cam 

TCfji 2 ri-hGpenn 2 t>ia m-bpacaip ; 
Conit> 6 Sldne pdep pen's 
C6c pf po^ab cip 3 n-hGpenn 3 . 


epcit> 1 pi hait)it) cac pip 1 , 
TCa 2 ainm ip pa ampip 2 , 
Co 3 poirmipiup btiib uile 3 
Rigu 4 pocla polcbut>e 4 . 


cl bliabain bo Sbldne, t>o'n l laec, 
Co 2 pobmapb 2 jalap gapbjaec 3 , 
Qbnacc i n-t)uTnu 4 Sldne 4 , 
C6c pf h-6penn 5 ecbdne 5 . 


Of 1 bliabam "Rttopaige 2 puic 2 , 
Co 3 n-epbailc ippin 3 apt) toping; 
5anb 4 , 5TiaTit), mapb[c]a t>e 4 cdm, 
Cecpi bliabna a plaic popldn. 


C6ic bliabna Sen^aint) lap pein 1 , 
[No]co 2 copchaip la piacpaig 3 : 
C6ic bliabna piacpac 3 pinnait) 4 , 
Combpomapb 5 puat) 

5. l popanbf ac. 2 - 2 pi5e n-epenn. 3- 3 me n-e-penn. 6. l 

pe hoi&i6 506 pfp. 2 ~ 2 pe n-anmaib, pe n-aimpip. 3 ~ 3 co n-i[n]t>ipiup 

baib uili. *- 4 jiiga Pocla ponbglafni. 

d 1. l bu'n. 2 ~ 2 supupmapb. 3 gapbaec. 4 ' 4 a n-Ouiiia 

Slaine. 5 - 5 epenn e6baine. 2. l ba. 3 ~ 2 "Ruspaifti in puic. 

'- 3 co puaip eg ipan. 4 ~ 4 5 aTin > 5 eanan ^j niapb t>o. 3. l lap pin. 
2 no co. 3 piacais. 4 pinbais. 5 connfpomapb. 


* [B.C.] 

[c] The four generous [kings] assigned 

The kingship of Eriu to their brother ; 

So that Slane, noble, prudent, is 

The first king that occupied the land of Eriu. 


List to the fate of each man, 

To his name and to his time, 

Until I tell them all to you, 

The kings of Fodla the yellow-surfaced. 


d A year [was reigned] by Slaine, by the hero, [1778] 

Until killed him sharp disease, 
Buried was he in the Mound of Slaine 1 , 
The first king of Eriu of the white steeds. 


Two [were] the years of Rudraige, the champion, [1777] 

Until died he in the lofty Brugh 2 ; 

Gand, Ganand, died they of plague, 

Pour years their full sovranty. [1775] 


Five [were] the years of Sengand after that, [1771] 

Until fell he "by Fiachra : 

Five [were] the years of Fiachra, the warrior, [1766] 

Until slew him the bright [weapon] of Rindal. 

d. l Mound of Slaine. " This place is still well known. It is situated in the 
townland of Ballyknockan, about a quarter of a mile to the south of Leighlin- 
Bridge, near the west bank of the River Barrow. Nothing remains of the palace 
but a moat, measuring 237 yards in circumference at the base, 69 feet in height 
from the level of the River Barrow, and 135 feet in diameter at top" (O'Donovan, 
F.M. i., pp. 14, 15). 

2 Eruffh.On the Boyne. 

152 lebcm 

[d] 86 bliabna "Rinnail 1 t>o'n paint) 1 , 

"Robmapb 2 Obbgen, mac Sen^amt) 2 ; 
Obb^en 3 , pocaic a cecaip, 
t)opochaip 4 la Gipt>echaip 4 . 


6ocu, -mac Gipc 1 , m pf 2 paic, 
t)ec 3 Th-bliat>na a placiup lanmaic 3 ; 
'6 4 pm [in] c6c pf t>o pint) 4 
5 ap ctip i n-h6pinn 5 . 


"Nuabu 1 Qpsacldrri 1 na n-ec 
"Robmapb 2 balap balcbemnec 3 ; 
piche 4 bliat>an a placiup 
'Op hGpinn 5 1 6 n-apt>maciup 7 . 

4. 1 - 1 "Rinbail tm'n point). 2 - 2 sup'mapl:) Oibbsein, mac 

3 poibbsein. 4 ~ 4 co n-t>pocaip la hQipbecaip. 5. * 6pc. 2 i[n] pf. 
3 - 3 pemep beic bliaban m-bicrnaic. 4 ~ 4 513 pumapbpabap i[n] pi. 

6 - 5 cpi meic Neini&, maic 5abpai. 6. The following two quatrains are 

inserted here : 

Qnmant) cpi mac Nemffr no, The names of the three sons of nohle 


Cepapb, l/uam ocup Luacpo : [Were] Cesard, Luam and Luacro : 

Slab pomapb, cec pep bo pinb, Them slew, each man with [spear-] 

Goco, mac 6ipc, a n-6pinn. Eocho, son of Ere, in Eriu. 

6pi apb. Eri sublime. 

bpep, mac Glaoain, maic Neb, Bres, son of Eladhan, son of Ned, 

Hobo pufpf co pomeib ; He was a great king with much great- 


Secc bliabna bo, nip' b[p]oba, Seven years [were reigned] by him, it 

was not long, 

65 abbac bo'n puab poba. Death died he of the dire plague. 

In the second line of the first quatrain b is placed above b, to make the reading 
Cepapb. l ~ l Nuaoa Qip^eblam. 2 b am. 3 bailcbeimnec. 4 cpica. 
5 h om. 6 a. 7 maicup. 




[d] Six years [were] the portion of Rindal, 
Slew him [F]odbgen, son of Sengand; 
[F]odbgen, spent he four [years], 
Fell he by Ardechar. 




Eochu, son of Ere, the fortunate king, 

Ten years his full-good sovranty ; 

That was the first king that by a [spear-]point 3 

"Was slain in the beginning in Eriu. 



Nuadu Silver- Hand 4 of the steeds, 
Him slew Balar 5 Strong-smiting ; 
Twenty years his sovranty 
Over Eriu in exalted goodness. 


3 [Spear-]point. Thus explained in a poem in Z.Z., p. 8 a : 

Co p' [p]dp Rirmal, nf bof pinb 
pop apm ecep i n-h6pinb, 
pop gdib a5apsa[ib], cen clic 

Q6c a m-bic i n-a piecpannaib. 

Until grew Rinnal, there was not a point 
Upon a weapon at all in Eriu, [finish, 
Upon spears rough, without perfect 
But the whole run of them was unpointed 
wood. [Zi., Butto be in running trees.] 

Cucpac Cuac-be-t)ormant> t>il Brought the diligent Tuath-de-Donnand 

l/afsne leo i n-alarnaib: [Pointed] spears with them in their hands: 

t)ib pein pomapbab 6ocaib, "With these was slain Eochaid, 

I/a fil Nermb nepcbpecais. By the seed of Nemid the severe- judging. 

4 Silver-Hand. His hand (according to J.Z., p. 9 a) was cut off in the first 
battle of Magh Tuired (near Cong, co. Mayo). But he was not the worse, rather 
the better, in consequence, according to the veracious legend : 

idm apsaic co Idnluc caca A hand of silver with the full supple- 
Idma in cac me6p ~\ in cac ale ness of each hand in every finger and in 

every joint Diancecht, the leech, and 
Creidne, the wright, assisting him, placed 
upon him. 

O'Flaherty's observation is perhaps worth quotation (Ogygia, Pars in., cap. x., 
p. 174): "Non ita pridem in Italia Hieronymus Capivacius vir inaudita medendi 
ratione prsecelluit, qui labra, nares, aures hominibus, quibus deessent, adeo affabre 
reponebat, ut proxime miraculum ars esset (I.H. a Pflawnern : in Bonoma,pag. 84)." 

5 Balar. For the Fomorian Balar, see O'Donovan, JF.M. i., pp. 18 sq. 

bopac paip tMancecc, in liaig -\ 
Cpeibne, cepb, i consnam 



c t>pep, mac Blazon 1 , mic 
TCopo 3 puipi co porn^ic 4 ; 
Secc m-bliabna bo, nip' poca 5 , 
6c 6 acbac 6 bo'n puab poca 7 . 


P. I27b "Ro5iallab DO Lug 1 , bo'n laec, 

t)a picic bliaban bappga^c 2 : 
TTI6p 3 ecc bopirism 4 TTIac Cuill, 
bap hm t)iancecc 5 1 Cafnbpuiin 6 . 


6ocu Ollacaip 1 idpma, 

Cecpi 2 picic pinb bliabna; 

bdp in t)a5bai 3 , bepg na n-bpenb 4 , 

t)o'nb epcop 5 caplaic Ceicnenb 5 . 


t)eic TTI -bliabna bo'n 1 t)elbaec bil, 
Co copcaip bo Idim Chaicip 2 . 
t)eic TYI -bliabna piacac pinbgil, 
Co popmapb 3 Gogan Qipb 4 -inbip. 

e 1. This quatrain precedes d 6. l Gla&ain. 2 Ne[i]b. 3 bo. 4 po- 
meib. 5 b'[p]oba. 6 - 6 65 abbac. 7 poba. 2. l The second hand placed 
h after Lus (Lugaib), and, to make the emendation more certain, wrote Lu 5(01 ft) 
overhead. 2 blaccaerh. 3 cpuas. 4 bopmbi. 5 Ua Oencecc. 6 a 
Caenbpufm. 3. l 6ocai& Ollocaip. 2 ceicpi. 3 Oasba. 4 bpeam. 
5 - 5 upcup bo ceils Ceilcep. 4. l bo. 2 piacaig. 3 sup'mapb. 4 apb. 

e. l res. sabap bpepp . . . pise . . . co pofccab lam Nuabac. Bres 
took the kingship, until the hand of Nuadu was cured (Z.Z., p. 9 a). He and 
Nuadu fell in the second battle of Magh Tuired (Barony of Tirerrill, co. Mayo), 
\\-hich was fought twenty-seven years after the first (L.L., p. 9 b). 

2 Was obeyed. Literally, it was served to Lug (impersonal construction : ser- 
vitum est Lugadio}. 


1- [B.C.] 

Bres 1 , son of Eladan, son of Net, 

He was arch-king with exceeding greatness ; 

Seven years [were reigned] by him, it was not long, [1721] 

Death died he of the [gory-]red wound. 


Lug, the hero, was obeyed 2 , 

Two score of very prudent years : [1714] 

A great deed did MacCuill, 

The death of the grandson of Diancecht at Caindruim. 3 


Eochu Ollathair afterwards, 

Four score fair years [reigned he] ; [1674] 

The death of the Dagda, sorrow of hosts, 

[Took place] from the thrust Ceithnend cast 4 . 


Ten years [were reigned] by Delbaeth devoted, [1594] 

Until fell he by hand of Caicher. 

Ten [were] the years of Fiacha the very fair, [1584] 

Until slew him Eogan of Ard-inber 5 . 

3 Caindruim. Pleasant ridge. A name for Tara. 

Liacbpwm i Dpuirncain i TTItJp- Grey ridge and Pleasant ridge and 
Cea i Cacip cpoinb ommanb Mur- Tea and Cathir-chroind [were] the 
Gemjiac i Goprufi. names of Tara in the beginning (L.L.> 

30 a). 

4 Ceithnend cast. OccTno6~oa bo'n Dagba, co n-epbailc bo 501 cpo 
bia poguin Cecleanb a cac rhop TTIoige Guipib : Eighty years [were 
reigned] by the Dagda [Eochu Ollathair], until he died of [the wound of] the 
spear wound [lit., spear of gore] with which Cetleand wounded him in the 
[second] great battle of Magh Tuired (B.B., p. 33 b, 11. 33-4). 

5 Ard-inber. Called 2nber-mot in B.B. (p. 33 b, 11. 38, 39). The estuary of 
the Ovoca, at Arklow, co. "VVicklow. 


156 lebcm 

[e] "Noi 1 m-bliabna picec 'malle, 

TTlac Cuill, mac Cecc, mac <*)P eTie ? 
Gpi meic Cepmaca 2 co n-tiaill 2 , 
op banba bpacptiaib. 


t>opochaip TTlac 

1 Calcin 2 la 

TTlac Cuill la 3 '6bep inn 3 6ip ; 

TTlac Cecc bo larni hepimoin 4 . 


bliabain ippige 1 map o6n 2 
t>'h'epim6n 3 ip 4 O^Gbep polccaem ; 
Co cop6aip Gbep lapcain, 
t)o lafm hepim6m 3 


aipbaipc cen 1 on, 
ba leip inb hOpiu 2 a oenop 2 ; 
"R6 pe6c 3 m-bliaban t>6c 4 bo'n bop 4 , 
'6c 5 acbac i n-Qpgacpop 5 .] 

a cpf meic, p^ 1 bliabna ap blab, 
Co bdp 2 TTlumne im TTlais 2 Cpua6an. 
Luisne 3 ip Lafgne 4 nallanb 4 , 
"Romapbca i cac Qipb 5 Labpanb. 

5. l bei6. 2 ~ 2 CeTimaba, co m-buai6. 

2 Caillcm. 3 - 3 pe hebep in. 4 h om. 

f 1. l ippigi. 2 aen. 3 h om. 4 om. 6 irit)5lain. 

2. i- 1 epemon, oipt)ipc 5011. 2 - 2 an 6pi a aenup. 3 o6c. 

4 - 4 t)es bu'n t>uj\ 5 - 5 65 abbac i n-Qinsebpuf. 3. l cpi. 

2 ~ 2 5abaif THuimm a ITIois. 3 iuism. 4 - 4 Laisnf na lann. 5 apb. 

6 Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht, Mac Orene. Thus explained in L.L. (p. 10 a) : 
TTlac Cuill .1. Secop, coll a b6a; Son of Hazel, namely, Sethor was [his 


5. [B.C.] 

[e] Nine years [and] twenty together, [1574] 

Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht, Mac Grene 8 , 
Three sons of Cermat with haughtiness, 
[Were] in kingship over Banba ruddy -vestured. 


Fell Mac Grene bright 
In Tailtiu 7 by Amairgen ; 
Mac Cuill, by Eber of the [sweet] voice ; 
Mac Cecht, by hand of Erimon. 


f A. year in kingship together [1545] 

[Was spent] by Erimon and by Eber beauteous-haired ; 
Until fell Eber thereafter, 
By hand of the very sincere Erimon. 


Erimon, illustrious without fault, 

To him belonged Eriu by himself ; [P r P> 

A space of ten years [and] seven [was reigned] by the [1544] 

[Natural] death died he in Argatros 1 . 

His three sons, six years [reigned they] for fame, [1527] 

To the death of Mumne in Magh Cruachan 2 , 

Luigne and Laigne of the swords, 

Slain were they in the battle of Ard Ladrand 3 . 

mac Cecc .1. Cecon, cecc a b6a ; first name], hazel [was] his god ; Son of 
TTIac (5P eiie - 1 ' Cecoji, gpicm a the Plough, namely, Tethor, the plough 
t)6a. [was] his god; Son of Sun, namely, 

Cethor, the sun [was] his god. 

7 Tailtiu. Teltown, co. Meath. 

f. x Argatros. Silver-wood, on the Nore, parish of Rathbeagh, harony of 
Galmoy, co. Kilkenny (O'Donovan, F.M. i., p. 51). 

2 Cruachain. Rathcroghan, near Belanagare, co. Eoscommon (id. ib.}. 

3 Ard Ladrand. See a 3, note 2. 


158 tebara 


[f] [S]lecca cecpi 1 meic 'Gbip 2 
La Ipiel 3 , pdib, pinnpennib 3 . 
Lecbliabain 4 a plaic 5 , nip'm6p 6 , 
7 , Opba, Popgna 8 , pop on 8 . 


Ipiel 1 , pdib, picib 2 sail 

Q beic pemep in polafc, 

Co n-epbailc im THai^ 4 TTludDe* 

t)e 5 galap olc 6 oen 6 uaipe. 


Gcpiel 1 , mac Ipieoil 2 na n-e6, 
Cepc 3 pice bliaoan buionec 4 , 
Co copcaip 5 ipRafpinb 6 ptiaib, 
t)o laim Conmail 6laibeb 6 puaib. 


Conmael 1 , mac 6bip, cen 2 ail, 
C6cplaic 3 mop banba 3 amTTlumain; 
'Qpim 4 cpi n-beic m-bliaban bpap, 
Co copcaip la 


, ba cp6n a pig, 
Secc 1 m-bliabna ap pecc n- 
Co n-epbailc 2 ippin 2 cdm cenb, 
1 copcaip dp pep n-hGpenb 3 . 

4. l ceacpa. 2 n-6bip. 3 ~ 3 hlyiial, paic pippeinnfb. 4 leicbliabain. 
6 plaicup. 6 lop. 7 6p. 8 ' 8 Pep 511 a, pep on. 5. x Ipial. 2 peceb. 
3 n-5aeit. 4Hl a TTluig TTluai&i. 5 bo. 6 - 6 uilc aen. 6. l 6icpial. 
2 lpiel. 3 om. 4 miTnbuit)ne6. 5 ' 5 co bpocaip i Ropmb. 6 cloibem. 
S 1. l Conmal. 2 gan. 3 - 3 piepenn. * aipem. 5 Cisepnmap. 
2._ 1-1 pe6cnio5a pe6c bo bliabnaib. 2 ' 2 co n-bebailc ifin. 3 n-epenn. 

4 Plain ofMuaid. According to 0' Donovan (F.M. i., p. 34), either the plain 
of the river Moy, which flows between the cos. Mayo and Sligo ; or, more probably, 
the plain of Knockmoy, six miles south-east of Tuam, co. Galway. 


4. [B.C.] 

[f] Destroyed [were] the four sons of Eber 
By Iriel, the prophet, the fair warrior. 
Half-year the sovranty, it was not much, [1521] 

[Of] Aer, Orba, Forgna, Foron [Feron, L. L. p. 15 b]. 


Iriel, the prophet, exciter of the din of battle, 

Ten [years] the period of the great hero, [1521] 

Until perished he in the Plain of Muaid 4 , 

Of evil disease of one hour. 


Ethriel, son of Iriel of the steeds, [1511] 

Just twenty crowded years [reigned he], 

Until fell he in Rairiu 5 red, 

By hand of Conmail ruddy-sword. 


g Conmail, son of Eber, without objection, 

[Was] first prince of great Banba from Munster; 

A tale of thrice ten vigorous years [reigned he], [1491] 

Until fell 1 he by Tigernmas. 


Tigernmas, stout was his kingship, 

[For] seven years above seven tens; [1461] 

Until perished he in the severe plague 2 , [of Eriu. 

In which fell vast numbers [lit., slaughter] of the men 

6 Rairiu. " It is the place now called TCaeipe mop, in the territory of Jre^an, 
or barony of Tinnahinch, in the Queen's Co., which was part of the ancient TJi- 
Failghe, or Offally" (O'Donovan, P.M. i., p. 38). 

g. ! Fell. In the battle of Emain Macha (Navan fort, near Armagh), according 
to L.L. (p. 16 b). 

2 Plague. His death is thus told in L.L. (ubi sup.) : 

Co n-epbailc imTTlais - fl6cc, Until he died in Magh-Slecht, in the 
irnrn6pt>dil THcnse-plecc ~\ ceopa great convention of Magh-Slecht and 
cecpaTncane pep n-hCperm 'malle three fourths of the men of Eriu along 



[g] Gocu Sc^ubac 1 ampa, 

Cecpi bliatma 6p bpec banba : 
"Ni t>alb, i cafc CempaC cpicc 2 
Robmapb 3 Cepmna, mac Gbpic. 


Cepmna, Sobaipce, peol m-bil, 
t)a mac Gbpic, mic hGbip 1 : 
t)apicic bliat>an co m-blait>, 
C6c pfg hOpent) 1 a Ulcaib 2 . 

Sobaipce 'n-a t>tjn, 

La Behalf 2 TTlint) t>ap in 
Qit)et) 3 Cepmna 'p 111 ca ^ ca P> 
La Cochaig pint) paebupglap. 


pifce 1 bliat>an, blab co n-dib, 
placiup 2 6cac, mic Conmdil: 
piaca Labpainni 3 nallepg 3 , 
"Romapb Gcait) 4 paebupbepg. 

3. l 606016 eb5oca6. 2 epic. 3 sup'mapb. 4. * h om. 

5. l o&e. 2 ~ 2 h6o6ai5 TTlenTi cap in mup. 3 oi&e. 6. : pi6i. 2 placup. 

3 - 3 l/abpain&e na lepg. 4 6o6ai&. 

ic abjiab cpoim 611616,11151- with him, [whilst] in adoration of Crom 
bcnlhepenn. Conna cepna amtaib Croc, the royal idol of Eriu. So that 
pm ace oen cecjiaji pep f>-hepenn there escaped not like that but just four 
app. Unbe TTla5-ple6c. persons of the men of Eriu therefrom. 

Whence Magk-Stecht [Plain of Destruc- 

Magh-Slecht is a plain in the barony of Tullyhaw, co. Cavan. O'Donovan, 
F.M. i., p. 43. 

3 Etgudach. The vestured. The rationale is given in L.L. (p. 16 b). 

If acipibe boponca ilbpecca i It is by him were made many varieties 

hCpenn .1. oen bat i in the garments of Eriu: to wit, one 


3. [H.C.] 

[g] Eochu Etgudacli 3 illustrious, 

Four years [reigned he] over diversified Banba : [1384] 

Not false, in the vigorous battle of Tara, 
Him slew Cermna, son of Ebrec. 


Cermna, Sobairche, good the deed, 

Two sons of Ebrec, son of Eber : 

Two score years [reigned they] with fame, [1380] 

First kings of Eriu from the Ultonians. 


The fate of Sobairche [took place] in his fort* 
By Eochu Mend [who came from] over the sea 5 . 
The fate of Cermna [took place] in the contested battle 6 , 
By Eochu the fair of the green weapons. 


A score of years, pleasant the fame, [1340] 

[Was] the sovranty of Eochu, son of Conmail : 
Fiacha Labrainni of the shields, 
Slew he Eochu Ruddy Weapon. 

n-6cai5 Tnosab, ba bac i Ti-e"cai5ib colour in the garment of slaves, two 

cncec, cpi baca i n-ecuc mo^at) colours in the garments of peasants, 

1 octach, cecpi baca i n-ecu6 three colours in the garment of slaves and 

6cci5epn, cofc baca i n-ecuc warriors, four colours in the garments of 

cofpec, p6 baca i n-ecuc pfg ] young lords, five colours in the garment 

ollam i pileb, un. fi-baca i n-ecuc of chiefs, six colours in the garment of 

P*5 1 T"5cm. Ip appin po[p]dp kings and ollams and poets, seven colours 

inbiu no hull baca i n-ecuc in the garment of kings and queens. It 

eppcop. is from that arose [lit., grew] to-day all 

the colours in the garment of bishops. 

4 Fort. That is Dun-Sohhairche, or Dunseverick, near the Giant's Causeway, 
co. Antrim. 

5 Over the sea. He was son of the Fomorian king (Z.Z., p. 17 a). 

6 Battle. Fought at Dun-Cermna, or the Old Head of Kinsalc, co. Cork. This 
quatrain is given in L.L. (p. 17 a), with the variants 606015, mup and capp. 



li pice a ceeaip 1 cen cainmne 2 , 
t)a plaic piaca Labpainne 3 ; 
t)ocep pf pene pabaip 
I 4 cac Slebi 5 


bliabain pop a beic pa b6, 
poc 1 placa Gcac 1 TTlu6, 
Co copcaip 2 m caernbop cdm 
Lapinn 3 Oengup n-Olmucaib. 


Se bliabna pa 1 of, in cucaib 1 ? 
t)a 2 pf 2 in c-Oen^up Olmucaib ; 
t)ocep i Capmon 3 in clec 
La hGnna n-abbol 4 n-Qipccec 4 . 


Qpim 1 n6i ifi-bliaban pa 2 cpf 
^''Gnna Qip^bec 3 , bo'n apbpf 4 ; 
TRobmapb 5 l^oceccaib, mac TTlafn, 
pobacaofn 6 . 


"R6 661C 1 Th-bliaban co m-blaib 
"Rogiallab 2 bo Roceccaib 3 ; 
t)opocaip 4 la Secna n-Qpc 5 , 
Ippin 6 Chpuacain cecna Connate. 

h 1. l ceacmp. 2 6atme. 3 Labpambe. 4 a. 5 Sleibi. 
6 belsabain. [P. 46b.] 2. 1 - 1 pob plaicup 6oca6. 2 Co bopccnp. 

3 lapin. 3. 1 ~ 1 po cpi, cusaib. 2 om., probably by oversight. 

3 CapTnun. 4 - 4 n-abbul n-QipCTiec. 4. l aipeiti. 2 po. 3 appisi. 

4 aippis. 5 sup'mapb. 6 - 6 "Ruab,pcnb nf pocain. 5. ibacoic. Over 
t)a (in another hand) is 01115 5 which would make the total 25 (5 x 5), instead of 10. 
2 bosiallab. 3 "Roceccaig. 4 co n-bpocaip. 5 Qpe. 6 pin. 

h. : Fian. The native military force. 

? JBelgada[iln. Bulgaden, near Kilmallock, co. Limerick. 


1. [B.C.] 

Twenty [and] four [years] without duplicity, LI 320] 

"Was Fiache Labrainne prince ; 
Fell the king of the active Fian 1 
In the battle of Mount Belgada[i]n 2 . 


A year above ten by two [=21], [1296] 

[Was] the length of the sovranty of Eochu Mumo 3 , 
Until fell the fair prop beauteous 
By Oengus Olmuchaid. 


Six years by two, understand ye ? [1275] 

"Was Oengus Olmuchaid king ; 

Fell in Carmon 4 the support [of Eriu] 

By mighty Enna the Silvery 5 . 


A tale of nine years by three [1263] 

[Was reigned] by Enna the Silvery, by the arch-king; 
Slew him Rothechtaid, son of Maen, 
In Magh Ruad 6 the very pleasant. 


A space of five years with fame [1236] 

"Was Rothechtaid obeyed 7 ; 
Fell he by Setna the Tall, 
In very Cruachan of Cohnacht. 

3 Mumo. O pcncep TTIunrm from whom is called Minister (L.L., p. 18 a). 

4 Carmon. Wexford. 

5 Silvery. If leip txrp6nca r-c6ic aipsbibe i n-Qpsacpor- T bopac 
bo aipecaib hGpenn. It is by Mm were [first] made silver shields in Argatros 
(Silver- Wood) and he gave them to the leaders of Eriu (L.L., p. 18 b). 

6 Magh Ruad. In the battle of [Magh] Roigne, according to L.L. (p. 18 b). 
This was a plain in ancient Ossory, at the foot of a hill called Dornbuidhe 
(O'Donovan, P.M. i., p. 51). 

7 Obeyed. It was obeyed, etc. The impersonal construction. 

164 ledR LQ156N. 


[h] C6ic bliabna bo Shecna 1 Qpc, 
t)ocep 2 in pf pd 3 po mac : 
Ni pumaic 4 in mac, mflib cop, 
t)ia acaip a 


i 86 bliabna be"c a pa 1 cecaip, 

plaic[up] 2 piaca6 pial6pe6ai5 2 ; 
piaca, plaic 3 , pocaip na pl6$, 
t)opocaip 4 la TTluneTTion. 


TTIuneTnon 1 , c6ic bliabna ap blaib 
pac 2 placa maic Caip clocoi^; 
Qcbac 3 pf t)aipbpe 4 bo cdm, 
'Qibne imnfielbdn 5 . 


Qpim 1 bei6 rii-bliaban can 1 bp6n 
Do mac mopsap^ 2 TTlunemom 2 : 
t)ocep 3 Qilbeps t)6ic in paic 3 , 
La hOllomam [i 

6. l bo'n c-8ecna. 2 gup'cep. 3 pe. 4 mp'niaic. 

6 bo papa5o6. 

i 1. ^^es'pa. 2 - 2 placup Pm6pa piailcpecais. 3 pep. 

*t)ot)pocaiin. 2. l TTIuinemoTi. 2 pab. 3 t>ocep. * Daipbjii. 
5 ~ 5 TTIui5 Qilbi imelban. Over Qilbi, the textual reading, Qi&ne, is placed as a 
variant by a different hand. 3. 1 - 1 cepc cpica bliaban 5011. 2 ~ 2 Tmabslan 
TnuTiemoTi. 3 - 3 acbac Oilbeps, baca in bai$. 4 i Cempaig. 

8 Outraged. Eothechtaid (L.L., p. 18b) was slain in Eathcroghan, co. Roe- 
common, by Setna, whilst under the protection of Fiacha, son of the slayer. The 
dishonour thus put upon him Fiacha avenged by killing his father. "Rum QIC 
governs a fapusub. The possessive, a, is employed objectively, in reference 
to mac (son). 


6. [B.C.] 

|_li] Five years [were reigned] by Setna the Tall, [1231] 

Fell the king by his great son [Fiacha] : 
Forgave not the son, great [?] the deed, 
To his father his being outraged 8 . 


i Six years [and] ten by four [= 64]* [1226] 

[Was] the sovranty of Fiacha, the generous raider; 
Fiacha, the prince, succour of the hosts, 
Fell he by Munemon. 


Munemon 1 , five years with [lit., for] fame [Cas;[i206] 

[Was] the length of the sovranty of the famed son of 
Died the king of Dairbre of plague, 
In Magh Aidne 2 the white-bordered. 


A tale of a decade of years without sorrow [1201] 

[Was reigned] by the very stern son of Munemon : 
Fell Ailderg Doit 3 of felicity, 
By Ollam [in Tara]. 

i. * The B reading, 20, is adopted in the chronology. 

1 Munemon. Thus explained in L.L. (p. 18 b) : 

lp leip pocinpccmcd muncet>a It is by him were introduced [lit., 
6iji po bpaiscib t>oene i n-b6pinn : begun] necklets of gold about the 
.1. rnunimafTie .1. mafne po mune- tbroats of persons in Erin: that is, 
laib. [Munemon signifies] neck -valuables, to 

wit, valuables around the neck. 

2 Magh Aidne. "A level district in the present county of Galway, all com- 
prised in the diocese of Kilmacduagh" (O'Donovan, F.M. i., p. 46). 

3 Doit. Of the finger. lp 'n-a aimpip bacap palse 6ip im b6icib It 
is in his time were rings of gold on [lit., around] fingers (L.L., p. 18 b). 



P. 128 a [i] Cpfca bliaban pop a beic 
Co 1 6c Olloman, ^epib 1 : 
"Ri na n-6cep 2 , apb a pac, 
Co 3 n-bepnab c6c pepp 4 Cempac. 


Cpen a mac, pinnacca 1 pdil, 
a beic cucab 2 'n-a bep^bdil 2 ; 
1m 3 TTlaig Imp 3 , bo cdm cpd, 
pump cpdb pf imlip TTlaca 4 . 


TTlac b' 1 Ollomain 1 , Sldnoll pdaipc, 
t)ei6 m-bliabna, pecc pop p6epcuaipc 2 
Qcbac cen 3 cloemcl6b 3 pop bac 
lTmneb6n 4 156 Cempa6. 


j Cpt 1 pecc rh-bliabna, buan in pac 1 , 
Rocaic 2 5ebe 2 
Co copcaip 3 
La piacaig, mac pinnacca 4 . 

4. 1 - 1 50 baip Ollomam, eiptus. Over Ollomam the gloss Ollann po&la is 
written by the second hand. 2 eisep. 3 te. 4 peip. 5. l pmacca. 
2 - 2 pa &o 'na beslaim. 3 - 3 a TTIoig Inafp. 4 Tllacaa. 6. l ~ l Ollamon. 
2 paepcuaipc. 3 - 3 5011 clae[n]cla&. 4 poplaeclap. 

j 1. 1-1 bi bliabam bee, peil a pa6. 2 - 2 pob' pi 

^ t>opocaip 5ei&f. 4 pmacca. 

* To. Literally, in. 

5 Magh Inis. The barony of Lecale, co. Down (O'Flaherty, Ogygia, Pars in., 
cap. xxxi., p. 245). 


4. [B.C.] 

[i] Thirty years above ten [1191] 

Until the death of Ollam, list ye, 
The king of sages, high his felicity, 
Instituted he the first Assembly of Tara. 


Powerful his son, Finnachta of liberality, 

Ten [years] were assigned to 4 his distinguished portion ; [1151] 

In Magh Inis 5 , of plague severe, 

Found the pleasant king of [Emain] Macha 6 destruction. 


The son of Ollam, Slanoll generous, 

Ten years [and] seven [were] in [his] noble course: [1141] 

Died he without change 7 upon [his] colour 

In the centre of the palace of Tara. 


Thrice seven years, lasting the felicity, [1124] 

Spent Gede Ollgothach 1 ; 

Until fell Gede the very liberal 

By Fiacha, son of Finnachta. 

6 \Ema\ri\ Macha. That is, king of Ireland. The term is here used prolep- 
tically, as Emain was not then founded. See o 4, infra. 

7 Change. The explanation is given in L.L. (p. 18 h) : 

Ni pep ca salap pobnuc, ace a It is not known what disease took 
pa^bdil mapb ; pec mp'pae bat;, him off, hut he was found dead; more- 
nipalob a copp -\ cucab a calmain over he changed not colour, nor decayed 
lia mac, la Chilli, bia pip, i cint> his corpse. And he was taken from 
;>cl. bliaban. earth hy his son, Aili.ll, to certify it, 

at the end of forty years. 

j. l Ollgothach. Excellent-voiced. ba binnioip ceca m-[b]enbcpocc $u6 
1 amop caic buine inna plaic Sweeter than the strings of &?w-harps was the 
voice and of every person in his reign (L.I,., p. 18 h, 19 a). 



[j] Pici 1 bliaban, blab cen 2 

par 3 placa p6ic pop loh^epp 3 : 
bocep pt Cepa na clab 
I 4 car bpega 5 la 

l, mac 5 et)e > 1T1 
t)a bliabain be"c a 

p 1T1 seicc a 
Qilill 4 , mac mic t>' 5 Olio-mam 5 . 


Gili II 1 , pecc 2 m-bliabna pa t>6, 
mac Sldnuill, m paeb p6 3 ; 

[a] aibeb 4 la Sfpna, 
La pfg 5 Cempa coebibna 5 . 


Cemaip pdil, ptiaip capaic 1 cafm 1 , 
t)ia 2 copacc 2 Sipna placccafn 3 : 
Q 4 cpicaic c6c Idee iap 16 4 , 
Ropcap 5 pi^e [p]pi 


"Rocaic Sfpna co ppfanaib 1 
"Re cpi peccaib poep 2 bliabnaib: 
Qibeb 3 Sipna [co] pleccaib 3 
1 n-Qlinb 4 la Roceccaib 5 . 

2. l cpica. 

3. l 565. 

5 - 5 Olloman. 4. l Oilill. 
Cempa6 caebcipma. 5. 1 - 
4-4 gu n-a cpi cec Iae6 ap lo. 

3 - 3 pocaic pi 

2 o6c. 

capafb cam. 
5 bupcap. 

4 a. 

'f 1T1 5leio a gal. * Oilitl. 

50. 4 a GI&I&. 5 - 5 pi 

2 - 2 o copacc. 3 placcafn. 

pe hllllco. 6. l ppiamb. 

t)o faep. 3 - 3 oitub Sipna co pepc blaio. 4 Qillinb. 5 "Roceccaig. 


2. [B.C.] 

[j] A score of years, fame without ill omen, [1103] 

[Was] the length of the sovranty of Fiach : 
Tell the king of Cera of the excavations 2 
In the battle of Breg 3 by Berngal. 


Berngal, son of Gede, the champion vigorous, 

Two years [and] ten [were] his good complement : [1083] 

Finished in the battle his valour 

Ailill, son of the son of Ollam. 


Ailill, seven years by two [reigned he], [1071] 

Good son of Slanoll, not foolish the proceeding ; 
Eeceived he [his] fate by Sirna, 
By the king of fair-sided Tara. 


Tara of [Inis]fail, it received a dear friend, 
"When reached [it] the erect, comely Sirna : 
[With] thirty hundred heroes after a long time, 
Parted he the kingship from the Ultonians 4 . 


Spent Sirna with restrictive laws 

Thrice seven honourable years: [1057] 

The fate of Sirna with slaughters 

[Took place] in Alend 5 by Rothechtaid. 

2 Excavations. The Four Masters state (O'Donovan, i., p. 56) that Fiacha was 
the first who sank wells in Ireland. 

3 Breg. A plain in co. Meath. 

4 Ultonians. That is, the race of Ir, son of Milesius, who occupied the northern 
half of Ireland. 

5 Alend. The hill of Allen (Knockaulin), near Kilcullen, co. Kildare. 

170 tebcm 


k Poceccaib 1 poeaipmb poc 1 , 

"Remip 2 pecc m-bliaban rh-bicboc 3 ; 
Oc 4 t)un Sobaip6e 5 , 6p in c-pdl, 
"Ra 6 loipc in 7 eerie geldin 7 . 


gabaip eilim 1 co n-5idllaib 
"Rige 2 op hepinb 3 oen 4 bliaoain : 
t)opocaip 5 6llnn 5 co n-dib 
La mac Chlilla 6 Olcdin. 


'QpiTTi 1 noi ni-bliaoan naTnina 3 
Ro^iallao mac Qililla 3 : 
t)opocaip 4 5 ia ^ caD ) 5 a T 1c 5! 11110 ? 
La hdpc Imlec 5 , mac Gllim 6 . 


Gpim 1 p6 2 m-bliaoan pa 06 
t)'Qpc iapum, nf himmap56 3 : 
La "Nuaoaic 4 pdil, piccib bla, 
t)opocaip 5 Qpc Imleca 6 . 


Qibeo 1 Muaoac, popepp 2 lib, 
La bpepp 3 , pigmac Qipc Imlic 4 : 
Cecpi beic bliaona bpfge 5 
"Ropeic 6 "Nuabu 6 [i] nepc pfge. 

k 1. l ~ l Roceccaig paca ippi pob [pacaippi[n] pob?]. 
3 m-bicbog. 4 05. 5 Sobaipci. 6 bo. 7 - 7 cene 
2. l eiim. 2 pigi. 3 epinn. 4 aen. 5 ~ 5 co n-bopcaip eiim. 6 Oililla. 
3. l aipem. 2 namTiida 3 Oililla. 4 co n-bpocaip. 5 Irnlic. 6 eifm. 
4. l aipem. 2 noi. 3 Trnnapgo. 4 Nuaoac. 5 bubpocaip. 6 Imlecba. 
5. l 01010. 2 pep. 3 bpep. 4 Imlis. 5 m-bpi<5e. 6 - 6 bocaic Muaoac. 


1. [B.C.] 

Rothechtaid, who marked out a [carriage] road 1 , 

A space of seven ever-mild years [reigned he] ; [1036] 

At Dun Sobairche, over the brine, 

Burned him the fire of lightning. 


Took Ellim with hostages 

Kingship over Eriu one year : [1029] 

Fell Ellim with distinction 

By the son of Ailill Olcain. 

A tale of nine years only [1028] 

[Was the space] the son of Ailill was obeyed : 
Fell Giallchad, strong the renown, 
By Art Imlech, son of Ellim. 


A tale of six years by two [1019] 

[Was reigned] by Art thereafter, not excessive falsehood ; 
By Nuadu Fail, cause of fame, 
Fell Art Imlecha. 


The fate of Kuadu, it is known to you, 

[It was inflicted] by Bress, royal son of Art Imlech : 

Four decades, years of might, [1007] 

Spent Kuadu [in] power of kingship. 

k. l Road. Rot is said in Cormac's Glossary (sub voce) to signify a track wide 
enough for a chariot. In L.L. (p. 19 b) it is said of Kothechtaid : lp leip appicc 
cappac cetpi n-ec i n-hGynnb ap ctip It is by him was introduced the 
chariot of four horses in Eriu at first. 


172 tebouR 


[k] N61 1 rii-bliat)na bpeppi na 

13 a 3 po mop cpeppia 3 a cpe"n pet>5 ; 
Qit>et> 4 mic Gipc in 5 aipm cptiaib, 
1m 6 mulluc Caipn caipp 7 Chonluam 7 . 


1 Cecpi 1 pdci ptici 1 COG 

Do'nb 2 6ocaib upt>aipc 8 Qpcac : 

t)ocep Gocait) Qca-Luain 

La PITIO, mac bpaca bpacp<5aib. 


bliaoam 1 , pecc m-bliabna 1 po cpf, 
POC placa 2 pint) popmdili : 
Oioet) 3 inb phint) c6cna cl6 4 
La S6cna rii-binb 5 , mac t)peppe e . 


Secna aipegba 1 appaib, 
t)opac 2 cpob bo cec ampaib: 
Cepc pici bliaban cen 3 bp6n, 
Co 4 popiagab 4 la 8im6n. 


Simon bpec, p6 bliabna ap 1 be6c, 
"Rop' 2 6 3 in c-iapla cen 3 anpecc 3 : 
La t)uac pmb, mac 86cna 
puaip ing 5 6ca 5 mac Qebdin 6 . 

6. l noe. 2 na m-bebg 3 - 3 po bo top cpeppi. 4 oioib. 6 inn. 
6 1. 7 ~ 7 caip Connluam. 

1 1. 1-1 ceicpi paici puibi. 2 tm'n, 3 oipbipc. 

2. 1 ~ 1 pemep pecc m-bliat>an. 2 plaicup. 3 01016. 4 gle. 

6 pinb. 6 m-bpepe. 3. l inn Qppait). 2 bupab. 

3 gan. 4 ~ 4 su pupiagab. 4. l ip. 2 - 2 bapi. 3 ~ 3 san 

annpe6c. 4 Sebnai plan. 5 - 3 i[n] cecna. 6 Qe&an. 


6. [B.C.] 

[k] Nine [were] the years of Bress of the [967] 

Great was the force of his strong 
The fate of the son of Art of the hard weapon, 
[Took place] on the summit of winding Cam Chonluain 3 . 


1 Four quarters [of a year] of continuous battles, [958] 

[Were reigned] by the illustrious Eochu Apthach 1 : 
Fell Eochu of Athlone [tured. 

By Finn, son of Brath [Blath, Z. L. 196] the red ves- 


A year [and] seven years by three [= 22] [957] 

[Was] the length of the sovranty of Find Formail : 
The destruction of the same Find [it was] manifest, 
[Took place] by Setna sweet [voice], son of Bress. 


Setna, distinguished he presided, 

He gave stipend 2 to one hundred retainers : 

Just a score of years [reigned he] without sorrow, [935] 

Until he was executed by Simon. 

Simon the Speckled, six years completely [reigned he], [915] 

He was the ruler without injustice : 

By Duach the Fair, son of Setna the perfect, 

Received the son of Aedan the fate of death. 

2 Cam Chonluain." Not identified " (O'Donovan, F.M. i., p. 61). 

I. l Apthach. Destructive; which is explained in L.L. (p. 19 b) : 

Cdm cac mff irma plaic, .1. ba cam bee 'fin bliabam A plague 
(occurred) each month in his reign, that is, twelve plagues in the year. 

2 Stipend. Iff e coffee bojiac cpob b'anifaib i n-hepinn .1. in 
n-appab It is he first gave stipend to retainers in Eriu, namely, the compen- 
sation (L.l!., p. 19 b). 


174 tebcm 


[I] et) 1 beic rh-bliaban co m-blabaib 
TCocaic t)uac, mac lnt>apaib 2 : 
t)opocaip pf Claipe i cac 
ImTTldseHaTniipecac 4 .- 


Ulupebac, mf pop bliabam 
Robo pf co 1 pogiallaib 1 : 
puaip TTIupibac 2 celg cpia 2 cac 
La hGnna, ri-t>ep5 3 mac t)uac 3 . 


in t)a bliat>am tj^c 1 , p6il a pac, 
Ropo 2 pf mac t>e*in t)uac : 
TTIapb, cumnit) 3 cac lipp cumm^ 3 , 
1 Sleib 4 TTlipp co 4 mopbuit)nib. 


Noi 1 m-bliatma, pia^lom p6il 2 bla, 
Lu5t>ac lapnt)ont> 3 , mac 'Gnna: 
t)opocaip 4 in pupi 4 pdn 
IpRaic 5 Chlocaip la Siplam. 


Sfplam pallet) 1 , pludg TTlumnec 2 , 
t)a n-occ 3 m-bliat>na bpecbuibnec : 
puaip a caipbipc 4 [i]pm cpepp 4 
La eocaib 6 n-aipt>aipc n-Udpcepp 5 . 

5. l -pe. 2 Inbappafs. 3 TTlaise. 4 Tnupe&a6. 6. 1 - 1 cop- 
posiallaib. 2 - 2 TTlupet)ac ceilg i. 3 - 3 mac n-bepg n-01iua6. 

m 1. ! t>es. 2 pobo. 3 - 3 cuinsib i cnfp cuiihrifs. 4 - 4 Sleb TTlip la. 
2. l n6e. 2 leip. 3 lapt)uinb. 4 ~ 4 co n-t)pocaip in puipi. 

6 1 cac. 3. i poigeft. 2 TTIuinineac. 3 occ. 4 - 4 coipbepc ipin cpep. 
5 - 5 h6ocai& n-aipbipc n-Uaipcep. 

3 Indaraid. Of the compensation, as in note 2. 

4 Glair. The plain in which stands Duntrileague, co. Limerick. 

5 Mage. "Not identified" (0' Donovan, P.M. i., p. 63). 

6 Treacherous death. Literally, treachery. 


5. [B.C.] 

[1] The space of a decade of years with glories [909] 

Spent Duach, son of [Setna] Indaraid 3 : 
Fell the king of Clair 4 in battle, 
In Mage 5 by Murethach. 


Muredach, a month over a year [899] 

Was he king with many hostages : 
Received Muredach a treacherous death 6 in battle 
By Enna, the ruddy son of Duach. 


111 Two years [and] ten, manifest his felicity, [897] 

Was the son of energetic Duach king : 
Died 1 he let everyone remember a memorable loss 
In Sliab Miss with great multitudes. 


Nine years, let us arrange the manifest fame, [885] 

[Reigned] Lugdach larrdond, son of Enna : 

Fell the great king noble 

In the rath of Clochar 2 by Sirlam. 


Sirlam the Reacher 3 , of the hosts of Munstcr, 

Two octaves of years varied, crowded [reigned he] : [876] 

Received he his fate in the combat 

By the illustrious Eochu TJarchess. 

m. 1 Died. Co n-epbculc be cdm i Sl6ib-mip , co pocaibe m6ip 
imme until he died of plague in Sliab Mis, with a great multitude along with 
[lit., around] him (L.L., p. 20 a). O'Flaherty (Ogygia, Pars in., cap. xxxiii., 
p. 249) says Sliab Mis was in Munster. (It is situated near Tralee. There is 
another mountain of the name in Antrim.) 

2 Rath of Clochar. " Not identified" (O'Donovan, P.M. i., p. 64). In the 
Royal Irish Academy copy of the Ogygia, "C. Tyrone" has been placed on the 
margin (p. 249). In L.L. (p. 20 a) the reading is Rath Clochrain. 

3 Reacher. Ro paiceb a Idm Idp -| pe 'n-a peppom His hand reached 
the floor and he standing (L.L., p. 20 a). 

176 Lebcra 


[m] Goco Udpfcepp 1 , apb a plaic 2 , 

Secc 3 m-bliatma coic pocaemcaic 3 
t)opocaip 4 pf banba ap blait) 5 
"Ri maccaib calma Con^ail. 


Coco 1 ocup 1 Conains co n-ail, 
t)a Tnac Congail copcabaig 2 , 
t)dcap 3 t>a pecc 4 iapla in paic 
Re coic m-bliaban 5 1 complaic 5 . 


P. mfe Cocu 1 pm-mume 1 na 

t)ocep 3 la 3 Lu^ait) Idrnt>ep5 4 ; 
Secc 5 rii-bliabna 5 t>o Lu^ait) lainn 6 , 
lap 7 pm popmubai^ 7 


ii Conain^, mac Con^ail, dec 1 glan, 
Nf 2 pondinnais pf piam 2 ; 
PICI pooaic 3 pop cac lee 3 , 
Co pomapb 4 Qpc, mac Luj5t)ec 5 . 

[P. 47a.] 4. ^mpcep. 2 bla6. 3 - 3 pocaic ceicpi coic bliabna. 

4 5up'coic. 5 co m-blafo. 5. l Gocaio ip. 2 copcupais. 

3 babap. 4 nepc. 5 ~ 5 cepcbliabnaib com&aic. 6. 1 - 1 6ocai6 

piaftmuine. 2 peP5- 3 " 3 "popmusaib. 4 laimt)ep5. 6 ~ 5 occ 

m-bliabna. 6 luint>. 7 " 7 no 511 pupmu5ai&. 

n 1. ! cleac. 2 ' 2 nocop'omnais nee piaam. 3 - 3 pocecc 

ap 506 leac[h]. 4 conupmapb. 5 

4 Varchess. Ot blia&am b6c illorisaip pop muip. Ip aipe acbepap 


[m] Eochus Uarchess 4 , exalted his sovranty, 
Seven years [by] five nobly spent he : 
Fell the renowned king of Banba 
By the [two] brave sons of Congal. 





Eochu and Conang with valour, 
The two sons of Congal the contentious, 
They were two just rulers of felicity, 
[For] the space of five years in co-sovranty. 



Eochu Fair-neck of the heroes, 

Fell he by Lugaid Red-Hand ; 

Seven years [were reigned] by Lugaid the generous, 

After that destroyed him Conang. 



Conang, son of Congal, column shapely 1 , 
Terrified 2 not him a king ever ; 
Twenty [years] spent he [prepared] on every side, 
Until slew him Art, son of Lugaid. 


udipcep be. pop innapba pobaf 6 Siptdm Twelve years [was he] in 
exile on sea. It is for this he is called Uairces [Solitary]. In [lit., upon] ex- 
pulsion he was by Sirlam (L.L., p. 20 a). 

n. * Shapely. Literally, clean. 

2 Terrified. lr aipe acbepce bececlac, uaip nf cdni6 tiaip n-6mam 
no ecla b6 pfam It is for this he was called Little -fearing, for there came not a 
time of fright or fear to him ever (L.L., p. 20a). " According to the Book of Feenag h, 
he held his royal residence at Feenagh, in Magh Rein, in the present co. of Leitrim, 
where he built a beautiful stone fort, within which the monastery of Feenagh was 
afterwards erected" (O'Donovan, F.M. i., p. 66). 

178 tebcm 


[n] Gpc, mac Lugbeft 1 , Iae6t)a a g 
t)liat>am a 3 coic i Cafnbpuim 4 
t)opocaip 5 Gpc 'pm bebuib 6 
La piacpa 7 , mac TTlupebaig. 


TTIac Gipc, oen 1 bliabain be"c 2 baic 
Qilill 3 pint), p6ca in pfp[p]laic 4 : 
t)opocaip 5 i Cac Ot)ba 
La Gpgacmdp 6 imcolma. 


"Rocinpec 1 a ce"im cupab, 
Coco 2 , Lujaib, laec Cupac 3 ; 
Co cent) 4 pecc rh-bliat)an bap 5 pal 

2. l Lui5t>e6. 2 an glumb. 3 crp a. 4 Caenbpuini. 5 co 

copcoip. 6 'f a t)eabai&. 7 piaca. The following quatrain is inserted : 

PIQCQ, mac TTIupebais moip, Fiacha, son of great Muredach, 

Occ m-bliabna im copnaib co- Eight years [were reigned] by Mm 

moil, amidst drinking-horns, 

Co puairi a m-bopmb a bpac Until received he in Borend his doom, 

La hOilill, mac mic Luigbec. By Ailill, son of the son of Lugaid. 

3. l aen. 2 bes. 3 Oilill. 4 plaic. 5 co copcaip. 

6 hQipsebmap. 4. l pocinbpec. 2 606016. 3 TTIuman. 4 cenn. 
5 ap. 6 poinbapbr-ac Qipsecmap. 

3 Caindruim. The Concord, coic-Cainbpuim, shows that the reading is 
i Cainbpuim, not ic Qinbpuim (at Aindinim). For the locality, see e 3, note 3. 

4 Odba. A name, now obsolete, of a mound on the summit of a hill giving 
name to a territory in ancient Meath (0' Donovan, F.M. i., p. 31). 

5 Covenanted. The substance of this and the following quatrain is given more 
clearly in L.L. (p. 20 a). After stating that Ailill the Fair after nine years fell by 
Argatmar, Fiachra and Duach, son of Fiachra, the text proceeds : 

Pecca cac ecep Qpsacmdp -] A battle was fought between Argat- 


[n] Art, son of Lugaid, heroic his descent, 

A year [and] five [reigned he] in Caindruim a 

Fell Art in the combat 

By Fiachra, son of Muredach. 





The son of Art, one year [and] ten of renown, 
Ailill the Fair, the true prince, spent : 
Fell he in the battle of Odba 4 
By Argatmar the very brave. 



Covenanted 5 his chief champions, 
Eochu, Lugaid [Duach], the hero of Munster 6 ; 
To the end of seven years over sea 
Banished they Argatmar. 

piac[p]a Colcpac i n-oenuc 
talcen, coppofmeb pop Qpsac- 
mdp. pecca cat ecuppu i m- 
bpesaib, co copcaip piachpa 
Colcpac 'pui COG pin. 

Cinolaic pip TTluman lap pein 
im 66015, mac Qililla pint) -j im 
Lusaib, mac Gcac piabmume i 
im Duac Labpac co pfl hepim6in. 
Ocup innapbpac Qpsacmdp bap 
muip pi pe.un.m-bliaban. Goco, 
mac Qililla pmb, ppipin pe pin 
hGpenn, co copacc Qp- 
bap muip -j co n-bepna 
pfb pi t)uac Labpac, co copcaip 
leo Cocu i n-oenuc 'One. 

mar and Fiachra Tolcrach in the Fair 
of Teltown, and it went against [lit., 
so that it was broken upon] Argatmar. 
A battle was fought between them in 
Bregia, and Fiachra Tolcrach fell in 
that battle. 

Assemble the Men of Munster after 
tbat around Eocho son of Ailill the 
Fair and around Lugaid, son of Eochu 
Fiadmuine and around Duach Ladrach, 
witb the seed of Heremon. And they 
banished Argatmar over sea for the 
space of seven years. Eocho, son of 
Ailill the Fair, [was] during that space 
in kingship of Eriu, until arrived Ar- 
gatmar over sea and made peace with 
Duach Ladrach, so that there fell by 
them Eochu in the Fair of Ane. 

6 Munster. The Bally-mote reading. The lection of the text is unintelligible 
to me. 

180 lebcm 


[n] 6060, mac Qilella 1 pint) 
"Romapb 2 G 
"Rf 3 Capmuin, Clape ip Cliac 3 , 
1 n-'Gne 4 na n-apmpciac 4 . 


Qpim 1 cpf n-t>6ic Th-bliat>an rh-bdn 2 
"Rosiallat) bo 
"Ropcappac 4 pia 4 
t)uac, Labgaip ip 


o lucent) Lamec 1 po Ifn 

Occ m-bliat)na a bpfg pop 3 bopppab 
t)ocep 4 cpaeb cumnec 5 [in caipn] 5 
La hGet> m-buibnec, mac 

>, mac t)at>uipnn, 6p banba 
'Gpim 1 cpi pecc paepcalma: 
bap pfs Tnaige 2 cpuait) C6cne 
I 3 n-Opp-ptiait) pa \lege na] po6cne 3 . 

5. ! Oililla. 2 ~ 2 pe pe6c m-bliaban a beislfnb. 3 ~ 3 mapb pi Cepmna 
ip Claipe ip Cliac. 4 ~ 4 Qme na n-ittappciac. 6. a aipem. 2 bcm. 
3 Qip5ecmap. 4 ~ 4 pcayipac pe. 5 ppegoil. Here follows a quatrain : 

t)eio m-bliabna t>o t)ua6 iat>- Ten years [were reigned] by Duach 

5Qip, Ladgair, 

Opin n-epinn apbabbail ; In Eriu sublime, extensive ; 

bap in mail mupufs rnaibmig The death of the conquering hero full 

Do taim l/u5t>e6 tanlaisig. [Took place] by the hand of full-active 


o 1. J Laisec. 2 bla&. 3 ap. 4 sup'coic. 5 ~ 5 cuimne6 
m caipn. 2. * aipern. 2 TTluige. 3 ~ 3 015 6p-puaib na 

7 Carmon. See h 3, note 4. 

8 Glair. See 1 5, note 4. 


5. [B.C.] 

[n] Eochu, eon of Ailill the Fair, 

Slew [him] Argatmar the very valorous, 
The king of Carraon 7 , Clair 8 and Cliu 9 , 
In Ane 10 of the armour shields. 


A tale of three decades of years fair [776] 

Was service rendered to Argatmar ; 
Separated [him] from his strong fame pure 
Duach, Ladgair and Lugaid. 


o Lugaid Laidech, who filled the plain 1 [with his fame], 

Eight years [was] his power in defiance : [746] 

Fell the remembered Branch of the Cam 2 
By Aed Buidnech, son of Badorn. 


Aed, son of Badorn, [reigned he] over Banha 

A tale of three sevens noble, excellent : [738] 

The death of the king of hard Magh 3 Cetne, 

[Happened by drowning] in Ess-ruad 4 of the large salmon. 

9 Cliu. The territory of which the capital was Knockany, Co. Limerick. 

10 Ane. Knockany, co. Limerick. 

o. ! Plain. This may be the same as the Clair, or level district, mentioned in 1 5. 

2 Cam. Perhaps the hill which stands near Duntrileague. 

3 Magh. Probably Magh Ene, a plain in co. Donegal, between the Erne and 
the Drowse. In L.L. (p. 20 a) Aed is said to have been king of Tir-Aeda, whence 
Tirhugh (land of [this] Hugh), in which Magh Ene is situated. 

4 Ess-ruad. Red cataract: Assaroe, on the Erne, at Ballyshannon. So called 
from the drowning of this Aed mad (Aed the Red), babub pobdbub 1 
n-Gr-puaib -j co cucab a copp ipr-in r-fb pin. "Unbe Sfb n-Qeba -\ 6pp 
ptiaib Drowning drowned him in Ess-ruad and his corpse was carried into that 
hill [a description of which was doubtless given in the preceding part of the work 
which the compiler employed]. Whence the Hill of Aed and the Red Cataract (L.L., 
p. 20 b). Sith-Aeda is Mullaghshee at Ballyshannon (O'Donovan, F . Jf.i., pp. 70-1). 


[o] tDopocaip 1 t)icopba bonb 
Rip 2 na cuanaib i 3 Coponb: 
pice ip bliabain glcm gle, 
ttf 4 pop 5 pfannaib pdil-lnpe 6 . 


pice 1 ip a pe6c co m-blaib 2 
t)o Chimbdec, m6p mac phincam 3 ; 
Cuiibaec cdem, ce"cplaic 6mna, 
'6c 4 acbac 4 pf poChempa. 


TCemip 1 occ Th-bliat)an co m-blaib* 
t)ia 3 e"ip iapam t>o'n 4 pi^am, 
TTIaca, co 5 m-bepcaib na 
Co 7 popmapb 7 Reccaib 

3. l abpocaip. 

2 leip. 3 a. 

4 ba pi. 5 ap. 6 inbpe. 

4. ipici. 

2 lap 

pin. 3 pinbcain. 

*-* 65 abbac. 

5. l pemep. 

2 m-blofo. 

3 ba. 

4 bu'n. 5 su. 

6 m[-b]ep5. 

" 5 uirmapb. 

5 Corond. A barony in the co. Sligo (0' Donovan, P.M. i., p. 311). 

6 Emain. " Usually latinized Emania, now corrupted in English to the Navan 
Fort (from the Irish an Garhain), a very large rath, situated about two miles to 
the west of Armagh " (O'Donovan, P.M. i., p. 72). Fossis latis, vestigiis murorum 
eminentibus etruderibus pristinum etiamnum redolet splendorem (Ogygia, Pars in., 
cap. xxxvi., p. 258). The traditional derivation is given in L.L. (p. 20 b, 21 a). 
After the death of Dithorba, Queen Macha defeated and banished his five sons into 
Connaught and wedded Cimbaeth. A little after, she got them into her power 
(the strategem is also narrated by Keating) and, according to the text : 

Nopbeip i n-oen cengul 16 me She took them in one gyve with her 

co hUlcu. Qpbecacap Ulaib a to the Ultonians. The Ultonians said 

mapbab. Ni c6, an pipi, ap ip to kill them. Not so, said she, for it i? 

coll pfpplaca bampa, ace a n- a prohibition of a true sovereign for me, 

boipub po bofpe. Ocup claibec but [what shall be done is~] to enslave 

paic immumpa, co pop' hf bap them in [grievous'] servitude. And let 

ppimcacip Ulab co bpac. Co them dig a fort around me, that it may 


[o] Fell Dithorba the noble 

By the multitudes in Corond 5 : 

A score and a year pure, brilliant, 

[Was he] king over the Fenians of Inisfail. 





A score and seven with fame 
[Were reigned] by Cimbaeth, great son of Fintan ; 
Cimbaeth mild, [was] first prince of Emain 6 , 
[Natural] death died the king of great Tara 7 . 



A space of eight years with fame 

After him afterwards [were reigned] by the queen, 

Macha, with feats of heroes, 

Until slew her Rechtaid Red-Arm. 


poc6pamb pi b6ib m bun co n-a be the chief city of the Ultonians to 
heo (.1. bels) 6ip ITTITTI a mum .T. doom. So that marked she for them 
emum .1. eo mum .1. eo ITTITTI a the fort with her circlet (namely, [its] 
mum TTTaca. pin) of gold [that was] around her neck. 

That is, Emuin, namely, circlet of neck : 
to wit, a circlet around the neck of 

Fifty years above 400 hefore the 
Birth of Christ [that happened]. And 
another fifty years ahove 400 [elapsed] 
from the Birth of Christ to the destruc- 
tion of Emain of [Queen] Macha hy 
the three Collas, after gaining [lit.. 
hreaking] the hattle of Achad-Leithderg, 
in Farney [co. Monaghan], in which 
fell Fergus Foga, son of Fraichar the 
very strong, the last prince of the 
Ultonians in Emain of Macha. 

For the chronology, which is erroneous hy more than a century in the A.M., 
as in the A.D., period, see Lecture III. 

7 Tara. Here employed to signify the king of all Ireland. 

C6ic[a] bliaban ap .cccc. pia 
ri-5em Cpipc. Ocup .1. bliaban 
aile ap .cccc. o gem Cpipc co 
cuppcup emna TTIaca bo Tia cpi 
Collaib, lap Tii-bpippiub coca 
Qcaib-leicbeips, i pepnmais, i 
copcaip pepsup Posa, mac ppai- 
caip popcpen, ciugplaic Ulab i 
n-6mam TTIaca. 



[o] TCeccaib, pocaic picic 
TTIac Lu^bec Laibi^ 2 
"Rf Clocaip ip Chinb 3 
t)opocaip 4 la 


p "Ugame maic 1 , [mop] miab 1 fi- 
plaic cecpi beic bagbliaban 3 , 
"Nf cian 4 , op bpuinne 5 in 

buille babbcaca 6 . 


t)a bliabain Lae^aipe Luipc 
Ippige 1 op banba bpecbuic 2 ; 
Ralocpab 3 in cpaeb cen col 4 
La Cobcac 5 cael i Capmon. 


Cobcac 1 , c6ic 2 beic bliabna rh-budn 3 
Ropiapab in pf popdab, 
Co 4 poloipc 4 cene ipm 5 cig 5 , 
Ic 61 na 6 plebe ic 7 Labpaib. 

6. l pen. 2 - 2 Laigib, lanpeil. 3 cint). 4 co n- 

p 1. 1-1 mop Tniat). Overhead is placed, alia manu, maifc, with corre- 
sponding marks, to show it was to be inserted after mop. 2 n-al. 3 n-oei5- 
bliaban. 4 balb. 5 bpuinni. 6 - 6 gup'mapb builli babbca&a. Here 
a quatrain is given : 

babbcao, bab pi bermp cac, Badbchadh,hewasakingthatwinsbattle, 

Scampeac, consalac, coccac, Fearful, brave, warlike, 

Qenlaici co leic a linb, One day with a half [was] his comple- 

5up'mapb Loesaipe op boairib. Until slew [him] Loegaire over the Boyne. 

2. Mppi^i. 2 blacbuf5. 3 - 3 bolocpa&. 4 sep'col. 5 Copcac. 

3. ! Copcac. 2 pe. 3 m om. 4 ^ gup'loipc. 5 - 5 call 'n-a 

6 na om. 7 la. 

8 Clochar and of Cend Maige {head of the Plain]. Clogher, co. Tyrone, which 
was anciently the head, or capital, of Magh Lemna, the plain occupied by the 
Airghialla. Hence the latter expression is employed to fill up the line. 

p. l [River] brink of Bregha. In L.L. (p. 22 a) the place is said to be Telach 


6. [B.C.] 

[o] Kechtaid, spent he twenty vigilant [years], [661] 

Son of Lugaid Laidech the full-vigourous, 
King of Clochar and of Cend Maige 8 , 
Fell he by Ugaine. 


p Ugaine the good, [great] pure dignity, 

Prince [was he] four decades of good years, [64 1] 

Not long [thereafter], over the [river] brink of Bregha 1 , 
Slew [him] a stroke of Badbchath. 


Two [were] the years of Laeghaire Lore [601] 

In kingship over Banba diversified, gentle; 
Destroyed was the branch without fault 
By Cobthach the Slender in Cannon 2 . 


Cobthach, five [times] ten years lasting [599] 

"Was served the king very illustrious, 
Until burned 3 [him] fire in the house, 
A-partaking of the banquet with Labraid. 

in choseair (Hill of victory), in Magh Mairedu, in Bregia. The locality, accord- 
ing to 0' Flaherty, was Kill-droicheat on the estuaiy at Drogheda (Ogygia, Pars in., 
cap. xxxviii., p. 261). This O'Donovan (F.M. i., p. 75) was unable to correct. 
Not so, however, Dr. Eeeves: who, in an admirable note (Adamnan, pp. 108-9), 
shows that Magh Maireda was Moymurthy, near Gormanstown, where the Delvin, 
on the brink of which the Hill probably stood, flows into the sea. 

2 Cannon. See li 3, note 4. 

3 Burned. A different cause is assigned in L.L. (p. 22 a, b) : 

Dopoccup cpa Cobcac Cael Now, fell Cobthach the Slender Hand- 
bpea<5 i n-Dinbpfs -\ .?. pTg some in Dinnrig [Mound of Slane, d 1, 
imbi, at>ai5 Noclac m6p, la note 1, supra] and thirty kings along 
l/abpait) Longpec, i n-bfsail a with [lit., around] him, the eve of 
acap i a penacap [p. 22 b]. "Un. Great Christmas, by Labraid the 
rh-bliutma i .ccc. bliat>an o'nt> Mariner, in revenge of his father and 
cnbci pin copfin mt>ce inpoge- of his grandfather. Seven years and 
naip Cpipc i m-becliil luba. three hundred years from that night to 

the night in which was born Christ in 
Bethlehem of luda. 

186 lebcm 


[p] Labpait) Loin'spec 1 laec, pocaic 
l\loi bliatma t)6c co 2 t^gmaic: 
Labpait) l>6ppe 3 copin 4 m-blai6, 
TComapb 5 Tnelge 5 , mac Cobcaij. 


TCocaic 1 TTlelse, maic a If, 
Secc m-bliat)Tia b6c 2 , ba 3 t>65pf ; 
t)opocaip 4 , t>apbopt) cia b6 4 , 
'8m cac la 5 Tnogcopb Cldipe. 


TTloscopb 1 a TTluTnain cen 2 
TTlac 3 mic 12eccait)[e] 
t)ocep 4 coembopp 4 Cintunapa 
La Oen^up 5 , hua Labpat>a 5 . 


Oengup 1 Ollam, a hocc t)6c 2 , 
t)opac 3 pocc pop 4 pltjag paep 
t)ocep pf 6t>ne 6 cen 7 ail 
La mac meil^e 8 , mic Cobcaig. 


TTlac TTIelse 1 , Ipipeo 2 dn, 
"R6mip occ 3 m-bliaban bicldn 4 : 
La 5 pepcopbb 5 , mac TTlosacinpb, 
t)ocep pf bpoga 6 in bpect>uipnt) 6 . 

4. l ioinspeac. 2 pa. 3 beppai. 4 gupm. 5 - 5 bomapb TTIeilge, 
5. l bocaic. * beg. 3 a. 4 4 nocon copcaip 511 bopb be. 5 le, 
6. 1 TTloocopb. 2 - 2 gan Tneips. 3 ~ 3 a hocc bo Keccaig "Ri[5]beps, 
*- 4 sup'coic caembop. 5 - 5 hdensup o iabpaoa. 

q 1. l Qengup. 2 beg. 3 polai. 4 cap. 5 5P e 5- 6 6li. 
7 gan. 8 TTIel5e. 2. J Tllelji. 2 lapepeo. 3 pecc. 

4 m-biclan. 5 - 5 pe pepcopb. 6 ' 6 i[n] bposa bpecbuipb. 


4. [B.C.] 

[p] Labraid the Mariner, the hero, spent he 

Nine years [and] ten excellently well : [549] 

Labraid of Berr with fame, 

[Him] slew Melge, son of Cobthach. 


Spent Melgc, excellent his splendour, 

Seven years [and] ten, he was a good king ; [530] 

Fell he, haughty though he was, 

In the battle by Mogcorb of Glair 4 . 


Mogcorb from Munster, without defect, 
Son of the son of Rectaid Red- Arm, 
Fell the fair column of Cendmara 5 
By Oengus, grandson of Labraid. 


q Oengus Ollam, eight [years and] ten [reigned he], [513] 

Imposed he silence upon the noble shouting host ; 
Fell the king of Eli 1 without offence 
By the son of Meilge, son of Cobthach. 


The son of Meilge, Irireo noble, 

A space of eight years ever-full [reigned he] : [495] 

By Fercorb, son of Mogcorb, 

Fell the king of Brag 2 of the speckled fist. 

4 Glair. See 1 5, note 4. 

5 Cendmara. Head of the sea ; Kenmare, co. Kerry. 

q. x Eli (the Bally mote reading). There were two territories so called 
Ely 0' Carroll in the King's County and Eliogarty (Eili-Ua-Fhogartaigh), co. 

2 Brug. Perhaps, Brugh-righ, Bruree, co. Limerick. 




[q] bliabam ap 1 a t>eic t)' phip6opb, 
TCopo 2 puienec a pf^bopub 3 : 
Dopobbab 4 inn 5 omna apb, 
Gpponblis 6 Conla 


Q cecaip 1 pa 1 661 c cen 2 ceo 
Remip 3 ipbaipc Ipepeo 3 ; 
'Sin 4 Uempaig mo^Da cen maip 4 
Qcbac Conla 5 hua 5 


C61C 1 bliaona picec ppia 2 pe 2 

Qilella 3 'n-a 

Gmacaip 4 , mac phip6uipp 5 caipp 6 , 

'6 7 poglacc m ouipb 


tteic 1 ni-bliaoTia po cpt 
TTlac pipcuipp 3 1 co[e]mpi5e 4 ; 
Oocep la 6o6aib 5 co n-dib 
Qmacaip 6 plibaip polccdm. 


P. 129 a r pice 1 ace p6 bliaona ap blab 1 

ba pf Goco 8 aiclecan 2 , 
Co copcaip, c[p]fap inn-a cai 
La Pep^up pial popcainail. 

3. 1 pop. 2 pobo. 3 pf^opt). * po cpap cpa6. 6 in. 

6 - 6 peib nopblis Connla cleacsaps. 4. 1 - 1 ceataip po. 2 5011. 

3 - 3 bo mac aipbipc lepepeo. 4 4 1 Cempai$ monsmaic btrnmaig. 

5 - 5 Connlaeo ua. 5. l pe. 2 " 2 pipi. 3 ~ 3 pe Oililla i n-aipbpigi. 
4 abamaip. 5 pipcufpb. [P. 47b.] 6 cafp. 7 ip e. 

8 n-bpecmmp. 6. l pe. 2 cuilce. 3 ptpcuipb. 

4 caempige. 5 hGocaio. 6 Qbamaip. 


3. [B.C.] 

[q] A year above ten [was reigned] "by Fercorb, [437] 

Shining was his royal rule : 
Destroyed was the lofty oak, 
When Conla, the strong prop, demanded the debt 3 . 


Four by five [years] without obscuration, [476] 

[Was] the space of the illustrious [son of] Irereo ; 
In Tara spacious without delay 
Died Conla, . grandson of Cobthach. 


Five years [and] twenty [were] in the span [456] 

Of Ailill in his arch-kingship ; 

Amathair, son of Ferchorp the curled, 

He [it was] that took off the hero f air-visaged. 


Ten years by three in [431] 

[Was] the son of Ferchorp in excellent kingship ; 
Fell by Eochaid with honour 
Amathair Flidais the beauteous-haired. 


r Twenty, except six years 1 , with fame 
Was Eocho Altlethan king, 
Until fell he, west in his house, 
By Fergus Fortamail the liberal. 

p I. 1 - 1 cpi bliatma bee, baca in bla&. z ~ 2 in c-GocaiO Polclecan. 
3 i n-a ci. 

3 Demanded the debt. Fercorb had slain Irereo, the father of Conla. 
p. l Twenty, except six years. This periphrasis for fourteen is employed to make 
up the requisite number of syllables in the line. 


190 Lebcm 


[r] Pep^up 1 , pnaip 6en bliabain 
TTlaic popfapab 2 in poj^c 2 . 
t)ocep, bit) cumnec in 3 cac, 
La Oen^up 4 Gupmec 4 Cempac 


picie bliat>an co 1 m-blait) 1 
tD'Oengup 2 Cupmec i 2 Gempais: 
t)a pnfin pi 3 cuane Cntnc t)pe5 3 , 
; 6c 4 ptg Cuage ip Calcen 4 . 


Ctfic 1 bliat)na 'n-a p6 cuppac 1 , 
Con all cialla 2 Collonripac 2 : 
"Nia Se^amam 3 pomt5t)ai5 3 , 
pep 4 pepainail pint)cot>ail. 


puaip "Nia Sesamum 1 a pecc 
Op in& 2 '6pmt> cen anbpecc 2 : 
t)opocaip 3 in cappoec capp 3 
La hGnna n-Qipsbec 4 n-amnapp 4 . 


Onna dipsbec', apt)b 2 a blab 3 , 
"Rocaic ceqii c6ic bliaban 4 : 
"Rf banba, bocep i 5 cac 
La Cpnncant) calma Copcpac 6 . 

2. l peapsup. 2 - 2 bopiapab ipposeg. 3 1. *- 4 haengup 

Gtnpbig. 3. 1 - 1 ap blai&. 2 - 2 Qensup Cuipbig a. 

3 ~ 3 pe cuaine cnuic bpeas. 4 ~ 4 65 pi Cuai&i ip Caillcen. 

4. 1 ~ 1 Cappai& pecc m-bliatma san bpac. 2 - 2 calma Collampac. 

3 - 3 Seasamaip popceo&am. 4 cpiac. 5. l Sesamaip. 2 - 2 n-epirm 
5011 anpe6c. 3 - 3 co copcaip in cappce6 cap. 4 - 4 n- 



[r] Fergus, received he one year [and] ten, 
Well was obeyed the excellent branch. 
Fell he, remembered be the battle, 
By Oengus Turmech of Tara. 




Three score of years with fame 

[Were reigned] by Oengus Turmech in Tara : 

It was anguish to the multitudes of the Hill of Brcgha 2 , 

The death of the king of Tuadh 3 and of Tailtiu*. 


Five years in his span with felicity [316] 

[Reigned] Conall Collomrach the judicious : 
Nia Segamain destroyed [him], 
A man 5 brave [and] very loyal. 


Received Nia Segamain seven [years in kingship] [311] 

Over Eriu without injustice : 

Fell the charioteer curled 

By Enna the Raider the cruel. 


Enna the Raider, exalted his fame, 
Spent he four [times] five years : 
The king of Banba> fell he in battle 
By Crimthand brave, the conqueror. 


n-airmap. 6. l Qibne6. 

3 bla&. 4 bliabna. 5 a. 

2 Hill of Bregha.Th&i is, the Hill of Tara. 

3 Tuadh. Probably, the Tuath-Luighne, the barony of Lune, co. Meath. 
6, notes 5, 7. 

4 Tailtiu. See e 6, note 7. 

5 A man. Namely, Nia Segamain. 


192 iebcm 


s Ceepi 1 bliabna Cpimcainb caipp 2 
'Op int> 3 h6pmt) iTnrnelftlaip 3 : 
t)ocep 4 pf cumpaibe in caipn 4 
t)e 5 laim Rubpai^e 6 po^aipb*. 


TCubpaije 1 , pf pdil co 2 in-blaib 2 , 
Secc oei6 bliabna t>e 3 bliat>naib 
bpac ip 4 b6c 4 t>o 5 banba 
'6c 6 acbac i 


In 1 pmcaic TTldp 1 a TTluTnain maic, 
Q n6i t>o'n 2 cupat) 2 combaic; 
t)opo6aip 3 , map popfpat) 4 , 
Lapin Tfi-bpepal iti-t)ot)fbat) 5 . 


bpepal 1 bot)ibac co becc 1 , 
N6i 2 rii-bliat)na 6p h6pmt) a nepc 2 ; 
t)ocep 3 pf Cualfisne 'con cpaic 3 , 
t)o 4 Idim Luagne, mic phincaic 4 . 

8 I. 1 ceicpi. 2 caip. 3 - 3 an epinn eo6apslap. *- 4 
cpaeb cubpaioi in caipn. 6 bo, 6 - 6 TCugpaibi in 

2. l "Rugpaibi. 2 - 2 511 ppaio. 3 bo. 4 ' 4 om. ; if is placed on 

margin. 5 bo'n. 6 - 6 05 abbac i n-Qipsecslenb. 

3. ^Pinbab ITlap. 2 - 2 bu'n cupaib. 3 con-bopcep. 

4 bopipao. 6 m-bobiobao. 4. 1 - 1 bpeppal, bliabain pop a beic. 

2-2 ai1 p ia nnaib pail ba cuingio. 3 ' 3 gup'cep pi Guaiof 'pa cpoi6. 

4 - 4 le Lug Luaism, mac Inbotb. 

s. l Cam. I do not know what mound is here intended. 

2 Doom and evil. Hendiadys for evil doom (to make up a heptasyllabic line). 

3 [JR%Ma].ba! cpd TCubpaige .l,r;r. bliaban hippise, co n-epbailc 




s Four [were] the years of Crimthancl the accomplished 
Over Eriu the green-bordered : 
Fell the king pleasant of the Cam 1 
By the hand of Rudraige the very stern. 




Rudraige, king of [Inis]fail with fame, 

Seven [times] ten years of years [reigned he] : [280] 

Doom and evil 2 [was it] to Banba pleasant, 

[Plague 3 ] death died he in Argatglend 4 . 


The great Fintait from Munster good, 

Nine years [were reigned] by the champion active ; [210] 

Fell he, as hath been certified, 

By Bressal of the Cow-plague 3 . 


Bressal of the Cow-plague with perfection, 
Nine years over Eriu [was] his power ; 
Fell the king of Cualgne 6 at the contest, 
By hand of Luagne, son of Fintat. 


bo cdm i n-Qpsacslint) Now was Kudraige seventy years in kingship, until 
died he of plague in Argatglend (L.L., p. 23 a). 

4 Argatgknd. Silver-glen. " This was the name of a glen in the barony of 
Farney, in the county of Monaghan" (O'Donovan, P.M. i., p. 84). 

5 Cow-plague. Cdmc btc t>o btiaib, conna c6pna bfb a6c capb ~\ 
r-amair-c i fi-S^inb-pamaipce There came murrain to kine, so that the:e 
escaped not of them except a bull and heifer in Gknd-Samaisse (L.L., p. 23 a). 
"Gleann Samhaisg, or Glen of the Heifer, is the name of a remarkable valley in 
the county of .Kerry, where this tradition is still vividly remembered" (O'Donovan, 
F.M. i., p. 86). 

6 Cualgne. Cooley, a district in the north of co. Louth, well known as the 
scene of the Cattle-Raid of Cualgne (Tain-bo Cuailgne), in which figured Cuchullain, 

heros Scotorum. 

194 teboR ten gen. 


[s] lu^ait) 1 Lua^ne 1 , I6ip 2 a blab, 
Gen 3 buabpe 3 cpi c6ic bliatma ; 
t)opocaip 4 hua Gipc 4 
t)o glaic Con^ail 


Congal, c6ic bliatma 

t)o mac Ruopais 

Lapn 3 t)uac, t>mle6 4 t)etait) 4 , 

ocup cpomt)ebait) 5 . 


t thiac, t>alca tJetJaig 1 , int) 
Ippffte 2 op Cempaig 
"N6i 4 rti-bliatma b'a 5 pmacc nrnnac 6 , 
Copomapb 7 paccna pacac. 


paccna, pici, ace a cecaip 1 , 
t)o mac TCoppa ippig 2 becait> 2 ; 
La Gcaib 3 peibli^, mac Pmb, 
t)ocep m pf t>e 4 puat> pint) 4 . 


"R6 1 t>a bliat>an t)6c, buan bpec 1 , 
"Ro^i allab 2 Goco 2 pemlec ; 
Ipin Cempai^ morisaic 3 , maic, 
puaip t>i5 4 conait) in c-apt)plaic. 4 

4 " 4 t>alca 

t 1. 1- 
6 amac. 7 513 pupmapb. 2. T ceacaip. 2 ~ 2 

2 lep. 3 ~ 3 , 5011 buaibpe. 
6 Claipin 51115. 6. x bes. 2 
ocup saipgbebaift. 
2 'n-u pf. 3 confcbam. 

co n-oopcerp 
. 3 lapan. 

t>eic. 5 to. 
. 3 h6ocai&. 

4 - 4 bu popinb. 

3. 1 - 1 ba pe ni-bliaban, buan i[n] bpeac. 


5. [B.C.] 

|_s] Lugaid Luagnc, manifest his fame, 

Without molestation [reigned he] thrice five years ; [192] 

Fell the grandson of Art Imlech 
By hand of Congal Flat-face. 


Congal, five reputable years [and] ten [H7] 

[Were reigned] by the son of very great Rudraige ; 
By Duach, fosterling of Dedach, 
Received he reverse and heavy destruction. 


t Duach, fosterling of Dedach, of the good fortune, 
In kingship over haughty Tara [succeeded he] : 
Nine years of his sway [had passed] away 1 , [162] 

When slew [him] Fachtna the Prophet. 


Fachtna, twenty [years], except four 2 , [ 153 1 

[Were reigned] by the son of Ross in royal life ; 

By Eocho Feidlech, son of Find, 

Fell the king by the red [spear-]point. 


The space of two years [and] ten, abiding decision, [137] 

Was obeyed Eocho Feidlech ; 

In Tara grassy, excellent, 

Received the arch-prince a drink of death 3 . 

2 - 2 popiapao 6ocai6. 3 1710115015. 

t. l Away. Literally, out. 

2 Twenty [years], except four. Cf. r 1, note 1. 

3 Drink of death. 'Co cicbac l C em p 015 [Natural] death died he in 
Tara {.., p. 23 a), 



[t] C61C 1 btiabna be"c t>6 iap pin 1 , 
t>'6ocaib 2 bice, t)ia 2 bpdcaip : 
"Noco 3 bp6c in pce"l 3 t>ia clainb, 
TCaloipc 4 cene i 5 ppernamb 5 . 


eceppcel 1 , pep pi^ba in pair 1 , 
puaip 2 c6ic bliat>na co bicmaic 2 ; 
t)ocep pf na peer bo pint) 
La 3 Nuabaic 3 Ne6c i n-Qlinb 4 . 


Qibeb 1 Nuabae i car Chlfac 
La Conaipe 2 na c6empciac 3 : 
Nf* po6aic 4 a6c t)a pdce 5 
1 plaic 6 hGpent) apt)bldce 6 . 


u Gpbplaic Conaipe pop cd6, 
Secc h-beic rh-bliabna 1 co 
bdp pfg 2 nallaec 'p 1 ^ t)pubm 2 
La Incel 3 cae6, cpecbulig*. 

4. 1 - 1 puaip cpi coic bliabna 'an blai&. 2 " 2 Co6ai& Oipem a. 

3-3 nfp'bpes in reel e. * no sup'loipc. 5 ' 5 a ppemamn. 

5. 1-1 puaip Gceppcel i poit> paic. 2 - 2 bliabain ap coicbo'n caemplair. 
3-3 le Nuabu. 4 Qillint). 6. l 01616. 2 Conaipi. 3 caempciac. 
4-4 nocup'caic. 5 paici. 6 ' 6 plaicup Gpenn apbblaici. 

u 1. 1 ~ 1 m-bliabna po bicblac. 2 - 2 pi na laec a m-bpuibin. 

3 hdmscel. 4 cpecpuilig. 

4 Burned. Sru small poloipc i ppemainb Siugmall burned [him] in 
Fremand (L.L., 23 a). 

6 Fremand. " It is now called, anglice, Frewin and is applied to a lofty hill rising 
over the western shore of Loc Uaip, anglice, Lough Owel, in the townland of Watts- 
town, parish of Portlemon and county of Westmeath" (O'Donovan, F.M. i., p. 89). 

6 Alend. See j 6, note 5. L.L. (p. 23 a) adds : 

lp hf peo cpa arnpep inpose- Now, this is the time in which was 
naip Cpipc, mac 06 bf, bo bom Christ, son of the living God, to 
ceppapgain in ciniuba boenbai. deliver the human race. 

7 Cliu. In Ui-Drona (barony of Idi'one, co.Carlow), according to L.L. (p. 23 a). 


4. [B.C.] 

[t] Five years [and] ton [were reigned] by him after that, [125] 
[Namely] by Eocho Bithe, by his brother 
Not false the tale for his children, 
Burned 4 him fire in Fremand 5 . 


Eterscel, royal person of felicity, 

Received he five years of constant goodness; [ 110 1 

Fell the king of equities by [spear]-point 

By Nuadu Necht in A lend 6 . 


The destruction of Nuadu [took place] in the battle of Cliu 7 
By Conaire of the beauteous shields : 
Spent he not except two quarters [of a year] 
In sovranty of very blooming Eriu. 


11 The arch-prince Conaire, over everyone [ruled he] 
Seven [times] ten years with excellent customs : 
The death of the king of heroes [took place] in the Bruden 1 
By Incel One-eye 3 , the plunder-minded. 

u. l Bmden. In the Togail Bruidne Da Derffa, or Demolition of the Court 
of Da Derga (a tale in L.TT. \Lebar na hllidri : Book of the Dun (Cow], an llth 
cent. MS.]), we are told that the Bruden stood on both sides of the Dodder (near 
Duhlin). King Conaire, after returning from slaying a number of the outlaws 
who had surrounded the Court, asked for a drink. Ni ptfapacap na beoftbaipe 
big b6 ipiri ftocpae (.1. abanb) -\ poboi in Docpa cpiapin ceo The 
drinkbearers found not drink for him in the Dothra (namely, a river), although 
[lit., and'] the Dothra ran [lit., was] through the house (p. 97 b, 11. 4,5). The 
place is at present called Boher-na-breena (Bothar na bruidhne Road of the 

2 One-eye. Literally, blind. The reason is thus given in L. U. (p. 84b, U. 21-3). 
pep anrmn, m6p, tiacmap, A man rough, gross, repulsive, un- 

anaicmb in c-lri5ce~l. 'Oen puil natural [was] that Ingcel. One eye in 
i n-a cinb ; lecibip tmrnpece, his head ; larger than an oxhide, 
buibicip bescub -] cpi maic ITYI- blacker than a chafer ? and three pupils 
leppen ince. in it. 

He is said (ib., 11. 19, 20) to have been the son of Ua Chonnmic, of the Britons. Of 



[u] C6ic bliabna bo 1 Chernpais cpicc 2 
Cen 3 pupis h-bebftaip 3 , ii-bi cm slice, 
Co 4 n-6ppacc 4 Lugaib, [S]pfabribep5 5 
Ro po 6 calcaip a cpenpebg 6 . 


Q pe" pi6ec bo Lugaib, 
Co n-ebailc bo cpom6uTnaib. 
Concobap, bliabain a 1 banb 1 , 
"No 3 co copcaip 2 la Cpimcanb. 


CpiTKiccmb 1 cdem cliapa6, pocaic 1 
86 bliabna t)6c co 2 besmaic 3 , 
Co 3 n-6bailc aicle a eccpa 3 
TTlac Lugbec in laecpecca 4 . 

2. * bu'n. 2 epic. 3 ~ 3 gan puipi n-begaip. 4 " 4 co n-beppacc. 
5 Spiabnbeps. 6 - 6 bo puicpea6 a pispeps. 3. l ~ l bai anb. 

2 - 2 no 50 bpocaip. 4. l ~ l bocaic CpiTnfcann, m bpeg bum. 

2 ~ 2 5011 bubpun. 3 ~ 3 puaip [bap] a haicli pe6ca. The bracketted 

word, which is necessary for the meaning, is written, alia, manu, on the margin. 
4 Icmcpecca. 

the passages of the Togail, respecting which Windisch (Irische Texte, p. viii.) observes 
. Wofinden sick sonst nock solche Angaben ?, the following maybe quoted : [In going 
to attack the Court, each man brought a stone to make a mound.] 

Qp bfb pdcaib bopispec a capnb For two reasons made they a mound : 
.1. ap ba bep capnb la bibeps -\ namely, for it was a custom [to make] 
bano co pincafp a n-epbaba oc a mound in a raid, and moreover that 
bnubin. Cac oen nocicpab pldn they might know their losses at Bruden. 
tjabi, nobepab a cloic apin capnb. Each one that would come safe there- 
Co papccaip imoppo cloc m locca from used to. carry a stone from the 


2. [B.C.] 

[11] Five years for active Tara [35] 

Without an arch-king befitting, perfectly prudent, 
Until reached [it] Lugaid Red- stripe, 
Vigorous was his strong domination. 


Six [and] twenty [years were reigned] by Lugaid, [30] 

Until perished he of heavy grief 3 . 

Conchobar, a year [was] his span, [4] 

Until fell he by Crimthand. 


Crimthand of the splendid hosts, spent he 

Six years [and] ten with exceeding goodness, [3] 

Until perished on the morrow of his faring 4 

The son of Lugaid the heroic. 

no mcnppicip occi. Comb appin mound. But they left on it the stone[s] 
popeppacdp a n-epbaba. of the folk that were killed. So that 

from that they knew their losses. 

3 Heavy grief. Cop6cnp 'ma claibeb pein bi cumaib a mud fell he 
on his own sword for grief of his wife (L.L., p. 23 a). 

4 Expedition. Explained in L.L. (p. 23 b) : 

lp 6 bocoib i n-eccpa a Dtin It is he went on a faring from the 
Criimcainb pe Nafp, baripfbaise, Fort of Crimthand [the site of the 
co m-boi coicci5ip pop mfp ant>. Bailie lighthouse, Howth], with Nair, 
Co cue peocu imba leip, imou the banshee, and he was a fortnight 
cetppac n-opba i imon pibcill oiji over a month thereon. And \lit. 9 so 
~\ mion ceccus (.i.lem) Cpimcaint). that] he brought valuables numerous 
Co n-epbailc iap ciaccam im- with him, including [#., around] the 
mui5, 1 cint) c6icci5ip ap mfp, golden chariot and including the chess- 

board of gold and including the cetach 
(that is, tunic) of Crimthand. And he 
died after coming to land, at the end 
of a fortnight above a month. 

200 tebcm 


[u] Lan pf Copppi Chinbcaiec 1 cptiaiu 
Op in Cempaig eailc, eonbbtiain : 
Cofc bliabna a pac ap 2 in paint) 2 , 
'6e 3 acbac 3 acaip TYlopainb. 


TTlaic placiup 1 pepabaig pint), 
pice ip 2 a t)6 a ba^ 2 lint) : 
lp 3 bee cumnec 4 ilLeic Chuinn 4 , 
'6c 5 uf 


bliat)na pt^e coppac 1 
t)'epmt) po 2 nipc phiacac 2 ; 
La piacai5 Pint), bu 8 dip peptm 3 , 
t)opocaip 4 pf poemna 5 . 


p. 129 b ba 1 pf piacna 2 pop ptannaib 

Q pecc 3 t)6c t>o t>a5 4 bliabnaib ; 
t)ocep iTTi 5 TTlais bol^s bappglapp 5 
La 6llim 6 opt), imaTTinapp 6 . 

5. l cmbcafc. 2 ~ 2 op in point). 3 ~ 3 eg abbac. 6. l 

2 - 2 bliabain a t>ei5. 3 ba. 4 ~ 4 cuimneac pe ieac Cuinb. 6 ~ 5 eg ua 
Luiged a Liacbpuim (Died tlie grandson, etc.). 

v 1. n ba bliabain b[pige ?] gan bpac. 2 - 2 pa pagail piaeac. 

3 - 3 puaip pebba. 4 co copcaip. 5 poCempa. 2. l Ian. 2 piaco.. 
3 re. 4 beig. 5 " 5 a Tlluig balg bappglap, 6 ~ 6 hGltm n-apb n-imamnap. 

5 ]if or and. The brehon of Feradach the Fair. ' ' This Moran had a sid, or chain, 
called Idh Morainn [chain of Morann], which, when put around the neck of a 


5. [A.D.] 

[u] Full king [was] Corpri of the Cat-head repulsive 
Over Tara strong, firm-founded: 

Five years [was] his felicity from his portion, [13] 

[Natural] death died the father of Morand 5 . 


Good [was] the sovranty of Feradach the Fair, 
Twenty and two his good complement : r 18 -i 

It is a disaster to be remembered in the Half of Conn 6 , 
The death of the grandson of Lugaid in Liathdruim 7 . 


Three years of kingship with felicity [40] 

[Were] for Eriu under the power of Fiachra ; 
By Fiacha the Fair, it was manly destruction, 
Fell the king of great Tara 1 . 


King was Fiachna over the Fenians 

Seven [and] ten of good years ; [43] 

Fell he in Magh Bolg green-surfaced 

By Ellim the haughty, very cruel. 

guilty person, would squeeze him to suffocation, and when put about the nock of 
an innocent person would expand so as to reach the earth " (O'Donovan, P.M. i., 
p. 95, from the Lebar-Gabala or Book of Occupation [of Ireland]). 

6 Half of Conn. The northern moiety of Ireland, so-called (by prolepsis in this 
place) from Conn of the Hundred Battles (w 1, infra}. 

7 Liathdruim. Grey ridge, a name for the Hill of Tara. See e 2, note 3. 
T. x Great Tara. The Ballymote reading. 

Magh Bolg. " Now Moybolgue, a parish in the south-east of the county Cavau 
and extending into Meath" (O'Donovan, P.M. i., p. 98). 



[v] Qpim 1 oa n-beic b'Gpinb din 
TCoboppeic 2 eilrni 2 imldm : 
Rf cptiaib Cnuca 3 , i cac Qicle 
ptiaip cpuca 4 ocup cpenaicbe 4 . 


Cuacal cpen, cpica 1 pocecc, 
TCocenb cpioa 2 cpf coemnepc 2 ; 
1pm cpepp 3 , pop 3 Idp Line, 
Romapb TTIdl, mac ~R6cpibe 4 . 


Cecpi bliabna pocecc 1 Uldl, 
"Romapb 2 peibliTnio imndp 3 , 
a n6i [pei6limib 4 ], ip 5 pfp pin, 
Na 6 co n-epbailc mac Cuacail. 


Q 1 p6 picec 1 cen cacaip cpaic, 
("No: cpi bliabna cen cacaip cpaic) 
"Rocaic. Cacaip, hua 2 Comaic; 
t)opocaip 3 pf Cuage 4 cep 
La 5 p6in Luagne nalluamclepp 5 . 

3. ! pernep . 2 " 2 poypet) nepc Glfm. 3 Cnuci. *~ 4 cpiuci ip 

cyioTTiaipe. 4. l cpica. 2 ' 2 cpica 50 comnepc. 3 ~ 3 cac ap. 

4 TJocpai&e. [P. 48 a.] 6. l pocaic. 3 gup'mapb. 3 pipndp. 

4 pei&lnmb. 5 Om. It is hypermetrical. 6 no. 6. 1-1 cpi bliabna. The 

alternative reading of L. 2 ua. 

5 - 5 le Conn l/uaisni na luac[c]pep. 

3 bubpocaip. 

4 Cuaibi. 

2 Cnucha. Castleknock, near Dublin. 

3 Aichil. The ancient name of the hill of Skreen [Shrine of St. Colum-ciHe], a 
little to the south-east of Tara. 

4 Magh Line. Oopocaip cpa Cuacal i n-t)6lapaibe, imTTlonai in caca 
cpia cansnacc, bale appa m-bpucca Olop ~\ Olapba. Now fell Tuathal 
in Dalaraide [a territory comprising the greater part of co. Antrim] in the Bog of 
the [present] battle, through treachery, [in] the place whence spring Olor and 
Olarba (L.L., p. 24 a). 


a. [A.D.] 

[v] A tale of two decades [of years] for Eriu noble, [60] 

Ellim spent it completely : 

The king of bleak Cnucha 2 , in the battle of Aichil 3 
Received he short life and stern cutting off. 


Tuathal the powerful, thirty [years] obtained he, [go] 

Established he [the] thirty through excellent sway ; 
In the contest, in the centre of [Magh] Line 4 , 
Slew [him] Mai, son of Rochraid. 


Four years obtained Mai [the kingship], [no] 

Slew [him] Fedlimid the very noble, 

Mnc [years reigned] Fedlimid, true is that, [iu] 

Until perished the son of Tuathal. 


Six [and] twenty [years] without reproach severe [123] 

(Or : Three years without reproach severe) 
Spent Cathair, descendant of Comae ; 
Fell the king of Tuath 5 in the east 
By the Fenians 6 of Luagne 7 of the pre-eminent deeds. 

"The [Olor] is the Six-mile Water [flowing into Lough Neagh] and the 
[Olarha] is the Larne "Water [flowing into the Irish Sea]. The Larne river rises 
by two heads in the parish of Ballynure ; the Six-mile Water, in the parish of 
Ballycor, a little south of Shane's Hill : after a course of about 100 perches it 
becomes the boundary between the parish of Kilwaughter [Caill-wchtair Head- 
wood ?], as well as between the baronies of Upper Glenarm and Upper Antrim. 
Following the direction of a ravine, which runs down the face of the hill, it arrives 
at the townland of Head-wood [= Caill-uachtair ?~], near the place where the three 
baronies of Upper Glenarm, Upper Antrim, and Lower Belfast [meet ?]. In this 
townland there is a spot where a branch of the Six-mile Water can be turned into the 
Larne river ; and here is a large bog, probably the Moin-an-chatha, or Battle-bog, 
mentioned in the text, lying between the two rivers" (O'Donovan, F.M.i.^p. 100-1). 

5 Tuath. (The Ballymote reading.) See r 3, note 3. 

6 Fenians. A collective noun in the original. 

7 Luagne. The barony of Lune, co. Meuth. 




w Conb, c6ic bliabna pa 1 ceeaip 
ba 2 idpla co n-aiplecaib 3 ; 
t)opocaip 4 Cont) 4 cldip TThbe 5 
La 6 mac TTIdil, mic Rocpibe 7 . 


"Rocaic 1 Conaipe, a cliamain, 
Secc bliabna ip oen 2 bliat>am ; 
t)opocaip 3 plaic pemin 3 pint) 
t)o Idim Nemit), mic Spobcint) 4 . 


Qpc, mac Cuint>, calma po 1 
In banba ppi p6 cpicac : 
T?omut)ai5 2 , ciap'bo 2 capa, 
it) i cac TTlucpama 3 . 


), mac Con, mic Lugoec, 
Cpica bliaban bale, buibnec 1 : 
La pepcep, mac Commain 2 cam, 
Puaip poppain 3 ip 4 

w 1. l po. 2 pob'. 3 apbecaib. 4 - 4 co n-t>opcaip COTITI. 

5 fni&i. 6 le. 7 "Rocpai&i. 2. l bocaic. 2 en. 3 ~ 3 co n-bopcaip 
pi peimin. 4 Spaibcinb. 3. K1 bo glac. 2 ~ 2 popmu5ai&, sep'pac. 
s TYlucponia. 4. 1 blacbuione6. 2 Com am. 3 poppan. 4 i. 

w. l With contests. An allusion to the title Cetcathach, of the Hundred Battles 
(lit., hundred -battled), bestowed upon Conn. 

2 Son of Mai. Tipraite Tirech (X.Z., p. 24 a). 

3 Son-in-law. He was married to Saraid, daughter of Conn. 


1. [A.D.J 

w Conn, five years by four [149] 

Was he king with contests 1 ; 
Fell Conn of the Plain of Meath 
By the son of Mai 3 , son of Bochraid. 


Spent Conaire, his son-in-law 3 , 

Seven years and one year ; [169] 

Fell the prince of Femen 4 fair 

By hand of Nemed, son of Stripe-Head. 


Art, son of Conn, excellently received he 

Banba for the space of thirty [years] : [177] 

Destroyed [him], although he was his friend 5 , 

Lugaid in the battle of [Magh] Mucrama 8 . 


Lugaid, son of Cu 7 , son of Lugaid [Laidech], 

Thirty years powerful, crowded [reigned he] : [207] 

By Ferchess, son of Comman the noble, 

Received he [his] end and utter defeat. 

4 Femen. A plain comprising Iffa and Offa East, co. Tipperary ; here employed 
to signify the southern part of Ireland. 

5 Friend. Lugaid Laidech, otherwise Cu (hound) a term of distinction amongst 
the ancient Irish), otherwise Macniadh (son of the champion), married Sadb, 
daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles (who after his death became the wife of 
Olioll Olum), and thus his son, Lugaid, was nephew of Art, whom he slew. 

6 \Magli\ Mucrama. Prope Athenriam, octo millibus passuum Galvia dissi- 
tam . . . Turloch-airt [recte, Tullach-Airt, collis Arturi] in facti memoriam paludi 
nomen adhaesit, quae, inter Moyvoelain et Killcornan sita, in hunc usque diem 
eodem nomine gaudet (Ogygia,^ Para in., cap. Ixvii., pp. 327-9). 

7 Cu. See note 5, supra. 

206 lebcm 


[w] Pep^up 1 thibbecac, cen 1 bianblaib, 
Cen 2 ecnac pi oen 2 bliatme : 
Dopocaip 3 gilla na ri-glacc 
1 cac Chpina 4 la Copmac. 


Copmac, cecpi 1 t>eic t>acca 2 , 
ftopeic 3 m 4 Idee lampaca 5 : 
Rombdit) 6 1 6 C1J5 Cleccig 7 cptiait) 
Cndini inb 8 idic eccig mnudip. 8 


x 6060 Junnac 1 , pogiallab 
I 3 n-'Cpint) 2 et) oen 3 bliat>ain : 

^lacc 4 m goppa, 
, mac mic Oengopa 5 . 


rii-bliaban t>a 2 
> Capppe 3 , cuinnit) 3 : 
'Sin 4 5 a b ai ?j Clt > 5 cpuag linm 6 , 
T^omat)ait) 7 puat> popinni 7 . 

5. 1-1 peapsup t)et)a6 co n-. 2 - 2 5011 egna pe hen. 3 co n-bpocaip. 

4 Cpinba. 6. l ceicpi. 2 baca. 3 poppeic. 4 i[n]. 

5 lampaba. 6 ~ 6 popbaib a. 7 Cleicig. 8 ~ 8 in e6 eicis inbpuaip. 

x 1. l 5unt>ab. 2 - 2 op Gpinn. 3 aen. *-* popmusaib 5lac. 5 Qen- 
upa. 2. l aipem. 2 'p a. 3 ~ 3 Copppe, in cuinsib. The in 

is interrogative. 4 ipin. 5 516. 6 Ifnb. 7 - 7 poppappais 

pua& bo'n popinb. 

8 Crina. "Keating calls this place Crioma-Chinn Chumair, and says that it 
is situated at Brugh-mic-an-oig, which is the name of a place on the River Boyne, 
near Stackallan Bridge" (O'Donovan, F.M. i., p. 110). O'Flaherty (ubi sup., 
c. Ixviii., p. 332) states that it is in Bregia (a plain in East Meath), but gives 
no authority. 


5. [A.D.] 

[w] Fergus Black-toothed, without lasting fame, 

Without reproach [reigned he] for one year : [237] 

Fell the practiser of manual feats 
In the battle of Crina 8 by Cormac. 


Cormac, four decades pleasant [238] 

Spent the hero long-handed : 

Killed him in the house of barren Clettech 9 

The bone of the deadly[?] very cold salmon 10 . 


x Eocho Gunnat, obeyed was he [278] 

In Eriu the space [of] one year: 
[Him] destroyed the hand of strength, 
Lugaid, son of the son of Oengus. 


A tale of six years [and] two decades [279] 

Was Carpre obeyed, remember [it] : 
In Gabair 1 , though pity [it is] to us, 
[Him] destroyed a ruddy great [spear-]point. 

9 Clettech. "It was situated near Stackallan Bridge, on the south side of the 
Boyne" (O'Donovan, p. 116). 

10 Salmon. Copmac, hua Cuinb, Cormac, grandson of Conn [of the 
.;cl. bliaban, co n-epbailc i 15 Hundred Battles], forty years [reigned 
Cleccis, lap lenamain enema he], until he died in [his] palace of 
bpacain i n-a bpasic. No, ic Clettech, in consequence of the bone of 
piabpa ponopcpac, lap n-a bpac a salmon sticking in his throat. Or, it 
bo TDaelceTib (L.L., p. 24 a). was the sprites destroyed him, after his 

betrayal by [the Druid] Bald-Head. 

According to the legend, Cormac renounced druidism and believed in God, with 
the fatal result here mentioned. 

x. 1 Gabair. Called Gabair of Aichill "from its contiguity to Aichill, now the 
hill of Skreen, near Tara, in the county of Meath. Gabra, anglice Gowra, is now 


[x] TCo^abpacap 1 no 

bliabam op bcmba bocaig 2 ; 
Dopocaip 3 pocac Caippcec 3 
lapin pocais pmb Qipsbec 4 . 


Qibeb 1 pocaig 1 lap pintail 
1 cac Ollopba 2 inbai^ 2 . 
piaca 3 lappocac, peic 4 lace 4 , 
Secc 5 iii-bliat)na t)6c ap pi6ec. 


pia6a l , puaip t>i5 connaio 3 cpa 
1 cac tHiib-coTnmuip 3 la Colla. 
Cecpi 4 bliabna 4 Colla lap cac, 
Co popi[n]napb 5 TTlupibac 5 . 


TTlupioac 1 Cipec, a 1 oeic, 
Oe5 mac piacac 2 cu 2 pfpbpeic ; 
1c 3 t)abull la TTlac Cpuino cam 
t)opocaip 4 Viua 4 Cumb cobail. 

3. l 
4 pint>aip5ceac. 
44 peg lac. 
4 - 4 a ceicpi. 
Cipea6, cpt. 

2 bocaift. 3 - 3 concopcaip po6ai& Cappce6. 

4. 1 - 1 01616 pacais. 2 " 2 Ollapba inmain. 3 piacac. 
5 p6. 5. l piaco. 2 conbaig. 3 ComaiTi. 

5 ~ 5 5U pupinbapb TTlupe&a6. 6. 1 - 1 TTIuipebec 

2 - 2 piacpa[c] gu. 3 15. 4 ~ 4 abpocaip ua. 

the name of a stream which rises in a bog in the townland of Prantstown, in the 
parish of Skreen, receives a tribute from the well of Neamhnach on Tara Hill, 
joins the Eiver Skene at Dowthstown and unites with the Boyne at Ardsallagh" 
(O'Donovan, F.M. i., p. 120). 

2 Fratricide. Of his brother, Fotach the Charioteer. They were sons of 
Lugaid, son of Cu (Lugaid Laidech). 

3 Ollorba.L.L. (p. 24 a) says in [Magh] Line, in the battle of Ollorba. See 
T 4, note 4. He was slain, according to the legend, by Cailte, son of Ronan, 
foster-son of Finn, son of Cumal. Finn was son-in-law of Cormac, son of Art, 
son of Conn of the Hundred Battles. 


3. [A.D.] 

[x] Received the Fotachs [the kingship] 

A year over Banba marshy; [305] 

Fell Fotach the Charioteer 
By Fotach Fair, the Raider. 


The fate of Fotach [took place] after [his] fratricide 2 

In the battle very victorious of Ollorba 3 . 

Fiacha larfothach 4 , attend you, 

Seven years [and] ten above a score [reigned he]. [306] 


Fiache, received he a drink of death in sooth 

In the battle of Dub-chommur 5 by Colla. 

Four years [reigned] Colla after the battle, [343] 

Until expelled him 6 Muridach [Tirech]. 


Muridach Tirech, ten [years reigned he], [347] 

Excellent son of Fiacha, with true judgment ; 
At Daball 7 by the son of noble Cronn 
Fell the grandson of loyal Conn. 

4 Fiacha larfothach. Calle'd Fiacha Sroptini in L.L. (p. 24 a). 

5 Dub-chommur. Slack confluence; that is, of the Blackwater (the ancient Sele) 
and the Boyne, now the town of Xavan. O'Donovan, P.M. i., pp. 35, 122. 

6 Expelled him. The lithograph reading of L.L. (Corrig. to p. 129 h, 1. 26) is 
poprnapb (killed him). Assuming this to be an accurate reproduction of the MS., 
the Ballymote variant, pupinbapb, shows how the error arose. Of the original 
poninnapb, the scribe omitted the horizontal stroke (=n) over the i and read the 
in as an m. 

L.L. (p. 24 a) states that Fiacha larfothach was slain by the three Collas and 
that Colla Uais reigned four years, until Muridach Tirech expelled them (co 
poninnapb TTlupibac Cipec). 

After the lapse of a year, they returned and were received by Muridach. Four 
years later, they marched against Fergus Foga, King of Emain Macha (i.e. of 
Ulster), slew him and burned the palace of Emain. 

7 Daball. The Blackwater, which separates the counties of Tyrone and Armagh 
and empties into Lough Neagh. 

210 lebcm 


Coelbab 1 , bliabam, blat) cen 2 bp6n, 
TComapb 3 6oco TTlii5rheb6n 3 . 
Q occ 4 b' Gocaib, nf bp6c 5 pain 5 , 
Co n-beocaib 6 [b']e"c 6 


Gpi bliabna b6c, bacca 1 in bapp 1 , 
Nip' bo poca 2 oo Chpimcanb : 
puaip 3 015 nimnib i n-a cig 3 
13a 4 piaip, pa 5 hinjin nemib 5 . 


pice 1 bliaban pop 2 a pecc 
TTlapoen 3 bo Niall pa 3 nepc : 
Ni balb, op TTIup 4 Ice elac 5 
Romapb 6 Gocaib apbplebac 6 . 

y. 1. l Caelbla&. 2 sen. 3 - 3 suyi'Tnayib Cocai& 

*ho6c. 5 - 5 bpeg pin. 6 - 6 n-beacai& b'es. 2. 1-1 baca rh-bapp. 
2 poba. 3 ~ 3 co puaip ^15 neimms 'n-a 015. 4 '5 a. 5 - 5 05 

msin pi&ai$. 3. l pici. 2 ip. 3 - 3 no gop'pcapab Niall pe. 

4 TTIuip. 5 alac. 6 ~ 6 sup'mapb 6ocai& Cembpelac. 

y. l Fidach. The Baltymote reading : the text is unintelligible to me. Crim- 
thand, son of Flidach, was poisoned by his sister Mongfind (Fair- Hair), relict of 
Eocho Mugmedon, in order that her eldest son, Brian, might become king. (Ac- 
cording to the Book of Ballymote, p. 264 a, Crimthand, being suspicious, refused 
to be the first to drink. Whereupon, Mongfind drank and lost her life before him.) 
But the crime was bootless. Niall of the Nine Hostages, son of Eocho by Carinna, 
obtained the succession. Of the posterity of Brian, none ascended the throne, save 
Turlough 0' Conor and his son, Roderick, the last monarch of Ireland. See 
O'Donovan, P.M. i., pp. 125 sq. 

2 Ictian Sea. "This sea is supposed to have taken its name from the Portus 
Iccius of Caesar, situated not fur from the site of the present Boulogne. Nothing 
seems clearer than that this Irish monarch made incursions into Britain against 


1. [A.D.] 

Coelbad, a year [reigned he], fame without sorrow, 

Slew [him] Eocho Mugmedon. 

Eight [years were reigned] by Eocho, not false that, [358] 

Until underwent he death in Tara. 


Three years [and] ten, pleasant the amount, [366] 

It was not long for Crimthand : 
Received he drink of poison in his house, 
From his sister, from the daughter of Fidach 1 . 


A score of years above seven [379] 

Consecutively for Niall in his power : 
Wot false, over the restless Ictian Sea 2 
Slew [him] Eochaid Ardfledach. 

Stilicho, whose success in repelling him and his Scots is described by Claudian. 
'By him,' says the poet, speaking in the person of Britannia, 'was I protected 
when the Scot moved all lerne against me and the sea foamed with his hostile 
oars : 

[Me quoque vicinis pereuntem gentibus, inquit, 
Munivit Stilicho,] totam cum Scotus lernen 
Movit et infesto spumavit remige Tethys.' 

[De laudibus Stilickonis, lib. 2.] 

"From another of this poet's eulogies it appears that the fame of that Roman 
legion, which had guarded the frontier against the invading Scots, procured for it 
the distinction of being one of those summoned to the banner of Stilicho, when the 
Goths threatened Home : 

Venit et extremis legio praetenta Britannis 
Quae Scoto dat frena truci, ferroque notatas 
Perlegit examines, Picto moriente, figuras. 

De bello Getico." 

(0' Donovan, F.M. i., pp. 127-8 : from 0' Flaherty, Ogygia, 
Pars in., cap. kxxv., pp. 403, 396, 399.) 

212 tebcm 


[y] Cecpi 1 c6ic bliatma 'p 1 a cpf, 
"Rogiallat) t)O niupc 2 n-[t)]af 2 
1 Sleib 3 eipa na n-apm n-dn 4 
5 in cene geldn 5 . 


86 pf$ t>6cS p6 pi6ic 2 pfs, 
"Ria 3 ciaccam pacpaic 4 co pfp, 
t)ap6ip 5 Slane 5 na h-^al h-^pin 
Ip 6 Ifn po^ab t>ap6ip 6 hGpinb 7 . 


cen gainne, 
Tilac fylle pae[i]p Sarncainne, 
pdlit) bi'n sapCsJ^nf 
Qp n-dpim aptjpfg hGpenn. 

4. 1 - 1 pici bliaban if. 2 - 2 nepc Oaci. 3 Sliab. 4 n-aig. 

5 - 5 pomapb poiseb gapb sealan. Over pomapb is no, poloipc (or, burned), 
in another hand. A quatrain is inserted : [A.D.] 

TCocaic Loesaipe linmap Spent Loegaire the plenteous [429] 

"Re ceicpi m-bliaban m-bpi5- The space of four powerful years : 

map : 

"Re Giuccain pabpcns na penn Before coming of Patrick of the [432] 


ba pf pcpuca6 paep Gpenn. He was king vigilant, nohle, of Eriu. 
6pi apt). Eriu sublime. 

5. l beg. 2 picec. 3 pe. 4 pabpaig. 5 - 5 o ba Slaine. 6 om. 7 Gpinn. 
8 Gpi apb. The following verses are added : 

Ip anb pogab pabpaig pope, It is there Patrick made land 

1 coiceao Ula6 ebpocc, In the Fifth of the illustrious Ulstermen, 

5up' cpecpeab 015 6mna anb, So that believed the youths of noble 


Re pluasaib aille Gpenn. Before the hosts of beauteous Eriu. 

6pi apb. Eriu sublime. 

Secc pomb, pecc picic, panb Seven divisions, [and] seven score, par- 

peio, tition clear, 

Ocup a beic co n-beigmem, And ten with good intent, 


4. [A.D.] 

[y] Four [times] five years and three, [406] 

Was service rendered to the power of Dathi : 
In the mountain of Alp 3 of noble weapons 
Burned [him] the fire of lightning 4 . [429] 


Six kings [and] ten. six score of kings [= 136], 
[Reigned] before the coming of Patrick with truth, [432] 

After Slane of the vigorous feats, 
This is the complement that ruled Erin 5 . 

Eriu, etc. 

Gilla-Caemain, without pehuriousness, 
Son of noble Gilla Samthainue, 
Thanks for the difficult feat he has earned, 
For recital of the arch- kings of Eriu. 

lp lep a linmcnpe liuni, It is clear, its amount, to me, 

TCeim pispai&i peap n-Gpenn. The series of kings of the Men of Eriu. 

6pi apt>. Eriu sublime. 

<5iUa Caema[i]n 50 n-slaine, Gilla-Caemain with purity, 

TJa fyl^ paeip Sharnoainbe, Grandson of noble Gilla-Shamthainde, 

TCus buai6 o bappbcub co bint>, He carried off victory melodiously from 


Gcip Glbcnn ip 6pirm. Both in Alba and in Eriu. 

6pi apt). Eriu sublime. 

3 Alp. "Dathias, ethnicorum Hiberniae regum postremus, dum in Gallia lec- 
torum militum copiis provinciam Romanam invaderet more gentium caeterarum, 
queis turn praeda factura imperium, immensam illam molem frustatim diripien- 
tium, sesquicentum, ut aiunt, proeliis, victor ad Alpium radices fulmine e coelo 
ictus interiit. Cadaver in Hiberniam perlatum apud Cruachan [Rathcroghan, co. 
Roscommon], Connactiae regiam, terrae mandatum est" (Ogygia, Pars in., cap. 
Ixxxvii., p. 415). 

4 Lightning. " Ilium e coelo tactum vindice flamma tradunt ob violatam cujus- 
datn eremitae S. Firmini cellam et pagum ; quern regem fuisse et post abdicatum 
soeculare dominium Deo in solitudine vacantem in turri 17 cubitos alta ad Alpes 
vitam transegisse prodit Codex Lecan (fol. 302 b) " (id. ib. p. 416). 

5 That riiled Eriu. The bapeip of the text, being hypermetrical, is to be 
omitted, in accordance with the Bally mote reading. 

( 214 ) 


\Eoman numerals and letters (thus, i a) denote the texts and sections, pp. 120 to 140 ; 
Roman letters and Arabic figures (thus, d 4) refer to the Lebar Laigen text, 
pp. 142 to 213.] 

a (art.), i a, c ; d 4, f 5, g; 2, h 1, i 4, 

5, 6, j 5, m 4, n 2, o 4, q 1, 4, 
r 5, s 3, t 2, u 3, 6, v 2, 5, 6, x 6, 
Y 1, 3, 4. 

a (pron. infix. 3 s. m.), pa loipc, v c, 

a (poss.), i a, c, d, e, f, gr, n, o ; n b, 

i ; in g ; iv d, e ; v c ; a 1, b 1, 4, 

6, c 5, d 1, 5, 6, f 2, 4, h 6, i 4, 
5, j 3, k 6, m 1, 3, n 2, 4, o 1, 
p 5, q 3, 5, r 1, 4, 6, s 5, u 2, 3, 
4, 5, 6, w 2. 

a n- (poss. pi.), i g. 

a (prep.), & 1, 4, p 6. 

a (prep. /row), i j. 

a (= i), i d ; ii h ; in h ; s 4. 

a (voc.), i j, m, n ; ii a, gr, h ; m a. 

acsaipb, b 5 ; asapb, 1 1. 

ucc, i e, i ; n i, 1, m ; in 1, m ; r 1, 

t 2, 6. 
acubaift, i c; n a, m ; mm; -aib, 

iv b. 

abais, i a. 
abbol, n-, h 3. 
abnacc, d 1. 
abubaipc, n g. 
ae, i gr, o. 
deb, o 1, 2. 

aei, i gr ; iv d ; haei ; iv d. 
aen, igr; nc; me; 

cap, iv d. 


agapb, 1 1. 

ai, iv c. 

aicnea& [a 6ne&], 1 1. 

dib, g: 6, k 2, q 6. 

Qi6le, v 3. 

ai&ci, m o. 

aibeb, gr 5, j 4, 6, k 5, 6, 1 2, t 6, 


haitnb, c 6. 
Qibne, i 2. 
015, t 1. 

aisep [lucnsep], m b. 
ail, gr 1, q 1. 
dilbeps, i 3. 
aili, iv a. 
Chilli, j 3, 4; -ella (g.), k 3, n 3, 5, 

q 5 ; -ilia, k 2. 
mil, iv f. 
dm, v 3. 
ainm, c 6. 
dip, v 1. 
aipbepc, i gr. 
aip[ce]t>ail, i a. 
Qipccec, To. 3. 
aipb, e 4, f 5. 
aipbipc, f 2, m 3. 
aipe (ap and pron. suf. 3 s. neut.), 


Chpebcaip, d 4. 
, 1 3. 



dip5be6, r 5, 6, x 3. 

oipseclciib, i j. 

aipi (ap, prep, and pron. suf. 3 s. 

neut.), iv e. 
aipisbec, h 4. 
aiplecaib, w 1. 
aipm (g.), k 6. 
aippcep, i o. 
dipc (g.), k 5, 6, n 3, s 5. 
afpbe, i g; -tn, in a, iv a ; -ce, 

i a, v b; -ci, v a. 
(cpen)aicbe, v 3. 
aisle, u 4. 

aicpfse (recte, aicipi), in c. 
aldint), n j, k; ink; v a; -Tin, in j. 
Qlint), j 6, t 5. 
dlclecan, r 1. 
amal, i d, e, o ; n gr. 
dmaeaip, q 5, 6. 
amnapp, r 5. 
arhpa, n k; g 3. 
ampaib, 1 3. 
ampip, c 6. 
an, ii i; q 2. 
an (art.), i a; iv e. 
anb (i, prep, and pron. suf. 3 s. neut.), 

i b, c, d, e. 
anbpecc, r 5. 
anbpin, b 4. 
One, n 5. 
ann (i, prep, and pron. suf. 3 s. neut.), 

ic, e, j, 1, m, n; in a. 
Qnninb, b 2, 3. 
anopb, c 4. 
anpecc, 1 4. 
Qpcac, 1 1. 
dp, g 2. 

ap (conj.), i o ; iv d. 
ap (prep.), i a, b, c, n, o ; iv e, f ; d 5, 

f 3, ? 2, 12, 14, m4, r 1, x 4. 
ap n-, i o, y 6. 
apa n-, iv c. 

apaile, m d, e, f, 1, j, k, 1, m ; iv b. 
apb, n h ; m h ; iv g ; a 1, d 2, h 4, 6, 

i 4, m 4, q 3, 5. 
apb(bldce), t 6 ; apbplaie, t 3, u 1 ; 

apb(pleba6), y 3. 
apbpfs, y 6 ; apbpisi, n c. 
apbb, r 6. 

dpsacslmb, s 2 ; Qpsaclam, d 6. 
dpsacmap, n 3, 5, 6; Qpsacpop, 

f 2. 
aprni, b 6, e 1, h 2, i 3, k 3, 4, n 6, 

o 2, v 3, x 2, y 6. 
apfu, ni b. 
apm n-, y 4. 
apmpciac, n 5. 
apponblis, q 3. 
appaib, 1 3. 

dpc, k 3, 4, n 1, 2, w 3. 
ap (vb.),ia; iv d. 
ap (prep.), in; m j ; u 5. 
apbepap, iv c. 
ap[c]nam, mgr; -um,ivf; apgnum, 

u g. 

appin, b 5. 
(mb)ac, i d. 

aca, i d ; iv a, b ; acac, iv a, c, d. 
acaip, h 6, u 5. 
dca-luain, 1 1. 
acbac, a 1, e 1, f 2, i 2, o 4, q 4, s 2, 


ac6m, n b. 
aclam, va. 
i o. 

b (ciap'b'6 = cia po ba 6), p 5. 
ba, ii gr; in gr; f 1, g- 2, h 1, 3, p 5, 

r 1, 3, v 2, w 1. 
ba (subj.), iv d, f. 
t>iap'[b]a (po ba), n c. 
bat), i o. 
babbcata, p 1. 



babtnpn, o 1, 2. 

basaim, v a. 

bai, a 6, b 1. 

(pom)bo'ib, w 6. 

baipbni, v a. 

baili, i g. 

baipi, i b; ii a; -ppi, n f. 

balap, d 6. 

bale, w 4 ; balcbemnec, d 6. 

bdn, n 6. 

banba, a 2, e 5, g 1, m 4, o 2, r 6, 

s 2, w 3, x 3. 
banb, y 3. 
bap n-, i n. 
bapp, y 2. 

bapp(saec), e 2; bappfolapp), v 2. 
bap, in k ; bapp, n k \lege liap, -pp : 

cf. imlipen, pupillarum, L. U. 

105 b, 1. 23]. 
bdp, e2, 3, f 3, o 2, u 1. 
bacap, m 5. 
(nop po)be, i c. 
bean, i j. 
becan, i d, e. 
bece, 1 4, s 4. 
beinb, m k; bent), n k. 
belsaban, h. 1. 
bennais, i m. 
beolu, i d, e. 

bobep, ib, ii f, mf; bobepap, iva. 
beps, k 6, o 5. 
bepnsal, j 2, 3. 
beppe, p 4. 
bepcaib, o 5. 
bepup, ii gr; m g. 
bee, r 6, s 2, y 6. 
bee, ii e ; in e. 
becaib, t 2. 
bf, a 4. 
bio, i g. 
bib, i 2. 
bi&, ii a. 

binb, ii j ; v a; a 2, 1 2, s 2. 

binnup, iv e, 

bic, a 1. 

bic (vb.), iv a ; v c. 

bic(boc), k 1; bic(lan), q 2; bic- 

(maic), t 5. 
bla, k 4, m 2. 
blab, a 5, b 5, f 3, j 2, r 1, 6, s 5, y 1 ; 

-baib, 1 5. 
blaib, gr 4, h 5, i 2, m 4, o 4, p 4, 

r 3, s 2. 
(bian)blaib, -w 5. 

blaicbpapp, v b. 

(apb)bldce, t 6. 

bliabain (s.), a 5, d 1, f 1, 4, h, k 2, 
1 6, n 2, 3, o 3, q 3, u 3, w 2, 5, 
x 3, y 1. 

bliabain (dual), d 2, m 1. 

bliaban (g. p.), d 2, 6, e 2, f 2, 6, 
gr4, 6, h4,5, i 1,3,4, j 2,3, k 1,3, 
4, 1 5, m 1, 3, n 6, o 5, p 1, 2, 3, 
q 2, r 2, 3, 6, t 3, w 4, x 2, y 3. 

bliabna (g. s.), x 1. 

bliabna (p.), b 6, d 2, 3, 4, 5, e 1, 3, 

4, 5, f 3, g;2, 3, h 3, 6, i 6, j 1, 4, 
k 5, 6, 1 2, 4, m 2, 6, o 1, p 4, 5, 
q 5, 6, r 1, s 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, t 1, 4, 

5, u 1, 2, 4, 6, v 1, 5, 6, w 1, 2, x 
4, 5, y 2, 4. 

bliabnaib, j 6, s 2, v 2. 

bo, (sb.), i b ; n f ; bom, i n. 

bo (vb.), in c ; 1 6, w 3, y 2. 

bobaipb, in a. 

bobfbab, s 3; bobibac, s 4. 

bols, c 2, 4; bol55, v 2. 

bop, i c ; bopp, in f. 

boeais, x 3. 

bpaga, p 1. 

bpap, ii b; gr 1. 

bpac, r 6, s 2; bpaca, 1 1. 

bpacaip, c 5, t 4. 



bpaepuaib, e 5, 1 1. 
bpeaca, n gr. 
bpecbuic, p 2. 
bpec, gr 3, 1 4, m 3. 
bpec(buibnec), m 3; -c(buipnb), 


bpec, b 6, t 4, y 1. 
bpes, r 3; -50, j 2. 
bpecam, in h. 

bpeic, mgr; (pfp)bpeic, x 6. 
bpep, e 1. 
bpepal, s 3, 4. 

bpepp, k 5 ; -ppe, 1 2 ; -ppi, k 6. 
bpec, t 3. 
bpfs, o 1. 

bpisib, in gr; bpiftica, n g. 
pobpip, b 4. 
bpice, t 4. 
bpos, q2. 
bpoig, i n. 

bpon, b 1, i 3, 1 3, y 1, 
bpubin, u 1. 

, d 2. 

, i k. 
bpuinne, p 1. 
bu, v 1. 
(o)bpa, i d. 
buabaill, n k; m k. 
buabaib, i k. 
buabpe, s 5. 

bucm, j 1, p 3, t 3 ; (conb)buain, u 5. 
polcbube, c 6. 

buibe, m j ; -tn, n j ; m k ; -&i , i c. 
buibne6, f 6, m 3, o 1, w 4. 
buitmib, m. 1. 
buille, p 1. 
bup, i e. 

'c(cm) (prep.), s 4. 

cac, in g ; iv d, e ; c 6, m 1, n 1 . 

cac n-, ii 1; ccnc (gen.), i d, e. 

Chacip, e 4. 

caec, u 1. 

cael, p 2. 

ca6m, o 4; u 4. 

(polc)caem, f 1 ; caem(t>op), h 2. 

Caemain, y 6. 

pocaemcaic, m 4. 

caibi, i f. 

Cailli, i a. 

cafm, j 5. 

caimTTie, h 1. 

cam, i o; n a; c 5, j 5, k 2, w 4, 

(polc)cain, q 6 ; Cdinbpuim, e 2, 


camsen, me; iv a ; -gm, IT e ; v c. 
bopocaip, b 4, d 4, h 5, i 1, k 2, 3, 

4, 15, m 2, n2, 3, o 3, p 5, r 5, 

s 3, 5, v 1, 6, w 1, 2, 5, x 3, 6. 
copcaip, f 1, gr 1, 2, h 2, j 1, u 3. 
Caipn, k 6, o 1. 
caipn (g.), s 1. 
Caippcec, x 3. 
Caip, i 2. 

caipp, q 5 ; Caipp, k 6, s 1. 
pocaic, b 6, d 4, j 1, 6, 1 5, m 4, n 1, 

o 6, p 4, 5, r 6, t 6, u 4, vG, w2. 
calma, m 4, r 6, w 3 ; (paep)c-, 


can, i e. 

can (= cen), a 5, b 1, i 3. 
cancain, i gr. 
(poba)caom, h 4. 
capa, w 3 ; capaic, j 5. 
capb[p]aib, i i; capb[p]aic, i h. 
Capmon, h 3; -um, n 5. 
cappbec, r 5. 
Capppe, x 2. 
capc[p]aib, i i. 
cap, g 5 ; capp, n j ; in j ; r 5. 
capbapbne, i gr. 
capbaipbm, i e, gr; capbaipm, i e. 



cat, ii c ; m c ; f 3, g 5, h 1, j 2, 1 1, 
5, 6, n 3, p 6, q 3, r 2, 6, t 6, v 3, 
w 3, 5, x 4, 5. 

Cacmp, v 6. 

caepa6, b 5; cacpaig, b 4. 

cea6cap, if. 

Ceallaig, i m. 

cean (cen, prep.), n c. 

ceanb-impiTib, i i. 

ce6, b 5. 

Ce6c, e 5, 6. 

ceccap n-, iv d. 

cebaib, i a. 

ceim, n 4. 

Ceionenb, e 3. 

eel, b 3. 

eels, 1 6. 

cein, in h. 

cen, ii h ; in b, c ; c 4, f 2, g 1, h 1, 
i 6, j 2, 1 3, 4, p 2, 6, q 1, 4, r 5, 
s 5, u 2, v 6, w 5, y 1, 6. 
cenb, n 4 ; cenncpom, i m. 
cenbac, i j. 
6enela6, n a, i ; in i. 
6epc, n a. 
ceo, q 4. 

bocep, h 1, 3, 6, i 3, j 2, 1 1, m 6, 
o 1, q 1, 2, 6, r 2, 6, s 1, 4, 
t 2, 5, v 2. 
Cepa, j 2. 
Cepmaca, e 5. 
Cepmna, & 3, 4, 5. 
cepc, f 6, 13. 
Cep-Chopamb, b 3. 
Ceppaip, a 3 ; Cepppa (g.), a 3. 
cec (card.), a 5, b 2, 5, 6, j 5, 1 3. 
cec (ord.), c 5, d 1, g 1, 4, i 4, 

o 2, 4. 

pocecsab, a 2. 
cec-pelldis, i m. 
cecaip, d 4, h 1, i 1, q 4, t 2, w 1. 
cecapcubaib, iv a, c, d. 

cecna (adj.), h 5. 
cecna (num.), 1 2. 
cecpaca, a 2 ; -pamun, iv d. 
cecpi, iv d; b 2, d 2, e 3, f4, g- 3, 

k 5, 1 1, p 1, r 6, s 1, v 5, w 6, 

x5, y4. 
cecpup, c 5. 
ci(ce), in 1. 

cia (pron. interr.), i a ; n i ; in i. 
cm (conj. concess.), p 5, w 3. 
ciatbpaca, i f, i g. 
cialla, r 4. 
cicm, p 1. 
cib (conj.), x 2. 
Cirnbaec, o 4. 
Chinb, o 6. 

chmbcaicc, -a. 5; Cinbmapa, p 6. 
pocinpec, n 4. 
Cip, i o. 
clab, j 2. 
claibeb, f 6. 
claibemm, iv d. 
6lamb, b 4, t 4. 
cldip, w 1. 

Claipe, 1 5, n 5, p 5 ; Clape, n 5. 
clanna, b 5. 
Chldpifisnis, s 5. 
cle, 1 2. 

(laam)ctepp, v 6. 
dec, h 3, n 1 ; clecsapg, q 3. 
Cleccis, w 6. 

Cliac, n 5 ; Chliac (g.), t 6. 
cliamam, w 2 ; cleamna, i j. 
cliapac, u 4. 
Chlocaip, m 2, o G. 
Clicaip, i a. 
cloccns, i 2. 
cndini, w 6. 
[cne&] 1 1. 
Cnuca, v 3. 
Cbnuic, r 3. 
co (conj. conseq.), i e; co p-, n m. 



co (conj. temp.), b 1, 4, G, c 6, d 1, 3, 

e4, f 1, 6, g- 1, h2, j 1, 13, n 1, 

o 5, p 3, r 1, t 1. 
co m- (conj.), i o. 
co n- (conj.), i f , o ; iv d ; v a. 
co n- {conj. temp.), a 1, 5, 6, d 2, 3, 

f 5, g2, 14, u 2, 3, 4, y L 
co (prep.), i h, i ; n b ; c 3, el, f 3, 

g- 6, i 4, j 6, 1 6, m 1, n 4, p 4, 

s 4, t 5, u 1, 4, y 5. 
co m- (prep.), s 2 ; co n-, in b; b 1, 6, 

e 5, k 2, o 5, q 6, w 1. 
choili, i o. 

Coipi, n b.; Coipi m-, in h, 
coirnbeap, i f. 

Cobcac, p 2, 3 ; -015, p 4, q 1, 4. 
cobail, x 6 ; (pinb)cobail, r 4. 
Coelbab, y 1. 
coern(bopp), p 5. 

coeni(nepc), v 4 ; coern(pciac), t 6. 
c6ic, c 1, d 3, To. 5,6, i 1, m 4, 5, 

n 2, p3, q4, 5, r6, a 5,6, t4,5, 

u 2, 5, w 1, y 4 ; coica, a 2 ; 

-ait, a 3. 

coiceb (sb.), c 4; (num.), c 4. 
bocoib, b 2. 
coicgleann, i j. 
col, p 2. 
colbcac, i j. 
Colla, x 5. 
Collompac, r 4, 
imcolma, n 3. 
Colum-cille, in h. 
cornplaic, m 5. 
Comaic, v 6. 
combaic, s 3. 
Commain, w 4. 
cample, q 6. 
comul, in g-. 
Con (g.), w 4. 
'con (= oc in), s 4. 
Conaba, n m; iv b ; -bba, in m, 


Conamb, b 4, 5, 6; -5, m 5, 6, n 1. 

Conaipe, t 6, u 1, w 2. 

Conall, r 4 ; Conaill, n a. 

Concobap, u 3. 

Conb, w 1. 

Consail, m 4, 5, n 1, s 5; -al, s 6. 

comb, if; c 5, x 5. 

Conla, q 3, 4. 

Conleamna, i j. 

Chonluain, k 6. 

Connacc, n c ; in c ; h 5. 

Conmael, g- 1 ; -mail, f 6, g 6. 

cop, ii j ; in j. 

cop (= co n-, prep.), v a ; v L 

copcpai, ii a. 

Copmac, w 5, 6. 

Coponb, o 3 

copplae, ii a. 

Copppi, u 5. 

copp, i j. 

coppcm, i o ; coppanac, i j, o. 

Copcpac, r 6. 

copcabaig, m 5. 

cpdb, i 5. 

cpaeb, o 1, p 2 ; cpaibi, n d. 

cpainb, i h, i. 

cpe6, i o. 

cpec(buli5), u 1 ; (pial)cpe6aig, i 1. 

cpiacpa, n m ; cpiacpab, in in. 

cpfc, b 2. 

Cpimcainb (g,), s 1, u 3 ; -anb, r 6, 

u4, y2. 

cpmmainb, i h, i* 
Chpma, w 5, 
cpine, a 4. 
cpo, i e, g. 
cpob, 1 3. 

Cpuacain, h 5 ; -ati, f 3. 
cpuaib, k 6, o 2, u 5, v 3, w 6* 
cpuap, i i. 
Cpuinb, x 6. 
cu (= co, prep.), i n, x 6 




bocuabap, i o; bocuato, i o. 

cuaipc, i 6. 

pocuala, i b. 

Cualsne, s 4. 

cuane, r 3 ; cuanaib, o 3. 

cui5, i a. 

Cuil, a 3. 

Cuill, e 2. 

Cinnb, x 6, w 3 ; Cuinn, n a. 

Chuinn, u 6. 

cuinnib, m 1, x 2. 

cuipe, i f, gr. 

cuipcep, n j. 

cumaib, a 4 ; (cpom)cuTnaib, u 8. 

cumaipc, i e, gr; n a, 1. 

cumapc, i e, f ; cummupc, in 1. 

cumne6, o 1, r 2, u 6 ; -1115, m 1. 

cumpaibe, s 1. 

cumul, ii g. 

CUTTmH5, II f. 

cu n- (for co n- ; cuppac), r 4. 
cupa6, n 4. 
cupab x n 4, s 3. 
cupfcaip, in j. 

b (pron. infix. 3 s), i d, 1; d 1, 4, 6, 

gr 3, li 4. 

b' (=be, bi), i a, j. 
b' (=bo), t 4, v 1, 3, y 1. 
b' (bo, pref. pole.), (biann)b'ponca, 

ba (num.), if, 8] iv c, d; b 5, 6, e 2, 

g-4, m 1, 3, 4, p 2, t 3, 6, x 2. 
ba n- (num.), v 3. 
b'a (bo a), i c, t 1. 
babcac, i f, gr. 
Oabull, x 6. 
ba6el, n a. 
bas, u 6, v 2 ; basbliaban, p 1 ; 

baglinb, j 3. 
, e 3. 

bai[n]<5en, n e ; v c. 

Oailec, s 6. 

bcnll, i h, i. 

baim (sb. col.), i j, k. 

Daip, i o. 

Oaipbpe, i 2. 

baic, n 3. 

balb, gr 3, y 3. 

Oalca, t 1. 

ban, in a. 

bap (prep.), in; b 1, c 1, gr 5, n 4. 

bapbopb ?, p 5. 

bap6ip, y 5. 

bac, i 6. 

baca, i f, gr ; bacca, a 5, c 3, 4, w 6, 


[0]aci, y 4. 
be (prep.), i e ; a 3, 4, b 2, 3, d 2, f 5, 

si, 2, t2. 
be (be and pron. suf. 3 s. rnasc.), i p ; 

(neut,) iv d. 

beacneb, n gr; be6neb, 11 h. 
bealg, n 1; bels, in 1. 
bealcac, n a, j. 
oeanrnab, i f. 
beappnaim, n 1. 
bebaib, b 3 ; -uib, n 2. 
bebece, n d ; -ci, n a, c, f, i, j, k, 1. 
bebibe, i i, j, k, 1 ; in c, d, e ; iv b, c, 

d ; v b ; -&e, n b, e, m. 
bebioe, n a; -61, n a. 
bebibi, i m, n; ma, b; va; -01, 

ii a. 

bebibib, i o; -oib, ii a. 
bee (num.), a 5, b 6, d 5, 2, i 1, j 3, 

m 1, n 3, p 4, 5, q 1, r 2, s 6, 1 3, 

4, u 4, v 2, x 4, y 2, 5. 
becib, gr 2. 
becubaib, n a. 

becubeb, in gr, f ; iv f ; be6-, iv gr. 
Debaib, s 6 ; -015, t 1. 
bebgaip, u 2. 



bes, j 4, x6; be5(bail), i 5; bes- 

(5ndc),ul; be5(Tnaic),p4, u4; 

bes(pf), p 5. 
beibeci, n a. 
beibibe, i a, c, h, i ; iv e ; -oe, i b ; 

-bi, i c, f ; -61, i e; n a. 
beibibib, i a. 
bei6 (num.), e 4, f 5, gr 1, i 3, 4, 5, 6, 

k 6, 1 5, n 6, p 1, 3, q 3, 6, s 2, 

v 3, w 6, x 2, 6. 
beic rii-, u 1. 
beileb, b 4. 

bem (adj.), m 1 ; bein .(vb.), n m. 
beipeoil, i a. 

beipinipecc, iv f ; beipmipecc, i i. 
beic (bo, prep. and pron.suf. 2s.), in a. 
beicbep, i f. 
Oelbaec, e 4. 
beliusub, i g, 
bene [bem], in m. 
beocaib, y 1. 

beps, e 3, g: 6, 1 6, m 6, o 5. 
(pi5)beps, p 6; beps(bail), i 5. 
bepnab, i 4 ; beppnpabap, i o. 
bepnnuim, in 1. 
Dep, c 3. 
bi (prep.), y 6. 

bi (bi and pron. suf. 3 s. fern.), i i; d 2. 
(pci)bf, h. 3. 

bi(aep), i c ; bi(aeip), o 5. 
bia (bo and a rel.), n c ; in o. 
bia (bo and a poss.), h 6, t 4. 
bia (conj. temp.), j 5. 
biac, a 1. 
biaio, i o. 

bialc, iv d ; bialca, inj. 
bicm, ii g-; bian(blaib), w 5; bicm 

(slice), u 2 ; 

in g. 

t)ioncecc, e 2. 
Diapmaba, i f, gr. 
big, t 3, x 5, y 2. 

, i h, i. 

bil, e4. 

bilinb, a 2, 5. 

binsbail, i h, i. 

binb, inb; iv a, d, e. 

bippan, n h; in h. 

Dicopba, o 3. 

b6 (num.), h 2. 

bo (poss. 2 s.), i j, 1 ; n a, g ; in a. 

bo (prep.), i i, k, o ; 11 f, m ; in f, h ; 
a 5, b 2, d4, e2, 3, f 1, h 4, 5, 6, 
i 6, k 4, 1 1, n 6, o 4, 5, q 3, r 3, 
6, s2, 3, 6, t 2, u2, 3, y2, 3, 4. 

bo (= be, bi), i c ; ii a, k ; in k; a 3, 
4, d 5, e 1, 6, f 1, 6, s 4, 5, t 5, 
u 3, v 2, w 2. 

bo (= bo and pron. suf. 3 s. m.), i b; 
ii f; e 1, t 4. 

bo (vbl. pole.),bobep, ib; iif; nif j 
bobepap, iv a; bocoib, b 2; 
bocucno, i o; bocuabap, i o; 
bo bmsbail, ih, i; bopala, ic; 
bompala, ii h; pornlapa, nih; 
bo leppao, 1 1 ; bo marmpat), 
ii c ; in c ; bopac, 1 3, a 1 ; bo- 
pacpac, c 5; bopomup [bo[p]- 
poinup, ii e; bo cpiall, i o. 

boceil, iv b. 

bo6um, n d. 

be(beabaio), in b ; bo(bebaib), nb. 

b6is, s 6. 

boic, i 3. 

boipppeopacc, ii m; in m. 

bolam, 1 1. 

Domnanb, c 1, 3. 

bo(mumcip), 1 1. 

bo'n (be in), e 4 ; (bo in) a 5, d 1, 
h 4, o 5. 

bo'nb (be inb), 1 1. 

Dnonncmo, n a. 

bonb, o 3. 

bono, n c, i. 




bopombe, i c; bponca, n gr; m gr. 

bopomup [bo[p]poinup], n e. 

bono, iv d. 

boppban, i a. 

bopup, ii e; v c. 

bop, f 2 ; bopp, p 6. 

boc' (bo, prep, and poss. 2 s.), i k. 

bpec(beips), b 4 ; bpec(maip), q 5. 

bpenb, e 3. 

bpuinft, b 5. 

bpuab, n h; m h. 

bpuin, ii j ; in j. 

bu (for bo, vbl. pcle.), bupcuigebap, 

in d. 

Dua6, 1 4, 5, 6, m 1, n 6, s 6, 1 1. 
buaine, iv d. 

buan, iv d ; -na, i b ; -mo, i k. 
buanbaipbne, iv a. 
t)ubbeca6, w 5. 
btiib, c 6. 

t)uib-6omniuvp, x 5. 
bumb, n a. 
bumb, b 3. 

bume, i f, er; buni, a 1. 
buipb, q. 5. 
buipnb, q 2. 

buic (bo and pron. suf., 2 s.), i c. 
(cpec)bulis, u 1. 
t)umu, d 1. 
btin, g-5, k 1. 
, ii b. 
, i b. 

e (pron.), i a, e, g ; n c ; me; iv d ; 

c 5, 1 4, q 5, y 5. 
eac, n d. 
eao, i e. 

6amain, i f, i ; -an, i i ; Gmna, o 4. 
heamna (g.), i :. 
Gacan, n i. 
ebailc, u 4. 

Cbep, e 6, f 1; -ip, f 4, gr 1, 4. 

Gbpic, g-3, 4. 

6c, b 2, e 1, f 2, i 4, o 4, r 3, s 2, 

u 5, 6, y 1; 6ca, 14. 
e6, d 6, f 6; eic (gen.), i d, e; eocu, 

6ca6, g 6, h 2 ; Gccnb, g: 6, t 2 ; 

-015, g-5. 
ecbdne, d 1. 
ecep, i 4; eicpiu, v a. 
ecoiecerm, 1 1 ; ecc-, i k. 
ecnac, w 5. 
(po)ecne, o 2. 
ecc, e 2. 
eccga, i n. 
eccpa, u 4. 
eb, 1 5, x 1. 
bail, i o. 
ebap, in i. 
Gbne, q 1. 
ebpo6c, ii k. 
Gipc, d 5. 
eipi<5, ii a. 
(bia)6ip, o 5. 
ela6, y 3. 
6laban, e 1. 
ele, i i. 

eilim, k 2, v 2, 3. 
(po)emna, v 1. 
en, n j ; m j. 
henapan, ii i. 

6nna, h 3, 4, 1 6, m 2, r 6; he-, r 5. 
Gocaib, 1 1, m 3, q 6, t 4, y 1, y 3 ; 

-015, 16. 
6oco, m 5, n 4, 5, r 1, t 3, x 1, y 1 ; 

-cu, d ,5, e 3, g 3, 1 1, m 4, 6. 
Gosan, e 4. 

epbailc, a 6, d 2, f />, g 2, v 5. 
ep(bpap), m b ; ep(slap), m b. 
6penb, g3, 4; h6-, t6; hGpenn, 

d 1; y 6. 
h6pimoin, e 6, f 1 ; -en, f 2. 



Cpinb, a 5, 6, d 5, 6, k 2, r 5, v 1, 3, 

x 1; he-, s 1, 4, y 5. 
epinn, c 5 ; -lu, f 2; hGpiu, a 1, 

b 1, f 2, y 5. 
eppacc, u 2. 
ep (bi a ep), i c. 
epcib, c 6. 
epin, d 5. 
Cpp-puab, o 2. 
ec (e&), in gr; hec, n gr. 
Gcan, n i; in i. 
ecap, n i. 
ecep, i e, 1; in a. 
Gceppcel, t 5. 
ecgubab, gr 3. 
etpiel, f 6. 
ecpocc, in k. 
, w 6. 

pa(= po), h 3, 4, i 1, j 4, k 4, q 4. 

pa, wl. 

pabaip, h 1. 

(p)aca, i d, e. 

paccTia, t 1, 2. 

(paebup)5lap, gr 5. 

pait>, f 4, 5. 

pdil, i 5, j 5, k 4, s 2 ; pail-inpe, o 3. 

paippaisib, i e. 

paipinb, i a. 

paicpea, n i. 

paba, i f. 

pdlib, y 6. 

panb, c 1. 

pdp, b 1. 

papaib, i gr ; papann, i i ; -ap, i e, i. 

pac, a 4, c 1. 

pac, i 2, j 1 2 ; paca, i gr ; u a ; 

(lam)p-, w 6. 
Paca6, a 2, t 1. 
peaccup, i o. 
peap, n d, i. 

peapaib, i a. 

peaps, iil; peps, ml; b4; -55, 

m 6. 

[p]eapcan, i a. 
Pebail, b 3. 
peblimec, n c ; -IITTII&, m c ; -TTII&, 

iv d ; peiblimib, v 5. 
P6ic, j 2. 

Peible6, t 3; -lis, t 2. 
p6i5, o 6. 

P6m (ac.), v 6; pene, h 1. 
peiC, x 4. 
popeifc, k 5, w 6. 
(pobop)peic, v 3. 
pell, in a. 
pelup, iv d. 
pemiTi, w 2. 
(pirm)permib, 4. 
pep (n. s.), r 4 (g. p.), c 2, 4, gr 2, t 5 ; 

(g. p.), o2, 4, q2; -alb, c 2. 
Pepabais, u 6. 
pepamail, r 4; pepba, v 1. 
pep6ep, w 4. 
Pepcopbb, q 2. 
pepsup, b 1, 4, r 1, w 5. 
pepp, i 4 ; popepp, k 5. 
peca, n 3. 
popecep, n i. 
Piaca, g: 6, h 1, i 1, x 4, 5 ; -6ac, e 4, 

i 1, v 1, x 6; -6015, v 1. 
piacna, v 2. 

piacpa, n 2 ; -pa6, d 3 ; -pais, d 3. 
piabmoiTi, i n. 
pial, r 1 ; pialcpe6ai5, i 1. 
piannaib, o 3, v 2. 
piappaigib, i d. 
pice, d 6, f 6, gr 6, b. 1, o 4, r 1, u 6, 

y 3; -cec, e 5, q 5, u 3, v 6, 


piceap, ii b.. 
pici, b 2, j 2, 1 3, n 1, o 3, t 2 ; -cic, 

a 2, e 2, 3, g- 4, o 6, r 3, y 5. 



picib (vb.), f 5. 

piccib, k 4. 

pi&, i n. 

pilet), 10; pill, i c. 

pint), e 3, gr 5, 1 4, u 6, w 2, x 3. 

pinb(6obail), r 4 ; pfnb(5dill), n a. 

pinb(gil), e 4 ; pinb(5ualainb), 


pmb(naip), i b., i. 
pint), 1 1, 2, n 3, t 2, v 1. 
pinbrnuine, m 6. 
pinsail, x 4. 
pinn, ii k. 
pinnpennib, f 4. 
pinnacca, i 5, j 1. 
pinnait), d 3. 
pincan, a 2, 4; -am, o 4. 
pincaic, B 3, 4. 
pfp, c 6, v 5, y 5. 

pfp(bli5eb), in a; pfp(bpeic), x 6. 
pip(buib), ii j; in j. 
pip, c 1,3, 4. 
popfpab, s 3. 

phipcopb, q 3; -6uipp, q 5, 6. 
pipe, a 4. 
pipe,-!! d. 
pipio, i f. 
pin, ii k; in k. 
picip, a 1. 

plaint), i h, i; plann, i c. 
plaic, m g* ; iv f; c 2, d 2, f 4, gr 1, 

h 1, m 4, t 6, w 2. 
plaic[iup], i 1; (apb)plaic, u 1. 
(com)plaic, m 5 ; pip[p]laic, n 3. 
plannacam, i m. 
placa, i h, i ; n g ; h 2, i 2, j 2, 


platiup, d 5, 6, g 6, u 6. 
plebe, p 3 ; (apb)plebac, y 3. 
plibaip, q 6. 

po, i o ; ii k ; in k ; 1 2, q 6, v 1 . 
pocael, i c ; poceil, n m ; in m. 

pot>, in a. 

pobail, iv c ; pobla, iv a. 

ppblai, n a. 

pole, iik; ink; -cbube, c6; -c- 

caem, f 1 ; polccdin, q 6. 
pop, i o ; ii a ; in g, k ; iv a, to ; c 2, 

hi 2, 14, 6; j 2, 16, n 1, q 1, u 1, 

v2, 4, y 3. 
popba, iv d. 
popbupe, i o. 
popcentmip, iv d. 
popbalac, i n. 
popsna, f 4. 

popleacan, i k ; popldn, d 2. 
popmaili, 1 2. 
popon, f 4. 
poppain, i o; W 4. 
poppm, ii e; in e. 
popcamail, r 1. 
popuill, ii a. 
poc, h 2, 1 2. 
poca, n a, c, gr; in c, gr; iv d, f ; e 1, 

Poca6, x 3 ; -015 (g. s.), x 4 ; (ac. s.) 

x 3 ; (n. p.) x 3. 
pocla, c 6. 
ppap, ii b. 
Ppemamb, t 4. 
Ppecam[-ain], i o. 
ppi, i f, gr ; n a, f, 1; in f, h, 1 ; iv a ; 

c 3,w3. 
[p]pi, i gr; ppia, q 5 ; ppipin, iv a, 

c ; v c. 

ppipnai<5, ii b; in b. 
ppicapsain, w 4. 
puaip, a 1, i 5, j 4, 5, 1 4, 6, m 3, 

r 1, 5, s 6, t 3, 5, v 3, w 4, x 5, 


puba, iv e. 
puippi (pop, prep, and pron. suf.) 3 s. 

fern.), iv d. 



pogab, i c ; pagaib, a 2, 5, o 5, y 5 ; 

5dbail, i m. 
5abaip, x 2. 

gabaip, k 2 ; -ap, c 2 ; -up , i d. 
gabpac, c 3; pogabpaoap, x 3. 
gaca, iv d. 
gac n-, in 1. 
gae (cia), n I. 
(5aelian, c 4. 
gaec, i a ; iv o. 

(bapp)gaefc, e 2; (gapb)gaec, d 1. 
pogaec, d 5. 
gail, f 5, j 3. 
gaill-meipgib, i n. 
5ainne, y 6. 
gafp, n j; in j. 
pogaipb, s 1. 
gaipeap, n j ; -pep, in j. 
gafpec, n a, b, d, h. ; iv c, d, e ; -pib, 

in d; -pic, in b, h; iv e, g-. 
gaipm, n e; v c. 
gaffe, f5,j 3. 

gain- (g. p.), y 5; galaig, a 5. 
galop, d 1, f 5. 
Jjaliuin, c 1. 
gallinb, b 3. 
gan, i d. 

<5ant>, i c (pr. name), a 3, o 3, d 2. 
gapb, d 1. 
gap5(blaib), n 6; (clec)gapg, q 3; 

(Tnop)sapg, 1 3; gapglgnini), 


gapp, in a. 
gape, k 3. 
(m)gapca,j 1. 
geapp, i j. 
<5et>e, j 1, 3. 

geib, in; nl; ma; nomgeb, in 1. 
geincib, i n. 
(km)geip, o 6. 
geipib, i a. 
gecan, y 4 ; -am, k 1. 

gen [gaec], m b. 

<5enanb, c 3, d 2. 

gepp, j 2. 

pomgial, y6; pogiallab, el, h 5, 

k3, n6, t 3, x 1, 2, y 4. 
giallaib, k 2 ; pog-, 1 6. 
<5iallcab, k 3. 
gilla, w 5, y 6 ; -e, y 6. 
glace (sb.), w 5, x 1 ; poglacc (vb.), 

q 5, w 3. 
glaic (sb.), s 5. 
glan, i a; nj; m j ; a 6, nl,o3; 

glain, n 6; img-, f 1. 
glap, n b ; in b ; iv c ; bappg-, v 2 ; 

paebupg-, gr 5; mopg-, c 1. 
gle, o 3. 
gleicc, j 3. 
gleic, i e; glee, i d. 
(bian)glicc, u 2. 
glop, a 5. 
gnaice, iv d. 

(beg)gndc, u 1 ; gnacaigcep, v b. 
gne, iv d; gne -, iv b. 
gnim, a 1, y 6. 
(bimmap)g6, k 4. 
goppa, x 1. 
<5pec, a 6; -eic, b 5. 
gpein, in b. ; -e[i]n, n h. 
pene, e 5, 6. 
gpian-ppoill, i n. 
gpinb, a 6, j 3, k 3, y5; inig-, 


guilbnea6, n a, j, k ; in j, k. 
guilbnen, m j. 
gulbainb, n k ; -ban, n j . 
<5unnac, x I. 
guc, n j; inj. 

ha, i g. 

hQeb, o 1. 
haei, iv d. 



, c 6. 
he, iv f. 

hQmaipsen, e 6. 
hdpe, k3. 
Tieamna, i g. 
henapan, n i. 
henna, h. 3, 4. 
h6nent>, g 2; -nn, y 6. 
hepimain, e 6, f 1 ; -6n, f 1, 2. 
heninb, a 5, 6, c 3, k 2, y 5 ; -nn, 

c 4, d 1, 5, 6. 
h6pin, a 1, b 1, f 2, y 5. 
hec (het>), n g. 
hi, vb ; c 1. 
himmapbpec, b 6. 
hirnmapso, k 4. 
himpoft, i g. 
himpinb, i f. 
hingin (ac.), y 2, 
hoen, a 6. 

hUa, i h, i; a 1, s 5, v 6, x 6. 
hlli, n a; e 2. 

i (g. s.), i m. 

i (pron. pers. 3s. fern.), if, h; hi, vb. 

1 (prep.), ia,e; urn; ivd; a 3, b2,3, 
c 1, e 2, 6, f 3, g 3, h 1, 3, i 3, j 2, 
I 5, m 1, 5, n 2, 3, o 3, p 2, q. 6, 
r 2, 3, 6, t 4, 6, v 3, w 3, 5, 6, 
*4, 5, yl,4. 

i (in which), g 2. 

i (IL- = i n^L-), u 6. 

i m- (n assim. to m), f 3, 5, h 4, i 2, 

5, 6, v 2. 

i n- (prep.), i gr, o ; iv d ; v b ; a 3, 4, 

6, c2, dl, 5, 6, f 2, j 6,k6, n 5, 
o 2, r 1, s 2, t 5, x 1, y 2. 

i p- (n assimilated to p), c 3, e 5, f 1, 

6, m2, p2,tl,2, 
i(pin), t 3, v 4. 
itiic, w 6. 

lap, i a; a 5, b 1, j 5, t 4, x 4, 5. 

lap pein, d 3; lap pin, m 6. 

iapam,o5; iapma,e3; iapum,k4. 

lapbonel, b 3. 

lapcomapc, iv d. 

lappocac, x 4. 

idpla, w 1. 

lapnbont), m 2. 

lapnoin, i n. 

lapcain, a 5, f 1. 

ic (prep.), c 4, p 3, x 6 ; 15, i f, g. 

16, i f. 

ibep, i g; ibip, i f. 

ibon, i g ; in a, g 1 , j ; iv a, b, c, d. 

im, i i, n ; in a ; imrn, in h. 

imamnapp, v 2. 

imcenn, in a. 

imcolma, n 3; imslain, f 1. 

im&a, i f, gr. 

imspinb, n 5 ; imldin, v 3. 

Imlec, k 3 ; -ca, k 4 ; -lie, k 5 ; -lig, 
s 5. 

imniac, 1 1. 

himmapbp6c, b 6; himmapso, k4. 

immap, n 1 [inmap]. 

immelban, i 2; immelslaip, s 1. 

imnap, v 5. 

imoppo, i a. 

himpo6, i g: 

impinb, i e, f, h, i, k, m, n, o ; n a ; 
in a, b ; v a ; -pinn, iv c. 

in (art. nom., gen., ac., niasc.,fum.), la, 
d, e, f, h, i, k, 1, m ; n b, c, d, 
h, j, o ; in c, d, gr ; iv a, c, d, f ; 
a 5, b2, c2,4,5, d5, e 3, f5, g 5, 
h 2, 3, 6, i 3, j 3, k 1, 6, m 2, 5, 
n 3, o 1, pi, 2, 3, q 5, r 2, 5, 
s 1, 3, t 2, 4, 5, u 4, 5, w 3, G, 
xl,y2, 4. 

(app)in, b 5 ; (ipp)m, d 2, g 2, h 5. 

ipin, p 3, t 3. 

(lapp)in, h 2. 



in t>- (art.), iv c; v b. 

in c- (art.nom.,gen.,clat.,masc., neut.), 

i b ; ii j ; in j ; in c- (art.), h 3, 

k 1, 14, t 3. 
inbais, x 4. 
Inbip, e 4. 
Ificel, u 1. 
inb (art. n. s. masc.), v b ; (g. s. masc.), 

in j ; 1 2, w 6 ; (neut.), 1 1 ; (fern.), 

f 2; (dat. s. fern.), r 5, s 1. 
inb (i and pron. suf. 3 s. neut.), I k. 
Inbapaib [int> op ait)], 1 5. 
inbi, i b; n f. 
inblim, v a. 
1115, 14. 
insapca, j 1. 
1115611, a 2 ; hinsm, y 2. 
, a 2. 
i c. 

imp, a 1, i 5. 
inmain, n k; m k. 
innmup, m 1. 
inn (art.), n b ; e 6, q 3. 
innais, n b. 

i[n]napb, x 5; innapbpac, n 4. 
po innipiup, c 6. 
inpe, o 3. 
inpo, ii k. 
inunn, iv d. 
ipaig, c 3. 
ipbaipc, q 4. 
Ipepeo, q 2, 4. 
Ipiel, f5; Ipieoil, f6. 
ip (vb.), i b, e, f, g, h, i, 1, o ; ii c, e, 

f, h. ; in a, c, e, h ; iv a, d, e, gr ; 

v a, b, c ; v 5, u 6, y 5. 
ip (abbrev. of ocup), i f, gr, o ; n g, j, 

k, m; m b, j ; a 2, b 6, f 1, 3, 

n 6, o 3, 4, 6, r 3, s 2, u 6, w 2, 4. 
(ip)in (art.), in gr; iv f ; v 4. 
ipin c-, ii j. 
iucpa, i j. 

Id (sb.), a 2. 

la (prep.), mm; iv e ; b 3, 4, d 3, 4, 
e 6, f 4, g- 1, 5, h 5, i 3, j 2, 4, 
3, 6, n 2, 3, o 1, 5, p 2, q 1, 2, 6, 
r 1, 2, 5, 6, t 2, 5, 6, u 1, 3, v 1, 
2, 6, w 1, 4, 5, x 5, 6. 

bopala, ic; bompala, iih; pom- 
lapa, m To.. 

l/abpaib, p 3, 4 ; -paba, p 6. 

Labpainne, g- 6, b. 1. 

Labsaip, n 6. 

tabpu, a 2, 3; Labpanb (g.), a 3, 
f 3. 

laec, d 1, e 2, j 5, p 4, u 1, w 6 ; 
-cba, n 2 ; laecpecca, u 4. 

Laesaipe, P 2. 

lafc, b 1. 

(po)lafc, f 5. 

Iai6, i o. 

Laibe6, o 1; -bis, o 6. 

Lafsne, f 3. 

laim, e 4, 6, s 1, 4, w 2 ; .lam, c 3. 

lamn, m 6. 

laip, i j. 

laici, n c. 

lam(beps), m 6; lam(paca), w 6. 

Lamfac, a 1. 

Ian, u 5; lan(comup), iv d; 

(bic)ldn, q2; (pop)lan, d 2. 

lanb, f 3. 

lanfoeip), o 6; lan(maic), d 5. 

Idp, v4. 

lapa (la and a, rel.), in i. 

lapin, s 3, 6, x 3; lappm, h 2. 

lace, x 4. 

leap, n e ; in e. 

[p]leco, b 3 ; [pjlecca, f 4. 

I6ip, s 5. 

Leic, u 6. 

leps, 8*6. 

lepp, v c ; leppab, 1 1. 



lee, n 1 ; lecbliabam, f 4. 

If, p 5. 

Liaea[i]n, b 2; liacanaig (gen.), id, 

e; Liacbpuim, u 6. 
liacpoici, i j. 

lib (la and pr. suf. 2 p.), k 5. 
Ifn, i a ; y 5 ; polfn, o 1. 
lint), b 1, j 3, u 6. 
Line, v 4. 
linn [binn], m j. 
linni (la and pr. suf. 1 p.), x 2. 

iipp, m i. 

16, j 5. 

palocpab, p 2. 

Loin5pe6, p 4. 

paloipc, k 1, p 3, t 4 ; poloip c, y 4. 

longepp, j 2 ; longpib, c 1. 

luab, in f ; luag, u f. 

, ii b ; in b, h [luaibep]. 
, s 4, 5, v 6. 
luam(clepp), v 6. 
luapcac, i o. 
lubain, i j. 
luce, a 2. 
L"5, e 2. 
1/11506, ii d; -gaib, n 4, 6, o 1, s 5, 

u2, 3, w3, 4, xl ; -gbac, ml; 

5be6, n 1, 2, o 6, u 4, 6, w 4. 
luib, b 4. 
Luigne, f 3. 
luin, ii j ; in j. 
Luipc, p 2. 

m (pron. infix., 1 s.), nomgeb, in 1; 
bompala, ii h; pomlapa, in h. 

m (pron. infix. 3 s. masc.), pombaib, 
w 6; (neut.), pomsial, y 6. 

mac (n. d. ac.), 10; n m; mm; ivb; 
b4, d5, e 1,2, 6, f 6, g 1,3,4,6, 
i 3, 5, 6, j 1, 3, 4, k 2, 3, 5, 1 2, 
4, 5, 6, m 1, 2, n 1, 2, 3, 5, o 1, 
2,6, p 6, q 1, 2,5,6, s 6, t 2, u 4, 
v 4, 5, w 1, 3, 4, x 1, 6, y 6. 

mac (dual), g 4, m 5; maccaib, b 1, 

m 4. 

TTIa6a, i 5, o 5. 
ma[b], ii gr; mab, in g. 
TTIael-pabaill, n k; in k. 
TTlhaenai<5, ii m; in m. 
mag, o 1. 
TTIase, 1 5. 
magen, a 1. 

maibm, in; b 5 ; pomabaib, z 2. 
TTIais, f 3, 5, h 4, i 2, 5, v 2 ; - 5 e, 

o2, 6. 
maisjii, i j. 
mail, i h, i; w 1. 
TTIain, h 4. 
maine, i k. 
maip, a 4. 

maic, in k; p 1, 5, r 2, s 3, t 3, u 6. 
(be5)maic, p 4, u 4 ; (lan)maic, d 5. 
(pu)maic (vb.), h 6. 
TTIdl, v4, 5. 
mall, a 4. 

malle (aphaeresis of i), e 5. 
mannpab, u c; in c. 
mdp, s 3. 
map (conj.), s 3. 
mapb, a 4, m 1 ; pomapb, g 6, i 5, 

p 1, 4, t 1, v 4, 5, x 5, y 1, 3. 
pobmapb, 1 1 ; d 1, 4, 6, g 3 ; pop- 

mapb, e 4, o 5. 

mapb[c]a, b 3, d2; pomapboa, f3. 
mapoen, f 1, y 3. 
mapp, c 1. 
(apb)maciup, d 6. 
mebon, i 6. 
meic (n. p.), b 2, e 5, f 3, 4. 


, p4, 5, q2. 
, p 6. 
(po)meic, e 1. 
mi, 1 6. 
miab, p 1. 



mfbia [m-bia], in i. 

line (g.), in a; a 4, e 1, g 4, 6, j 3, 

k6, pG, q 1, s4, w 1, 2, 4, x 1 ; 

mic (voc.), i j, m, n. 
TThbe, ii c ; w 1 ; -61, in c. 
mile, a 6. 
milec, 1 1. 
milib, h 6. 
milip , i 5. 
mmb, g 5. 
mine, n m; in m. 
TTlipp, m 1. 

mo (poss. 1 s.), ii 1; in 1. 
mob, in m ; -ba, ii m. 
TTIoscopb, p 5, 6, q 2; lllosa- 

cuipb, q 2. 
mosba, q 4. 
mom, i a. 
moip (gen. ac.), i a, e, h, i, n ; 

pom6ip, s 6. 
molbcac, a 1. 
mosaic, t 3. 
monup, ii c; in c. 
mop, n d, k; in k; a 1, b 1, e 2, f 4, 

g- 1, o4. 
mopbuibnib, m 1 ; mopsapg, i 3 ; 

mopslapp, c 1. 
mopairib, i i ; -nn, i h. 
THopainb, u 5. 
TTlopc, b 4. 
TTluabe, f 5. 
TTIucpama, w 3. 
TTlu5TTieb6n, y 1. 
pomubaig, w 3, x 1 ; pop-, m 6. 
TTluinsaipis, i m. 
(bo)muincip, 1 1. 
muip, b 1, c 1, g 5. 
TTlullac, k6. 
ITlumaiTi, i j ; a 4, R 1, p 6, s 3 ; 

TTlumnec, m 3. 
THumne, f 3. 
TTlumo, h 2. 

TTIuTiemoTi, i 1 ; -oin, i 3. 
Ulup Ice, y 3. 
ITIupca&a, i n. 
niupeoaig, n 2. 
TTIupeca6, 1 5, 6 ; !Tlupit)a6, 
mupiucc, c 1. 

5, 6. 

n (pron. infix. 3 s.), ponomnais, n 1. 
'n (for in, art. by aphaeresis of i), n in ; 

in h ; s 3, y 6; (for i n-, prep.), 

v c. 
na (art., g. s. fern.), i g, o ; p 3 (n. pi. 

masc.), i o ; x 3 (g. pi.) ; i f , v b ; 

a 1, b 4, c 2, d 6, g 5, i 1, o 2, 

t 5, 6 (ac. pi.) ; n er- 
n-a (aphaeresis of i), ii e; v c; 15, 

q 5, r 4. 

na (neg.), i n, o ; n e. 
na I- (n assim. to I), f 3, g 6, v 6. 
na m- (n assim. to m), o 5. 
na n- (art., g. p.), nh; inh; e 3, f 6, 

14, n 5, y 4, 5, w 5. 
nac, i e; n h; in h. 
naco n- (noco n-), v 5. 
nab (cc.:j. neg.), v b. 
na[ib], i o. 
naip, b 1. 

nama, i i; namma, k 3. 
Necc, t 5. 
neic, ii e; v c. 
Neimeb, b 1, 2, 6; Nemib (g.), w2, 


nemm, i o. 
neo6, n f ; in f. 

nepc, k 5, s 4, y 3 ; coemn-, v 4. 
m (neg.), i a, c, i, j ; ii b, e, i, 1 ; 

in a, i, 1; iv c, d, e; v b ; b 6, c 1, 

g:3, h 6, j 4, nl, P 2, t 6, y 1, 3. 
Nia, r 4, 5. 
Mfall, y 3. 
mmbarigen, v c; -bai[n]<5en, 11 e. 



nirnnib, y 2. 

nin (= ni annpa), i a, f. 

nip (for m po), el, f 4, y 2. 

mpc, v 1 ; mupc n- (d.), y 4. 

no (conj.), TV e. 

no (vbl. pole.), noppobe, ic; nom- 

geb, in 1. 
noco, n f, in f, m; t 4, u 3; -co, 

ii 1, m; noco n-, i d ; ni; al; 

-con., i e, k. 
n6i (num.), a 6, e 5, h 4, k 3, 5, m 2, 

p 4, s 3, v 5 ; n6i m-, s 4, t 1. 
NuabaiG, k 4, t5; -bac, k 5, t6; 

-bu, d 6, k 5. 
nuall [? n-uall], n b. 

o (sb.) i c. 

o (conj. temp.), i d, e ; n d ; in d. 

(prep.), i a; b 5. 
obcnp, i b. 

oc (prep.), k I. 

occaib (oc, prep, and pr. suf. 2 pi.), i n. 
OCC, q 1, y 1 ; occ m-, m 3, o 1, a 2. 
ocup (-]), i, ii, in passim, v c, b 3, 

c 3, 4. 
Obba, n 3. 
Obbsen, d 4. 
oen, a 4, 5, 6, b 1, c 4, f 5, k 2, n 3, 

r 2, w2, 5, x 1; oenop, f 2. 
Oensup, h 2, a 1, 3; r 2; 

x 1. 

ospi, m k. 
6ip, e 6. 
ol, ij. 

01 (vb.), p 3. 
Olcain, k 2. 
olbap, iv d. 
OUam, q 1. 
Ollacaip, e 3. 
Oll5oca6, j 1. 

Ollomain, i 3, 6, j 3 -man, i 4. 

Ollopba, x 4. 
Olmucaib, Ii 2. 
omna, q 3. 

ponomnais, n 1 ; oniun, iigr; in g. 
on, f 2. 

o'n (o and in, art.), b 5. 
opb, v 2. 
opblac, ij. 

op, i a, m ; n a ; d 6, e 5, gr 3, k 1, 2, 
p 1, 2, r 5, s 1, 4, t 1, u 5, x 3, 


pop (for po po), 1 4. 
papcolon, a 5, 6, b 1. 
pacep [?], in a. 
Pacpaic (g.), y 5. 
popo, e 1, m 1, q 3, u 2. 
puipc, a 6. 

nip' (for ni po), e 1, f 4. 

pa (for la, prep.), i k ; a 6, c 1, 6, h 6, 

P 2, y 2, 3. 

pa (= la a ; prep, and poss. 3 ms.), y 2. 
pa n- (la n-), m b. 
pa (vbl. pcle.), bopala, i d. 
pdib, i h, i. 
painb [pmb], ii j. 
Raipinb, f 6. 
paic, t 5. 
TCaic, m 2. 
pdn, m 2. 

panb, c 4; painb, u 5. 
panbaioacc, ic; pann-, if; pan- 

naio-, i g; -506^, iv a, b, c, d. 
pac, 14, j 1, ml, r 4, u 5 ; -map, 

v a; (cop)pac, v 1. 
bopac, 1 3, q 1 ; bopacpac, c 5. 
paca, ih, i. 
pdce, t 6; -ci, 1 1. 



p, f 2, h 5, m 5, q 5, r 4, t 3, w 3. 

pe (la and a, rel.), n i. 

pe (prep.), ib, gr; j 6. 

pecomapc, iv d ; -cac, n a, k ; in k. 

pecc (g. p.), t 5. 

pecc(iapla), m 5. 

Reccaib, o 5, 6. 

(cpen)p6t>5, k 6. 

p6il, m 1, 2. 

peiceap, iih; -ep, m h. 

pemip, k 1, o 5, q 2, 4. 

pi (sb.), i m ; ii c, gr, h, k ; in c, g-, h, 

iv d; c2, 5, d 1, 5, b. 1, 3,6, 12, 

4, 5, j 2, 1 5, 6, m 1, 4, n 1, o 3, 

p3, 5, ql, 2, r 1,6, s 1, 2, 4, 

t 2, 5, u 5, v 1, 2, 3, 6. 
pi (for la, prep ), b 4, 6, c 6, j 5, m 4, 

o 3, r 3, w 5. 
pia, in; a 2, y 5. 
pia (for la, prep.), n 6. 
piaslorn, m 2. 
piam, n 1. 
popiapab, p 3, r 2. 
picpac, i h. 
pi5 (g. s.), o 2, u 1 (d. s.) ; t 2 (ac. s.) ; 

j 4 (n. p.) ; c 1, &4, y 5; (g. p.), 

a 1 ; -aib, c 3, 6. 
pi5ain, o5; pisba, to. 
piSbeps, o 5, p 6. 
piSbopbb, q 3. 
pi5pileb, ma; pisniac, k 5. 
pi5e, e 5, f 1, j 5, k 2, 5, p 2, v 1. 
(apb)pise, q5; -51, c 5. 
pint), d 4, 5, t 2, 5 ; -Tin, in j. 
pinbail, d 3 ; pmn-, d 4. 
pip, in; ill; pippin, c 1. 
PO, y 4. 
po (vbl. pcle. prefixed), biap'_b]a, 11 c ; 

pombdib, w 6 ; noppobe, ic; 

biap'bo (bia pobo), in c ; po- 

bpip, b 4; pocaemcaic, m 4; 

pocaic (under c) ; pocinpee, 

n4; po6uala, ib; ponblig, q3; 
popeic, k 5, w 6, v 3; po- 
pecep, n i; popipab, s 3; 
pogab, i c; pagaib (under 5) ; 
pocecsab, a 2; posabpacup, 
x3; posaec, d5; pomsiall, po- 
51 allot) (under 5) ; poslacc, q 5; 
w 3 ; popi[n]napb, x 5 ; poinn- 
apbpac, n 4; po innipiup, c 6; 
pomlapa, nih; palocpat), p2; 
paloipc, po- (under I); pumaic 
(for pomaic), h 6; pomapb, 
pobmapb, popmapb (under m) ; 
ponomnais, n 1 ; popiapab, 
p 3, r2; popcap,j5; -ppac, 
n 6; papomup (pa[p]pomup) 
v c; pocaipinb, j 3, k 1 ; po- 
cecc, v 4, 5; pocenb, v4; 
popcib, i a; pocoslab, b 6; 
pocomnaicep, 10; pucpac, c4; 
papcuisiceap, n d. 

po (vbl. pcle. infixed), bepnab, 14; 
beppnpabap, i o ; bopirisni, 
e 2; bopoinbe, i c; (biann)- 
bponca, in gr; bopocaip (see 
under c) ; bopobbab, q 3 ; ep- 
bailc, f 5, g: 2; copcaip (under 
c) ; bompala, n h. 

po(intens.),pobacaoin,h4; poecne, 
o 2; posec, r 2; posiallaib, 
16; polafc, f 5; pomac, h 6 ; 
poni6ic, e 1 ; popuab, p 3 ; po- 
Cempa, o 4; pom6ip, s 6; 
pupis (forpopis), u2; poemna, 
v 1 ; popinni, x 2. 

papomup [pa[p]pomup], v c. 

popinni, x 2. 

popai glise [ppeplise], i gr. 

"Roppa, t 2; -ac, n d, iv e; -an, 
in d. 

n6cpibe, v 4, w I. 

poc, k 1. 



poca, e 1. 

TCoceccaib, h 4, 5, j 6, k 1. 

puab, n d ; in d ; d 3, e 1, t 2, x 2 ; 

iv e; puaib, h 4, f 6, o 2. 
(bpac)ptiaib, e 6, 1 1. 
puacap, a 3. 
TCubpaige, a 1, 2, 6. 
TCuipenb, in a. 
puipi, e 1. 

puic, d 2 ; -cne6, q 3. 
pupi, m 2; pupis, u 2. 
TCup, c 3. 
Rupcac, iv e. 

p (pron. inf. 3 s.), noppobe, i c; po- 

boppeic, v3; conoppuaip, a 1 ; 

popmapb, e4, o 5; popirmbais, 

m 6 ; bupcuisibap, in d; 

papcuisiceap, n d. 
'P (= ip = ocup), y 4. 
paeb, j 4. 
paep, c 5, q 1, y 6 ; paep (calma), 


paigeb, m 3. 
pail, n j ; m j. 
pain, y 1. 
pdl, k 1, n 4. 
pamcac, i f, gr. 
Samcainne, y 6. 
papugut), h 6. 
pcailce, i a, 1; vb; -ce6, iv a, c, d ; 

-lice, i j ; -lei, n a, c, d ; in a, 

Cj d ; iv to. 

popcap, j 5; -ppac, n 6. 
pceipbic, i n. 
pc6l, vb; t 4. 

(apm)pciac, n 5 ; (coem)pciac, t 6. 
pcpibeanb, i c. 
p6 (num.), b 6, d 5, f 3, h 3, i 1, k 4, 

14, rl, u3, 4, v6, y 5. 
p6 TTI- (num.), x 2. 

peapc, n g", pepc, in g-; peipc, a 4. 
peapcac, i a. 

pecc, 16, o 2, 4, r n, s 2, v 2, w 2, y 3. 
pecc m-, e 1, f 2, j 1, 4, k 1, 1 2, 

m 4, 6, n 4, p 5, x 4. 
pecc n-, g- 2, u 1. 
peccaib, j 6. 
peccmain, a 6. 
Sesamain, r4; -uin, r 5. 
pesbacc, iv e. 
pein (pvon.), d 3. 
pencapp (g. pi.), v b. 
pens, c 5. 

Sensanb, c 3; -ainb, d 3, 4. 
peo (demon.), i c, d, f ; v b. 
Secna, b. 5, 1, 2, 3, 4. 
piaip (ac.), y 2. 
piblaiD, i o. 
Sicile, i o. 

-pibe (demon.), n 1 ; v b. 
Sim6n, 1 3, 4. 
'pin (aphaeresis of prep, i), a 4, b 3, 

g5, j 3, m3, n2, p. 6, q 4, u 1, 

x 2. 
pin (demon.), i e, o ; b 5, d 5, g 1 5, 

t 4, v 5. 
pineall, n m. 
Siplam, m 2, 3. 
Sipna, j 4, 5, 6. 
pip, n a, k; in a ; iv c. 
Slain, 1 4. 

Slaine, c 2 ; Sldne, c 5, d 1, y 5. 
Slanoll, i 6 ; -mil, j 4. 
placccam, j 5. 
Slebi, h 1 ; pleib, a 4, m 1 ; 

-b eipa, y 4. 
pleccaib, j 6. 
plfse, i g; -51, i g. 
pl6s, i 1 ; pluas, i f , g ; m 3, q 1 ; 

-5, n d ; ni d. 
pmacc, t 1. 
pviica6, n a, e ; in e. 



pmoc, i c. 

pnecca, i n; pnea-, i a. 

pnfm, r 3. 

po (dem.), i a, c, e, g, i, j, k, 1, m, n ; 

ii a, e, f, 1 ; in a ; iv c, g-. 
Sobaipce, gr 5, k 1. 
pocaip, i 1. 
pocc, q 1. 
poep (bliabnaib), j 6 ; poep 

(cuaipc), i 6. 
ppcusleap, i o. 
ppen-bpufnf<5, i m. 
[p]piab n-beps, u 2. 
ppian, c 2 ; -naib, j 6. 
Spobcinb (g.), w 2. 
ppoin, i n. 

Scaipn, b 3, 5 ; Scapn, b 1. 
puaipc, i 6. 
puapp, n a. 
puibi, in 1. 

cabaip, n f ; in f. 

caiceb-bennafo", i m. 

caicib, in a. 

cai5, r 1. 

cailc, u 5. 

cairn, b 2. 

caipbipc, m 3. 

pocaipinb, j 3, k 1. 

calcaip, u 2. 

Calcen, r 3; -cm, e 6. 

cam, a 3, 6, g 2, i 2, 5. 

ccmcacap, b 5, c 1. 

caplaic, e 3. 

cappneap, i o. 

cacaip, v 6. 

cap, in b. 

caci<5, ii d. 

pocecc, v 4, 5 ; ceccarm, i c. 

ceip, ii 1. 

Cemaip, j 5, 1 1 ; -mpa, j 4 ; -mpac, 
g 1 3, i 4, 6, r 2 ; -mpais, i 3, r 3, 
t 3, u 2, 5, yl ; po Cempa, o 4. 
cent), g2; poc-, v 4. 
cene, k 1, p 3, t 4, y 4. 
cep, in 1; v 6. 
cepca, iv d. 
ciaccain, y 5. 
c[p]iap, a 3, r 1. 

w6; ci 5 , y2; ci 5 e (g.), i 6. 

g 1 ; -map, gr 2. 
cfnbpcebul, i a. 
cfp, i d, e; -pe, i o ; -pi, i m. 
Cipec, x 6. 
coebibna, j 4. 
pocoslat), b 6. 
coin, i 6 ; n a, f ; in f. 
colsaic, t 1. 
pocoimnaicep, i o. 
comup, iv d; lane-, iv d. 
conaib, t 3; conn-, x 5. 
conb (btiam), u 5. 
cop, b 6, h 6. 
copacc, b 1, j 5. 
copcaip, d 3, e 4, f 1, gr 1, 2, h 2, 

j 1, rl. 

coppgiceap, i k. 
cpa, i a; i 5, x 5. 
cpacc, c. 2. 

cpaban [cpuaban], n f. 
cpdis, s 6. 
cpaic, a 3, s 4, v 6. 
cpe, ii 1. 

cpen, gr 2, i 5, k 6, v 4. 
cpen(aicbe), v 3 ; cpen(peb5), u 2. 
cpepp, m 3. 

cpi (num.), i a ; a 5, 6, c 1, 3, 4, e 5, 
f 3, g-1, b.4, j 1,6,12, n 6, o 2, 
r3, s5, vl, 4, 6, y 2, 4. 
cpia, in 1. 
cpiall, i o. 
cpiac, in a. 



cpica, b 1, v 4, w4; -caic, j 5 

-cac, w 3. 
cpicc, gr 3, u 2. 
cpom(cuTnait>), u3; 


cpuat), ii f ; in f. 
cpuas, x 2 ; -san, in f. 
cpuca, v 3. 
cuase, r 3, v 6. 
Cuacail, v 5; -al, v 5. 
cucab, i 5. 
pucpac (pocucpac), c 4. 

, n d. 
, i o. 
, q. 6. 

Cupmec, r 2, 3. 
cup, i a; d 5. 

hlla, i h, i ; a 1, p 6, s 5, v G 

x 6, 
ua& (o and pron. suf. 3 s. masc.), u h 

in h. 

uaill, e 5. 
(inn)tjaip, w 6. 
uaip (conj.), i i. 
uall, u h.; in b, h; iv g. 
uap, i a. 
Uapcepp, m 3, 4. 
uac, in b. 
uacmaip, b 5. 
ui (g.s.), u6. 

hill (voc.), ii a; (gen.), e 2. 
uibell, in a. 
uile, c 6. 
Ullcaib, ic; Ulc-, gr 4. 



No. 830. 



No. 830. 


IN" the present Lecture, with reference to the traditional regal series 
given in the foregoing, I deal with two texts from the Book of 
Ballymote which treat of the Synchronisms current in the native 
schools. Both Tracts are of interest, as shewing the basis on which 
our chroniclers constructed the system of adjusting events to foreign 
occurrences. It is only by the publication of the Book of Bally- 
mote that students have been enabled to study these questions from 
a linguistic and historical point of view. In the present case, we 
have an instance how the issue of an original enables the work 
of the most conscientious workers to be revised with effect. 

Discussing the first document, 0' Curry* says it is stated therein 
that Cimbaeth, King of Ulster, began to reign in the fifth year of 
Alexander (B.C. 326). Reference (A d) will shew that Cimbaeth is 
said to have commenced to rule in the eighteenth year of Ptolemey, 
Alexander's successor (B.C. 307). O'Curry alleges, furthermore, that 
the interval between the death of Conor MacNessa and the accession 
of Cormac, son of Art, is reckoned at 206 years. The original (A f ) 
has " seven years [and] fifty over two hundred." Finally, the initial 
year of Cormac's reign was, according to O'Curry, the eighth after the 
eighth Persecution. The MS. (A g) counts twenty years from that 
Persecution, the date being equated with the third of the Emperor 
Probus (A.D. 278). 

The A-Tract, as it now stands, is made up of two independent 
portions. The opening section (a), we see from the tenor of the 

* Lectures on the MS. Materials, etc., p. 520. 



rest, did not originally belong to the text. The present fortuitous 
connexion is due to a copyist, who was led to make it by the similarity 
of the subject matters. 

A junction of similar but more aggravated incongruity, which 
imposed upon Mr. Stokes, is presented by a piece contained in Lebar 
Brec.* After an introductory statement, that tract gives the initial 
A.D. of the Patrician mission. Next are data, chronological and other, 
respecting the life of St. Patrick and the year and day of his death. 
Then follow the respective durations of ten periods, ending with the 
obits of Conor, son of Donough, king of Ireland and of Artri, arch- 
bishop of Armagh. (They are mentioned together, as both, according 
to the Annals of Ulster, took place in one month, A.D. 833.) 

Lastly, without any break in the MS. or the printed text, comes 
(with some verbal variants! and the omission of two items) the present 
A-Tract, from the martyrdom of SS. Cyprian and Cornelius (g) ; who 
are thus represented as having suffered between A.D. 781 and 833! 
Besides, as will be seen below, the chronographic method of the final 
portion is radically different from, as well as older than, that employed 
in the opening. But Mr. Stokes detected no contrariety ; the tractate, 
according to him, was written by one author. 

The part in question of A contains the respective lengths of the 
five divisions, or ages, of the Mundane or Pre-Incamation period of 
the world. Portions of this, there is internal evidence, have been 
taken from the work of Bede, De sex aetatibus saeculi. Eor the de^ 
scription of the Sixth Age is a fairly accurate native rendering of : 
Sexta . . . aetas nulla generationum vel temporum serie certa est, sed, 
ut aetas decrepita, ipsa totius seculi morte consummanda. 

Sepcca ecap rrmnbi, ibon, m Sexto, etas mundi, namely, the sixth 

r-er-eo afr- -\ rii puil corhur- bliaban age and there is no measure of years 

popti, ace a bee map aip peno- thereon, but it is like a senile age of 

pac&a 05011 borrmri-] 65111 born a[i]ri the world, and the dissolution of the 

uile a poipcerm. whole world [will be] its end. 

* It is transcribed and translated, to illustrate the Patrician Chronology [?], in 
the Rolls' Tripartite (pp. 550-4). 

t An error of transcription, which has been continued without correction in the 
Rolls' edition, deserves to be noted. Palladius, it is said, was sent to Ireland in 
the 401st year from the Crucifixion, and Patrick came the year after, in the 302nd 


The following synopses exhibit the items contained in it, together 
with rectifications thereof. With reference to the gross numerical 
errors, in the Book of Bally mote, it has to be observed, the Roman 
notation is regularly employed as a contraction for the native reckon- 
ing. The liability to mistake arising from this source is well known. 
In addition, the Latin transcription is, unfortunately, illiterate. Two 
striking instances may be quoted. In a tract on the Ages of the World, 
we are told that Regma had two sons, Saba and Dadan (Gen. x. 7 ; 
i Par. i. 9) gens moriens tali plaga. Overhead is a gloss, signifying 
a tribe on whom came a plague* The original thus doubly travestied 
is, of course : gens in or ientali plaga, a people in an eastern region. 

In the A-Tract (h.), Palladius is stated to have been sent by Pope 
Celestine to preach the Gospel in Ireland in the 5602nd year from the 
beginning of the world. Further on, in the same section, the year 
following is given as the 5633rd of the Creation. The latter, it will 
be seen, is the true reading. It shews the ignorance or carelessness of 
the copyist, that within eleven lines he omitted and inserted the 
Roman notation for thirty. 



Hebrew Reckoning. 

Bede(a). Bally mote (V). 

i. Adam Deluge, . . . 1656 1656 

it. Deluge Abraham, . :. . 292 942 

in. Abraham David, . . . 942 942 

iv. David Captivity, . " . .473 473 

v. Captivity A. D. 1, . . ... 589 589 

[3952] [4602] 

year from the Crucifixion. In the first date, the scribe wrote correctly cccc. ; in 
the second, cee. A letter more or less was, apparently, of no consequence to the 
copyist and the editor. 

* Da rnc ic "Reabca ... .1. Sapa -\ Dabarh .1. senp mopienp call 
.1. ciniub ap a camic plai<5 (P. 4b, 11. 29-30). 



Septuagint Reckoning " School" "Reckoning according 

according to Bede. to Book of Bally mote. 

(a) (b] " (c] 

I. 2242 1659 [2242] 

it. 1072 943 [942] 

in. 942 942 [941] 

iv. 485 475 [485] 

v. 589 589 [589] 

[5330] [4608] [5199] 

"With regard to A, ir. (a] shews that the textual reading of n. (b) t 
op nee* cecaib (above nine hundred), is to be altered into ap t>ib 
cecaib (above two hundred). This is confirmed by the Lelar Brec 
(p. 113 a) : In oep canaipe in bomain innoppo, t>a bliat>am nocac 
pop bib cecaib pil ince. Now, the second age of the world, two 
years [and] ninety over two hundred that are in it. 

Connected herewith are six verses,* in the Delide metre illustrated 
in the Second Lecture. The date of composition, according to the 
last quatrain, was A.D. 1126. Of these, five give the respective dura- 
tions of the periods set down above, A (a), (5). The sixth sums 
them up as 3952. But the items, when totted, amount only to 3644 r 
308 years short. A (a) localizes the errors and renders the textual 
rectification a matter of certainty. The corruptions occur in the 
second line of the fourth verse and in the opening distich of the 

In the former, the reading is : 

(4) (4) 

Gp cpi cecaib co comr-lan. Above three hundred, completely. 

For this we have to substitute : 

Gp ceicpi cecaili) comr-lan. Above four hundred complete. 

In the latter, for : 

(5) (5) 
bliabain ir- occmooa 05 A year [and] eighty perfect 

Gp cpi cecaib, m commop. Above three hundred, not too great. 

* Note A. 


we are to read : 

Mae m-bliabna occmooa 05 Nine years [and] eighty perfect 
Qp coic cecaib, m commop. Above five hundred, not too great. 

In each case, the Concord confirms the emendation. 

Similarly, in the poem of Gilla Coemain dealing with chronology, 
the Hebrew calculations A (a) are adopted. In the lines giving 
the years of A v, the reading of both copies in the Book of Leinster 
is : a noi coicac, occmo&sa nine [and] fifty [and] eighty. This 
is not Irish. The true lection is, of course: a noi, coic ce"e, occnnoga 
nine, five hundred [and] eighty (589). 

The opening entry in the Annals of Innisfallen (O'Conor's text) is i 
Kl. Ab initio mundi vdcxxx., juxta Ixx. Interpretes ; secundum vero 
Sebraicam veritatem^ivcccclxxxi, Loega\_i~^re, macJ^eill^regnumSiberniae 
tenuit. (The Beckoning here styled the Septuagint is the Victorian = 
Mundane Period of 5201 years. It will be found treated at length 
in Lecture IY.) The Hebrew Computation thus gives A.D. 529 for 
Loeghaire's accession. The numerals should accordingly be ivccclxxxi. 
(4381). The emendation is rendered certain by the Victorian Nume- 
ration and by the date which follows next in the Annals : Kl. Ab 
Incarnatione Domini ccccxxx. (430). 

In the same Annals we find (same text) : 

\_Annus\ millesimus centesimus sexagesimus ab Incarnatione Domini. 
Ab exordio vero mundi quinque millia et xcii. This is also the Hebrew 
Computation. Read, accordingly : vcxii. The scribe, namely, reversed 
the order of c and x ; thus giving 5092 for 5112. 

With respect to B, the correct notation of i. (3), in accordance with 
If i. (0), is given in the A -Text (to), tm bliabain cecopcac, t)a cec 
1 ta mill (two years [and] forty, two hundred and two thousand 
[2242]). On the other hand, in iv., the difference between (a) and 
(V) arose from the omission of a word. Por t>a bliat>am (two 
years), read tm bliatmin beac (twelve years). 

The divergencies between i. (0) and i. (b), 11. (a) and n. (b) are 
too wide to Tbe attributable to transcription. The source must, ac- 
cordingly, be sought elsewhere. Speaking of the fifteenth year of 
Tiberius, Bede says, respecting the computation of Eusebius : " Juxta 
vero Chronica quae de utraque editione . . . composuit, anni sunt 
v. m., cc., xxviii." (De sex aet. saec.) Deducting twenty-nine (the 


difference between the Abrahamic years 2015 and 2044), we have 
5199 as the length of the Mundane Era according to the Eusebian 

The Chronicle (Lib. u.) has at the year 2015 of Abraham : Colli- 
guntur onmes ab Abraham usque ad nativitatem Christi anni, duo 
inillia quindecim. Ab Adam usque ad Christum, quinque millia 
ducenti, duo minus. The year following is given as the first of our 
Lord. Read accordingly: uno minus (B i. c + B n. c + 2015 = 

At the 15th of Tiberius [Eusebian A.D. 29], the Chronicle gives: 
Ab Abraham et regno Nini et Semiramidis anni MMXLIV. A diluvio 
usque ad Abraham, anni DCCC[C]XLII.'* Ab Adam usque ad diluvium 
MMCCXLII. That is, B i. c + B n. c + 2044 = 5228. The Passion year 
is the 19th of Tiberius : A.D. 33; A.M. 5232. 

A statement setting forth the details of the Eusebian sum men- 
tioned by Bede is given in the jBook of Ballymote.] It is dated 900 
from the Passion (probably = A.D. 932). The errors, including the 
strange substitution of the Hebrew for the Septuagint reckoning in i., 
I have rectified from the Chronicle of Eusebius. Here is found the 
correct lection of B n. (b) (942). From the text as amended the other 
dated periods of Note B. are obtained to correspond with A.M. 5199, 
as follows : 

in. Note B. From Abraham to Moses [Exodus], . , , 505 years. 
,, Moses [Exodus] to Building of Temple, . 479 ,, 


Deduct 40 years of David and 3 of Solomon, . [ 43] [941], 
[in. Abraham David, . . . .. . . 941] 

iv. Note B. From Solomon to Rebuilding of Temple, . .512 years. 
Add 4 3 (as in in.), . . . . . [43] ,, 


Deduct Captivity, . . ' . . . . [ 70] [485]. 
[iv. David Captivity, . . . . . . . 485] 

* The pmission of the fourth c is a manifest error, as appears from the Procemium 
of the Second Book, 5. 

t Note B. The Eusebian sums are also employed in the first of the excerpts 
appended from the Book of Bally mote, Note C. 


Y. Note B. From Rebuilding of Temple to 15th year of 

Tiberius, . . . . . 548 years. 

Add Captivity (as in iv.), . ... ,. . [70] ,, 


Deduct age of our Lord, .....[ 29] [589]. 
[v. Captivity A.D. 1, . .... . . 589] 

This calculation of Eusebius is clearly what is called the " School" 
Reckoning in the A-Tract (a). It is, moreover, that which, as a 
rule, is intended by the native chroniclers when they give the years 
according to the Septuagint Computation. 

The foregoing enables us to correct scribal errors in the dating 
based upon the length of this Mundane Era. For instance, in Lebar 
Brec (if it be not a mistake of the fac-similist) we have : 

Noi Tn-bliat>na nnoppo ] pc. cec Nine years indeed and ten hundred 

ap u. Trifle o cpucugub QbaiTn co over five thousand [6009] from the for- 
5en Cpipc (P. 132 a). mation of Adam to the birth of Christ. 

The periphrasis (ten hundred) here given for a thousand is out 
'of place in a calculation containing other thousands. The numerical 
reading, accordingly, there can be no doubt, is : noi m-bliabna i;c.cac 
1 cec ap u. mfle nine years [and] ninety and a hundred over five 
thousand (5199). 

In the Annals of Boyle (O'Conor's text), we read : 

Annus ab Incarnatione Domini Mxlvi. ; db initio vero mundi viccxliv. 

Here, likewise, the Septuagint is followed. The reading should 
consequently be viccxlv. ( 1046 + 5199 = 6245). 

The original A-Tract contains no ascription of authorship. The 
design, contents and probable age will be considered later on. 

The B-Text is likewise anonymous. Prefixed, in the handwriting of 
Charles O'Conor of Belanagare, is the title: Leabap Comaimpipeact>a 
picmn maimpqie piopoma The Book of Synchronisms of Flann of 
the Monastery [of St. Buite, Monasterboice, Co. Louth] down here. No 
evidence, however, has come to light in support of this attribution. 


Of the supposed author, the following notice is given in O'Conor's 
Tlgernach (Ker. Hib. Script, u., 300) : 

A.D. 1056. Kl. [Jan.] ii. f ., lu. x. Kl. [Jan.] ii. feria, Luna x. 

plant) TT1 cumpcp ach ugbap (5 Q1 t )e l' Flannus Monasterii Butensis, auctor 

ecip leiginb -\ cr-encup -\ pilisecc Hibernensis, tarn Praelector Theologicus 

1 aipcebal in un. Kl. Decemb.,;cui quam Historicus, Poeta et Propheta, 

luna uicarn pelicieep in Chpipco die vii. Kl. Decemb., xvi. luna, vitam 

piniuic. feliciter in Christo finivit. 

" Plann of the Monastery, an Irish author, both in literature and 
history and poetry and the bardic art, ended his life happily in Christ, 
on the 7th of the Kalends of Dec. [Nov. 25], 16th of the moon." 

It is scarcely necessary to point ont that Theologian and Prophet 
were evolved by the translator. Here, it may be observed in passing, 
we have another instance of the perplexity caused by alphabetical 
numeration. For uii. Kal. Dec. and xui. luna are incompatible. The 
moon's age on Nov. 25, 1056, was 13. The reading must, accordingly, 
be either iiii. Kal. Dec. (Dec. 28), xui. luna; or, uii. Kal. Dec., xiii. 
luna. Judging from the Four Masters (who say the "fourth* Calend," 
but, as usual, omit the lunation), the former was the original. The 
error, which is of frequent occurrence, arose from mistaking ii. (2) for 
u. (5), or vice versa. 

The design and contents of the Tracts next demand attention. 
That the Irish possessed letters before the introduction of Christianity, 
may be taken as established by one fact. In substance the same as 
the present language, the Ogam script belongs to a stage centuries 
older than that to which, according to the progress of linguistic 
development, the most archaic of our other literary remains can be 
assigned. When, in addition, the vitality of tradition is taken into 
account, there appears nothing improbable in the transmission of the 
number, order and leaders of the various so-called Invasions, or Occu- 
pations. Much less, coming to later times, does it seem impossible to 
have preserved the remarkable story of the foundation and the names 
of the rulers of a kingdom established and maintained in despite of 
the central government. 

Next came the Christian missionaries. With them or soon there- 

* O'Donovan, by a manifest oversight, translates "fourteenth" (vol.ii., p. 871). 



after, along with compositions of a similar kind, arrived the works of 
St. Jerome. Among the writings of that Father was a version of the 
(lost) Chronicle of Eusebius. A reflex of the natural order, whereby 
many events have simultaneous origin and progress, that compilation, 
with some defects of detail, stands in design beyond the reach of 
emendation. To adjust the traditional history to such a system and 
thereby invest national events with the certitude arising from co-ordi- 
nate and dated sequence, was too obvious to remain long unattempted 
by native literati. 

Such was the origin of the Synchronisms. Of these, the present 
texts represent two recensions : one (A) dealing mainly with the 
chief events ; the other (B), with persons and years in detail. The 
former, it would thus appear, was the older. 

The time in which A was composed is determined by the calcu- 
lations given at the close. The consulship of JEtius and Valerius 
shews that the years intended are A. D. 431-2. But the textual 
A.P. 401-2 = A.D. 431-2 = A.M. 5632-3 gives a Mundane Period = 
5201 and the Passion Year A.D. 31. This reckoning cannot be recon- 
ciled with Eusebius. His Mundane Period, we have seen, is 5199 
and his Passion Year A.M. 5232 = A.D. 33 (the 19th of Tiberius); 
giving A. p. 401-2 = A.D. 433-4 = A.M. 5632-3. Hence the Eusebian 
formula would be : A.P. 399-400 = A.D. 431-2 = A.M. 5630-31. 

A.D. 431-2 = A.M. 5632-3 is the Victorian Computation (Lecture 
IV., Table VII.). The Passion Years are consequently 404-5. 
Hence, in accordance with Chronological Canon III. (Lect. IV.), the 
original A-Tract (fo-Ii) can date from the end of the sixth century. 
That the computist did not work at first hand, is proved by the 
.absence of Bassus and Antiochus, who are correctly given as consuls 
at the 404th year of the Cycle of Victorius.* Where he found ^Etius 
and Valerius is a question of great importance. But this is not the 
place for its discussion. 

The time of B, owing to the loss of the conclusion, cannot be fixed 
with similar precision. But it contains nothing inconsistent with 





in Kal. 

Paschae dies 

lunae in 


Basso et Antiocho 


f . V 


xin Kal. Mail 



JEtio et Valerio 



f. VI 


in Non. Apr. 




being compiled before the introduction of Incarnation dating into 
Ireland (A.D. 632-3). Against this is not to be placed the mention 
(s) of the Paschal Rule. For the false attribution respecting the 
Shepherd of Hermes may well have been known here long before that 
fraud imposed upon Bede.*~ 

In each Tract, it will readily suggest itself that the numbers, 
whether in sum or item, were for the greater part supplied or 
altered to correspond with those of the Eusebian Chronicle. This 
is confirmed by a typical instance, namely, the final or Milesian 

[The B.C. is found by the Victorian Rule (given in the following 
Lecture) of subtracting the given (Eusebian) year of Abraham from 



. 1. A-Text (b), 440 years after Exodus, [1071]. 

2. B-Text(i), 5th year of Mithraeus, [1229]. 

3. Note C (i), year of the death of Darius, son of Arsames, . . [ 331]. 

4. ,, 7th year after the death of Balthasar, . ,.'" [544]. 

5. ,, in the Third Age of the World, . . . [20171076]. 

6. ,, (j ), year in which David purposed fo huild the Temple, [1066 ?]. 

7. Lehar Laigen Text (f : Lect. II., p. 156, supra), . . . 1569. 

The discrepancies in the foregoing Table are too great to allow the 
existence of reliable data relative to the time of the occurrence in 
question. It is accordingly unnecessary to labour in harmonizing the 
A and B Tracts. Similarly, the numerical errors of each text can be 
rectified by reference to the (Eusebian) B. c. placed on the margin. 

The continuation of the B Synchronisms from the end of St. 
Jerome's additions to the Eusebian Chronicle (A.D. 378) down to the 
coming of St. Patrick is explained in the extract given belowf from 
the Hook of Ballymote. The passage is otherwise significant, as fur- 
nishing direct proof that the advent was regarded as a national epoch. 
Prom this it may be concluded that B, owing probably to a lacuna in 
the exemplar, is defective at the end. 

But the chief value of the Tracts taken together lies in their 
connexion with the Annals of TigernacJi. To deal adequately with 

- * See note under B s. t Note C (A). 



this portion of the subject, it has first to be proved that the so-called 
Chronicon Scotorum* is a compendium of Tigernach. In the preface 
to the Rolls' edition, in proof that the work which the abbreviator, 
Mac Firbis, professed to compendiate could not have been Tigernach, 
eight entries are given to shew that he could not have copied from any 
existing MS. of that compiler. The underlying assumption, namely, 
that the extant MSS. were as meagre in the time of Mac Firbis as they 
are now, is purely gratuitous. Passing over this, on looking into the 
subject, one will be surprised to find that, of the eight items, four fall 
within a well-known chasm of 208 years, A.D. 767-974 inclusive; three 
belong to another hiatus of 14 years, A.D. 1004-1017 inclusive ; whilst 
the eighth appertains to a year later than A.I), 1088, the date to which 
Tigernach extends. The conclusion based on these premises respecting 
the diversity of Mac Firbis' s original and Tigernach is consequently 
without foundation. 

To shew the identity of the two native compilations, I first place 
side by side the following portions of the Chronicon Scotorum and 
Tigernach, and the passages of Becle from which, with exception of the 
Septuagint reckoning of the Second Age, they are verbally taken : 

Chronicon Scotorum. 1 
Prima mundi aetas continet annos 
iuxta Ebra[e]os M., dc., lui. Iuxta vero 
Ixx. Interpretes, ii. millia, cc.,xlii., quae 
tota periit in diluvio, sicut infantiam 
mergere solet oblivio. X. generationes. 

1 P. 2. 

Secunda aetas mundi incipit, quae 
continet annos cc., xcii., iuxta vero 
Ebra[e]os . . . Iuxta vero Interpretes 

dcccc., xl. 1 

i P. 4. 

Tertia aetas incipit, quae continet 
annos dcccc., xlii. Et incipit a nativi- 

tate Abram. 1 

1 Ib. 

BEDE, De sex aetatibus seculi. 
Prima est ergo mundi hujus aetas ab 
Adam usque ad Noe, continens annos 
juxta Hebraicam veritatem M., dc., Ivi. ; 
juxta Ixx. Interpretes, MM., cc., xlii. 
Generationes juxta utramque editionem 
numero x. Quae universal! est deleta 
diluvio, sicut primam cuj usque hominis 
oblivio demergere consuevit aetatem. 

Secunda aetas a Noe usque ad 
Abraham . . juxta Hebraicam veritatem 
complexa . . . annos cc., xcii., porro 
juxta Ixx. Interpretes annos M., Ixxii. 

Tertia ab Abraham usque ad David, 
. . . annos dcccc., xlii. complectens. 

* It has been published as an original work in the Soils' Series. 


At A.M. 2444 (Hebrew B.C. 1508),* Mac Firbis complains of having 
a labour such as that whereon he was engaged imposed upon him. 
Then, having described the adventures of Milesius and his sons, up 
to the gaining the aovereignty of Ireland by the latter, he says : "I 
break off to another time " and passes (over the Fourth and Fifth 
Ages) to the year of St. Patrick's birth (A.D. 353 according to the 
chronology of the editor !). 

Now, the first entry in O'Conor's TigernacJi relates to the 18th 
year of Ptolemey Lagus (B.C. 307 ; O'Conor makes it 305). The hiatus 
here accordingly embraces the whole of the Fourth Age and about 
half of the Fifth, and therewith the respective Latin summaries. 

Next we find (A.D. 1) : 

O'CONOR'S Tig trnach (Her. Hib. Script., BEDE, De sex aetatibus seculi. 

ii., p. 12). 

Incipit sexta mundi aetas, ab Incar- 
natione Christ! usque ad diem iudicii. 
Beda beatus breviter sequentia habet : 

Sexta mundi aetas nulla generations Sexta, quae nunc agiter aetas, nulla 

uel serie temporum certa, sed, ut aetas generationum vel temporum serie certa 
decrepita, ipsa totius seculi morte con- est, sed, ut aetas decrepita, ipsa totius 
sumanda. seculi morte consummanda. 

Secondly, appended to these descriptions of the Ages are native 
verses, embodying for mnemonic purposes the years of the respective 
periods. They are composed in quatrains of hexasyllabic lines, with 
alliteration and assonance ( Concord], ending in dissyllabic words, the 
second and fourth lines rhyming (Correspondence}. The metre, 
namely, is Rinnard : a measure well known from being that in which 
the Calendar of Oengus was written. 

After the First Age, the Chronicon Scotorum has : 

QS r-o man abep an [pile] It is thus the Gaedelic [poet] saith 
<5aoit>eal nuirmp na haopa po : the number [of years] of this Age: 

Ic pe bliabna caogac, There are six years [and] fifty 

Se ceb cpuc 1 bo nfrhirn, [And] six exact hundred, as I reckon, 

TTlfle 111671 an aipmtm, [And] a thousand great, noble I reckon, 

O doom 50 t)ilinn. From Adam to the Deluge. 
1 Lege cepc. 

* The MS. has ii.m.cccxcxliiii. The date immediately preceding is ii.m.cccxc. 



After the Second Age (between the Hebrew Reckoning and that 
of the Septuagint) : 

Ut poeta ait: 

O Dilinn 50 hdbpam, 
hi senaip lap r-ebuib, 
Da bliat>am bailc, codec, 
Noacc ap bib cebaib. 1 
1 ceboib, MS. 

After the Third Age : 

Ut dixit poeta : 
O'n gen pm sen 

5o Dauib, in plaic pebil, 
Cecpaca bo bliaonaib, 
[Cecpaca, ba bliabain] 
Naoi ceb 50 inbemin. 

As the poet saith : 

From the Deluge to Abram, 
In which he was born with, blessing?, 
Two years strong, bountiful, 
[And] ninety above two hundred. 

As said the poet : 

From that birth [of Abram] without 


To David, the faithful prince, 
Forty [years] of years 
[Read : Forty-two years] 
[And] nine hundred, very certainly. 

The Fourth and Fifth Ages, it has been remarked, were omitted by 
Mac Firbis. Items belonging to the Fifth are given in 0' Conor. His 
text contains two quatrains of the same metre as those in the Chronicon 
Scotorum. They follow Bede's description of the Sixth Age. The 
first gives the years of the Fifth Age, as in the De sex aetatibus ; the 
second sums up those from the Creation to the Nativity. 

O'Coxon's Tigernach (Rer. Hib. Script., ii., p. 12) : 
ITIao o lopcab Cempuill 

Co sen Cpipc lap pecaib, 
Occmoga noi m-bliabna, 
Gcc ip ap coic cecaib. 

Cmb ba bliaban coicac 
O cpuc[u$]ab in 1 bornuinb, 
Noi cec, ceopa mile, 

Co sein Cpipc lap colmnb. 
1 This is hypermetrical. 

If [we reckon] from burning of the 


To birth of Christ with blessings, 
[It is] eighty-nine years, 
But it is above five hundred. 

At the end two years [and] fifty 

From Creation of the world, 

[There were] nine hundred [and] three 

thousand [years] 
To birth of Christ according to the flesh. 


The coherent sequence of the Latin passages and the metric identity 
of the Irish verses in the Chronicon Scotorum and in Tigernach, as set 
out in the foregoing, constitute apparently decisive evidence that the 
latter has heen the source of the former. 

Thanks to Mr. Gilbert, the proof is no longer of an indirect kind. 
The Fac-similes of the National NSS. of Ireland (Pt. ir., PI. xc.) con- 
tain the first page of folio 1 1 of the Bodleian Tigernach (Eawlinson, 
488). I append a transcript, together with the corresponding work 
of Mac Pirbis.* The item at A.D. 668 and isolated expressions of the 
Chronicon not given in the Annals shew that the original of b was 
fuller than a. The graphic forms and, notably, the entry at A.D. 681 
prove that it was likewise the better MS.f 

The A.D. numeration is supplied from the Annals of Ulster. The 
sole date given in the MSS. is A.M. 4658 in a (at A.D. 673). This, 
being taken from the Chronicle of Bede, is to be amended into 4649. 
The ten years of Justinian's reign are next to be deducted, in accord- 
ance with the chronography of the Chronicle, leaving the first of 
Justinian at A.M. 4639 = A.D. 687. Justinian the Younger ascended 
the throne in 685. Here, accordingly, the foreign chronology of 
Tigernach is eleven years erroneous ; the native, fourteen. 

The parallelism set forth in the Note will, it is submitted, be 
deemed conclusive. How far the abbreviator was fitted for the 
execution of the task entailed upon him, will furthermore appear 
therefrom. One glaring instance of Irish and another of Latin will 
here sufiice. The MS. has copcjiabh Qilig ppi ^pent), demolition of 
Ailech Prigrenn (Greenan Ely, Co. Donegal). But Mac Pirbis makes 
the opening word into coireacpa&, a loan word from the Latin 
consecratio, consecration. To shew his knowledge of Latin, he took 
abatis lea (abbot of lona) to be one word, thus producing albatissa ; 
with the result of making the Columban Superior a woman ! 

Of the conclusions resulting from the fact that Tigernach and the 
Chronicon Scotorum stand in the relation of original and compendium, 
the following have reference to the present subject. In the first place, 
comparing the Chronicon fragments with the Annals (in the edition of 
O'Conor), we find that the native pre-Patrician portion of Tigernach 
was mainly based upon the Synchronisms. 

* Note D. f Mac Firbis, it also appears, worked from a copy of the 

Annals in which the only defect was from A.D. 723 to 830 both inclusive. 


Next, with regard to the identification of the Tracts so employed, 
the Chronicon shews that one was a piece contained in the Book of 
Bally mote (pp. 17-42). It is given in the traditional form in the 
Book of Leinster (pp. 1-24). The Chronicon likewise exhibits Tiger- 
nach' s characteristic of turning native items now and again into Latin, 
doubtless to harmonize with the Hieronymo-Eusebian Chronicle. 
The astounding perversions of meaning observable in the work of 
Mac Firbis it were unjust to attribute to Tigernach. 

Another of the sources drawn upon, it may be concluded, was the 
present A-Text. In connexion herewith, great praise has been 
bestowed upon Tigernach, to the implied depreciation of the other 
native chroniclers, for the honesty of his decision respecting the 
credibility of the pre-Christian history of Ireland. O'Donovan writes 
thus on the subject: "At what period regular annals first began 
to be compiled with regard to minute chronology we have no means of 
determining ; but we may safely infer from the words of Tigernach 
that the ancient historical documents existing in his time were all 
regarded by him as uncertain before the period of Cimbaeth, the com- 
mencement of whose reign he fixes to the year before Christ 305 
[O'Conor's, not Tigernach' s, B.C.]. His significant words, Omnia 
monumenta Scotorum usque Cimbaeth incerta erant, inspire a feeling of 
confidence in this compiler which commands respect for those facts 
which he has transmitted to us, even when they relate to the period 
antecedent to the Christian era."* 

Eut it is satisfactory to find that, after all, the credit of the decision 
rests not with Tigernach, but with the native school of chronologists. 
Tigernach, in fact, apparently did nothing more than put into Latin 
(as was his wont) the substance of the Irish found in the first of our 
texts (d). The words run as follows : 

Nit) ab pepr-a ocup rnbab bepba They are not known and they are 

pcela ocup pencupa phep n- not certain, the Tales and the Histories 

heperm 0011151 Cirnbaec, mac of the Men of Ireland as far as Cim- 

PI nt) cam. baeth, son of Finntan. 

On the other hand, to obviate the suggestion that the Irish was a 
paraphrase of Tigernach's Latin, passing over the fact that some of 
the A-Tract items are not to be found in his Annals, the (Victorian) 

* Annals of Ireland, pp. xlv.-vi. 



Mundane and Passion Reckonings place beyond doubt that the Irish 
text was composed long before the last quarter of the eleventh century. 
Even if we allow Tigernach to have been acquainted with these Com- 
putations (of which however I have failed to find proof), he nowhere 
employs them to date by. They had, in fact, become obsolete more 
than a century before his time. 

The passage in Tigernach which led to the statement just dealt 
with has given rise to an error that is somewhat redeemed by origi- 
nality. Discussing a fragment bound up with the Trinity College 
MS. of the Annals of Ulster, which he (rightly, I believe) took to 
belong to Tigernach, Dr. Todd writes, in a letter published by 0' Curry : 
" I have considered very carefully the passages of Tigernach to which 
you called my attention Omnia monumenta Scotorum usque Cimbaeth 
incerta erant. I thought at first that there might be some emphasis 
in the past tense erant; they were uncertain, but are not so now. 
But on consideration, I believe that the writer only meant to say 
that the historical records relating to the period before the reign of 
Cimbaeth are not absolutely to be relied on. He had just before said 
that Liccus is said by some to have reigned, and, to apologize for the 
uncertain way of speaking (regnare ab aliisfertur Liccus), he adds the 
apology : Omnia monumenta Scotorum usque Cimbaeth incerta erant"* 

Dr. 0' Conor, having given in the text Regnare ab aliisfertur Liccus, 
says in a note : " These show that there existed different histories of 
Ireland known to Tigernach, which envious time has carried away ; 
for those extant are silent respecting Liccus. "f 

The passage discussed by Dr. Todd is given in fac-simile by 
O'Curry (BBB.). It is transliterated in the Irish character (at p. 
519) ; but no attempt has been made to render it into English or to 
elucidate the obscurities. Subjoined in a note O'Curry gives the 
reading of the Royal Irish Academy MS. and 0' Conor's text. 

This Irish king Liccus had his origin in the Bodleian Tigernach^ 
Rawlinson 488. The necessity of caution in following that MS. can 
be seen in the extract therefrom already referred to.J In the native 
items, for instance, the scribe either himself confused, or was unable 

* Lectures, vol. i., pp. 518-9. 

t Haec ostendunt diversas extitisse Hiberniae historias, Tigernacho notas, quas 
invida aetas atstulit. Quae enim extant tacent de Licco (E. H. S., ii. 1). 
Note D. 


to restore, the entry (A.D. 678) relative to the Cenel-Loairn. Equally 
unversed was he in Latin ; as witness (A.D. 683) the incident, taken 
from Bede, connected with Pope Sergius. From Rawlinson 488, as 
O'Conor has for once rightly shewn,* was made the Trinity College 
transcript. In this, some of the glosses of the exemplar have been 
incorporated in the text.f To judge from the writing, it was copied 
by the Mac Firbis that executed the Chronicon Scotorum. 

I give, in parallel columns, the readings of the original (O'Conor's 
edition) and of the copy : 

O'Conor, R.H.S., ii., p. 1. MS. H. 1. 18, T.C.D. 

In anno xviii Ptolomaei initiatus In ant>o ;ruiii. pcolomei puic 

est regnare in Emain Cimbaoth films iniciacur- pesnape i n-eammoin 

Fintain, qui regnavit annis xviii. Tune Ciombaoc, piliup [pmcam], qui 

in Temair Eachach buadhach, athair pesnauic anmp pcum. 

Ugaine. Gunc acCemhaip eochaiG bua- 

Regnare ab aliis f ertur Liccus. Prae- bac, acaip "U^oine, pe^nar-lj^e ab 

scripsimus ollam ab Ugaine regnasse. alnr- pepcup. Z/iccur> ppepcpip- 

Omnia monumenta Scotorum usque r-inrmr- ollim ab "Ugaine impepappe. 

Cimbaoth incerta erant.|: Omma monumenca Scocopum 

ur-qne Cimbaoc incepca epanc. 

Here again Mr. Gilbert has placed students of Irish history under 
lasting obligation. Turning to his Fac-similes of National MSS. t we 
find a page of the Eodleian fragment of Tigernach, Rawlinson 502. 
The entries in question are thus given : 

(Fac-similes, etc., Pt. I., PI. xliii.) (Translation.} 

[A. ABE. 1710 : Ante C. 307.] [A. ABR. 1710 : B.C. 307. ] 

In anno ,xuin. pcolomei ptnc In the 18th year of Ptolemey, com- 

imciacup pegnape i n-emam Cim- menced to reign in Emania Cimbaed^ 

baet),piliup pincain, qui pesnauic son of Fintan, who reigned 28 years, 
pcpcum annip. 

Cunc Gcliu buabach, pacep At that time, Echu the Victorious, 

* See his description of the T.C.D. MS. in O'Curry (Lectures, etc., pp. 524-5). 

t O'Curry says that, "although on paper, [it] is the most perfect, the oldest 
and the most original, of those now in Ireland " [Lectures, etc., p. 62). "With the 
final part of the eulogium few will be disposed to disagree. 

% O'Conor's textual arrangement from Tune to regnasse, we may safely conclude 
from H. 1. 18, does not represent the original. For the amended text and trans- 
lation, see the extract from Rawlinson 502, which follows in the text. 

For the dates, see p. 254 sq> 



Usaine, in Gemopia pe<5nar-[r]e father of TJgaine, is said by others to 

alnp pepcup, liqnec [licec] have reigned in Tara, although we have 

ppepcpipriTrmp ollim Iodine im- written before that Ugaine [and not his 

pepappe. father] ruled [then in Tara]. 

Omrna monumenca Scocopum All the monuments of the Scoti as far 

upque Cimbaet) mcepca epanc. as Cimbaed were uncertain. 

The MS. form of liquet is liqt. The same contraction of que to 
represent ce is employed in the Book of Ballymote (p. 16b, 1. 44) : 
Ip i peo .c. qipc (ceipc) this is the first question. 

Early examples of qu for c are : huiusquemodi (Booh of Armagh, 
fol. 6 a) ; qualicis mei (Ps. xv. 5 ; Milan Columbanus, fol. 37 c) ; tor- 
quolaribus (torcularibus : Ps. Ixxxiii., title ; Psalter of St. Columba 
enshrined in the Cathach, R. I. A.). 

But, what appears decisive, the MS. in the Royal Irish Academy 
substitutes vero for liquet : 

Eodem tempore initiatus est regnare At the same time commenced to reign 

in Emania (i.e. a n-Eamhain) Cimbaoth, inEmania (that is, in Emain) Cimbaoth, 

mac Fiontain, qui regnavit annis xviii. son of Fintan, who reigned 18 years. 

Interim a Teamhair Eocha Buadhac, Meanwhile, Eocha the Victorious, 

athair Ugaine, [regnasse] ab aliis fertur. father of Ugaine, is said by others [to 

N"os vero prescripsimus olim ab ipso have reigned] in Tara. We, however, 

Ugaine tune ibi imperatum esse. have written before that Ugaine himself 

[not his father] was then reigning there. 

Omnia monumenta Scotorum usque All the monuments of the Scoti as far 

ad Ciombaoth incerta erant. as Ciombaoth were uncertain. 

It remains only to add, as bearing on the trustworthiness of 
Tigernach, that the name of Echu, father of TJgaine, does not appear 
in any known series of the kings of Tara, or Ireland. 

The A-Tract leads to the additional inference, that Tigernach 
followed the synchronists in dating in detail by Eusebius. This we 
are in a position to establish by direct proof. Accordingly, from the 
internal evidence of the Bodleian and Trinity College MSS., I restore 
by Table VII. (a)* the textual chronology of the entries immediately 
connected with the above-quoted extracts from the Annals. 

* Lecture IV. 




, 1704 :] 


(a) Rawl. B 502, fol. 6 d. 

Sipiae i Glepcanbpiae in 
TTlinopi Qppia conpegnacum epc 
1 ppimup pesnauic ibi dncisonup 
annop ;rum., pcolomei ppimo 
[pepcimo] anno pegnape in- 
choanp. Tnic igicup annup pcm.up 
epc Qncigom picuc pcolomei. 
Conpesnacum quoque epc in 
TTIaciboma [a] pcolomeip -\ Se- 
leucip -] ppimup pegnauic ibi 
pope Glepcanbpum pilippup, qui 
1 Qpibeup, ppacep CUapcanbpi, 

I693:]anmp un. pesnanp, ppimo anno 1 
Ante C. 324.] 

Pcolomei pesnape incipienp. 
K [A. ABR. 1705 : Ante C. 312]. 

(i) H. 1. 18, T.C. D., fol. 113. 

pesnape inchoanp. "hie 
annup pcn.up Qncisom picuc 
Pcolomei ppimo. Conpesnacum 
epc quoque TTIaceboma pcolo- 
meup i Seleuopip -\ ppimnp 
pegnainc ibi pope Qla^anbpum 
Pilipup,qui-| apebeup,aie;canbep 
anbip mi. pesnanp, ppimo anno 
Pcolomei pesnape incipienp. 

K. quinqmep (5, MS.}. 





;] The kingdom of Syria and Alexandria and Asia Minor were reigned over at the 
same time, and the first to reign was Antigonus, who reigned twenty years, com- 
mencing 1 to reign in the first [seventh] year of Ptolemey. This year therefore 
is the 12th 2 of Antigonus, as of Ptolemey 2 . Macedonia was also simultaneously 
reigned over by the Ptolemies and Seleuci 3 , and the first to reign there after 
Alexander was Philip, who [was] also [called] Arideus, brother of Alexander, who 

reigned seven years, and commenced to reign in the first year of Ptolemey a . 

K [A. ABR. 1705 : B.C. 312]. 

K [ 1706 : 311]. 

K [ 1707 t 310]. 

K [ 1708: 309]. 

K [ 1709 : 308]. 

[K 1710: ,., 307.] 

1 Here commences b. 2 ~ 2 Read : 6th of Antigonus and 12th of Ptolemey ; 

13th of Antigonus, a; 12th of Antigonus [and] 1st of Ptolemey, b. The errors 
are doubtless scribal. 3 Ptolomeus et Seleuosis, b. 



2 [A. ABR. 1699:] Unbecimo anno ppiope 2 Qpibeup, 
ppacep Qlapcanbpi, qui i pilipup, 
pe^ TTlacebonibup (uel TYIacebo- 
num), cum pua u^ope, Gupibice, 
a TTlacebonibup ippip, puabence 
Olimpiabe, macpe Qla^anbpi (i 
ippa popcea inceppecca epc a 
Capanbpo), occipup epc. pope 
quern pesnauic in TTflaciboma 
Ceppanbep (uel Cappanbep) anmp 
pcipc. ; a quo liepcolep, Glapcanbpi 
TTIasm piliup, ^nn.o anno ecacip 
puae, cum "Ropca, macpe pua, 
inceppeccup epc (ib epc, in Qn- 

[K A. ABR. 1711 : Ante C. 306.] 

[K ,, 1712: 305.] 

1713: 304.] 

1714: 303.] 

1715: 302.] 

1716: 301.] 


L^ ?> 

[^ V 



pep: Qppiae TTIino- 
a Seleuco -\ pcolomeo in 

KL p^i.o anno ppiope Gpibuip, 
ppacep Qla^anbpi, gui -\ pilipup, 
pe,x ITIacebopum, cum pua upcope, 
Gpobice, a TTIacebombup ippip, 
puabenca Olimpiabe, macpe aia,x- 
anbpi, occipup epc. pope qriem 
pesnauic Capanbep anno ^i^. ; a 
quo "hepculep, Qlapcanbpi piliup, 
^un. ecacip pue anno, cum "Repca, 
macpe pua, inceppeccup epc. 

Q[nci]5onup, pe,x Qppiae TYlino- 
pip, a Seluco ec pcolomeo occi- 

b [A.ABR. 1C99:] In the previous llth year b , Arideus, brother of Alexander, who [was] also [called] 
Philip, king of the Macedonians, was slain with his wife, Euridice, by the Mace- 
donians themselves, at the instigation of Olympias, mother of Alexander (and 5 
herself was afterwards slain by Cassander 5 ). After him reigned in Macedonia 
Cassander for nineteen years ; by whom was slain (namely 5 , in Ancipolis [PPydna] 5 ) 
Hercules, son of Alexander the 6 Great 6 , in the 18th year of his age, together with 
Eoxana, his mother. 

[K A. ABR. 1711 : B.C. 306.] 

[K 1712: 305.] 

[K 1713: 304.] 

[K 1714: 303.] 

[K 1715: 302.] 

[K A. ABR. 1716 : B.C. 301.] Antigonus, king of Asia Minor, was slain in 6 

6 " 5 interlined in a ; om., b. 

6-6 om., b. 


bello occipup epc. pope quern pup epc. pope quern pesnouic 
pesnauic Demecpiup (cui nomen t)irnecpip, qui non poliepcibip, 
Poliepcicep), piliup eiup, annip piliup, annip ;cum. 

LABR.mO:] in anno ^um.o 3 pcolornei [ut In anbo ;cum.o pcolomei 

Ante C, 307.] 

supra, pp. 253-4]. supra, pp. 253-4]. 

hoc cempope, ^enon ^oicup hoc cempope, ^emon ^oicup -\ 

[Scoicup] -] ITIinanbep Comicup TTIinanbep Cornicup -\ Ceup[ppap- 

1 Ceuppapcpip philopophi clap- ce]p pilopophi clapepunc. 

battle 6 by Seleucus and Ptolemey. And after him reigned Demetrius (who 7 was 
called Poliercites 7 ), his son, during eighteen years, 
i. ABR.17K):] In the 18th year of Ptolemey [as above, pp. 253-4]. 

At this time, Zeno 8 , the Stoic and Menander, the comic poet and Theophrastus, 
the philosopher, flourished. 

The foregoing items have not been printed by 0' Conor. What 
his elucidation would have been is not open to doubt. Having quoted 
from the MS. Rawlinson 502 that 1000 years elapsed between the 
departure of the Scoti from Egypt and the 10th year of Darius, 
A.M. 3529, he adds: " The 10th year of Darius was 4169 of the 
Julian Period, B.C. 545, the most learned chronographers agreeing 
herein with Petavius."* But this parade of learning is a typical 
instance of what is abundantly proved in his Tigernach, that 0' Conor 
was unable to reduce the A.M. to the corresponding B.C. Otherwise, 
he would have been saved from the ludicrous error of mistaking 
Darius the Mede for Darius the Bastard. The year intended is the 
10th of the latter, B.C. 413. The year of Petavius, it is scarce neces- 
sary to add, refers to the former.f We are consequently relieved 
from discussing its accuracy. 

7-7 interlined, a ; who [was] not [called] Poliercides ! b. 8 This is er- 

roneous : at A. ABB,. 1742 [B.C. 275], is : Zeno, Stoicus philosophus, agnoscitur. 

* Fol. 4, b, Columna 1, lin. 23 : 

Ab egressu Scotorum de JEgypto mille anni sunt ad decimum hunc annum Darii, 
regis Persarum, mundi m.D.xxix. 

Decimus Darii annus fuit Periodi Julianae 4169, ante Christum 545, con- 
sentientibus cum Petavio doctissimis chronographis (R.H.S., ii. p. xvii.). 

t De Doctrina Temporwn, Antwerpiae, 1703, Lib. xiu., torn, n., p. 307. 


Similarly, I supply the chronology of the excerpts from the 
Academy copy given by 0' Curry. 

(c) MS., R.I.A. 

[A.ABR.1699:] Arideus, frater Alexander Magni, oc- Arideus, brother of Alexander the 

TB C 318 1 

cisus est in Olympiade cxv. et anno Great, was slain in the [3rd year of 

TJrbis Conditae 436 occisus est. the] 115th Olympiad and in the 436th 

year of the Foundation of the City was. 
he slain. 
[A.ABR.1716:] Antigonus, rex Asiae Minoris, occisus Antigonus, king of Asia Minor, was 

est anno Romae [Conditae] 453. slain in the year of [the Foundation of] 

Rome 453. 

[A.ABR.1710:] Eodem tempore [etc., ut sup., p. 254]. At the same time [as above, p. 254]. 

B. C- 307. J 

[A. ABR. 1718 :] Cessander, rex Macedoniae, ohiit anno Cassander, king of Macedonia, died in 
Romae [Conditae] 456.* the year of [the Foundation of] Rome 

456 [-5]. 

To enable an independent judgment to be formed, the corresponding 
portion of the Hieronymo-Eusebian Chronicle is appended. f 

Tigernach's " singular preference of the provincial to the national 
monarch as the one from whose reign to date the commencement of 
credible Irish history" has seriously embarrassed O'Curry.J He is 
consequently at pains to give grounds for thinking it " not unreason- 
able to conclude that this great annalist was surprised by the hand 
of death, when he had laid down but the broad outlines, the skeleton 
as it were, of his annals, and that the work was never finished "! 
One "great cause of surprise" is " that the Emanian dynasty is 
given the place of precedence." || 

Whether the "great annalist" was likely to be affected by 
dynastic considerations of the kind, can be estimated from the 
examples of his "broad outlines" set forth in Lecture IY. As 
regards 0' Curry's difficulty, an apparently conclusive solution suggests 
itself. The Ulster kings, like the synchronism of the 18th of Ptolemy 
with the 1st of Cimbaeth and the credible limit of native history, 
were taken by Tigernach from the A-Tract. In this they were given 
as having reigned for a period approximating the duration of the 
Egyptian kingdom. 

* ()' CURRY, Lectures^ etc., p. 519. t Note E. 

t Ubi sup., p. 68. Ib., p. 70. || lb., p. 68. 



Finally, with reference to the B-Text, the synchronistic arrange- 
ment from the 15th of Tiberius to the last of Valerian (q-t) is the 
basis of that adopted by Tigernach (O'Conor's edition, p. 16-39). In 
addition, nearly all the native items of the Tract are found, sometimes 
with close verbal resemblance, in the Annals. As a typical instance 
may be quoted the entry corresponding to that with which our com- 
pilation abruptly concludes. (The text is taken from the T.C.D. 

micbcui. Kl. Gn. un. p., 1. loc. 
Cac ITIaisi-lTlucptima u.pepiapia 
Lugaio, mac Con, t>u hi cop~caip 
Gpc Oenpip, mac Cuinb Cecca- 
cai<5 i un. fneic Qililla Ouluim. 
iugaio Laga, po bi Qpc hi Ceploc 
Gipc. beinne bpicc imoppo, po 
bi 605011, mac Qililla Gulaim. 

Qln aitmc Z/ugaiS, mac Con, 
ppo [pope] hoc bellum m Cemo- 
pia pesnappe annip un., uel. xxx., 
uc aln [aiunc]. 

[A.M.] 4166 [A.D. 214]. Jan. 1, Sa- 
turday, moon 9 [4]. The battle of 
Magh-Mucruma [was gained] on Thurs- 
day by Lugaid, son of Cu, a place 
where fell Art the Solitary, son of 
Conn the Hundred- Battled and 7 sons of 
Oilill Olom. Lugaid Lagha, he slew Art 
on the Hill of Art. Beinne Britt more - 
over, he slew Eogan, son of Oilill Olom. 

Some say that Lugaid, son of Con, 
after this battle reigned in Tara 7 years, 
or 30, as others [say]. 

"We have thus, through the A and B Texts, discovered the chief 
sources and the operative chronological system of the pre-Patrician 
portion of the Annals of Tigernach. 


A.OOK Of BALLYMOTE, p. 10 b, 1. 31. 


Se bliabna coicac malle, 
Qp pe cecaib, ap mile, 
O cpucu5U& Gbaim gan on 

Cop'baio in Dili m bomon. 

Six years [and] fifty together 
Over six hundred, over a thousand, 
Since the formation of Adam without 

Until the Deluge drowned the world. 




Da bliabain nocab, m bpes, 
Qp bib cecaib pa coimeb, 
Ip pip, map pirhfm, pe pao, 
O Dilmn co hQbp[a]ham. 


Two years [and] ninety, not false, 
Over two hundred to be observed, 
It is true, as I reckon, to say, 
From the Deluge to Abram. 


Da bliabain cecpacac coin, 
Ocup nae 6ec bo bliabnaib, 
O sein Qbpaham sen pi6 
No co popisao t)amb. 


Cpi bliabna, peccmooa plan 
Qp cpi cecaib co complan 
[Qp ceicpi cecaib complan] 
O po hoipneb Datnb na penn 

Cop'haipgib lepupalem. 


bliabain ip occmooa 05 
[Nae m-bliaona occmooa 05] 
Qp cpi cecaib, m commop, 
[Qp coic cecaib m commop] 
O popba na Oaipe 'le 

Cpipc 'n-ap Coimbe. 

Cpi mill bliaban, nf bpes, 
Da bliabain coicac, nae cec, 
Co poseimp i puan plan, 
Op' bealbab boman bpecnap. 


Cec bliaban ip mill mop, 
O pogein in pi poo$ 
5upin m-bliabam pea namca, 
Pice bliaban, pe bliabna. 
8e bliabna, i pi. 

Two years [and] forty fair, 

And nine hundred of years, 

From birth of Abraham without error ? 

Until David was made king. 


Three years [and] seventy perfect, 
Over three hundred very fully 
[Read : Over four hundred very full] 
Since David of the hosts ? was inaugu- 
Until Jerusalem was plundered. 


A year and eighty perfect 
[Read: Nine years (and) eighty perfect] 
Over three hundred, not excessive 
[Read : Over five hundred, not excessive] 
From the end of the Captivity hither 
Until was born Christ our Lord. 


Three thousand years, not false, 
Two years [and] fifty, nine hundred, 
Until He was born in sound repose, 
From the time when was formed the 
[bright -faced world. 


A hundred years and a great thousand, 
Since was born the king very perfect 
To this year in which I am, 1 
[And] twenty years [and] six years. 

Six years, etc. 
1 Lit., which is for me. 


B. BOOK OF BALLYMOTE, p. 10 b., 1. 9. 

Ab Adam usque ad diluvium, anni mille dc.jlvi. 1 A diluvio usque ad Abraham, 
anni dcccc.,xlii. Ab Abraham usque ad Moisen, anni dc. 2 A Moisi usque ad 
Salamonem et ad primam edificationem templi, anni cccc.,lxxx.,viii. 3 A Salamone 
usque ad transmigrationem Babilonis, 4 quae sub Dario, rege Persarum, 5 facta est, 
anni 6 d.,xii. computantur. 7 Porro a Dario rege usque ad predicationem Domini 
nostri, Jesu Christi et usque ad x. 8 annum imperii Tiberii Imperatoris 9 explentur 
anni d.,xl.,viii. 

Ita simul fiunt ab Adam usque ad predicationem Cbristi et decimum [quintum] 
annum Romani imperatoris, Tiberii, v milia, cc., xxviii. 

A 10 passione Cbristi peradti [peracti] sunt anni dcccc. 

[i.] Prima ergo etas mundi, ab Adam usque ad Noe. 

[11.] Secunda, a Noe usque ad Abraham, 

[in.] Tertia, ab Abraham usque ad David, 

[iv.] Quarta, a David usque ad Danielem. 

[v.] Quinta etas, usque ad lohannem Baptistam. 

Sexta, a lohanne usque ad iudicium, in quo Dominus noster veniet iudicare 
vivos ac mortuos in [et] seculurn per ignem. Finit. 

1 n.m.,cc.,xlii. Euseb., Chronicus Canon (ed. Scalig.), p. 55. 2 dv., ib. 

3 cccc.,lxxix., ib. * instaurationem templi, ib. 5 Persarum rege, ib. 

6 colliguntur anni, ib. 7 om., ib. 8 quintum decimum, ib. 

9 principis Romanorum, ib. 10 The remainder is the work of the tenth-century 

C. (a 1 ) BOOK OF BALLYMOTE, p. 26 a, 1. 23. 

t)a mill i uf. c., ace t)f bliab- Two thousand and six hundred, except 

am b'a eapbais be, o Q&am co two years wanting therefrom [2598], 
hdbpaham. from Adam to Abraham. [2598-942 

(Second Age) = 1656 (First Age).] 

(b) Ib., 1. 7. 

In n-aer canaipbi bono, o t)i- The Second Age indeed, from the 
Ifnb co habriaham ; if t>a bliabain Deluge to Abraham : two years [and] 
.pel. i .i;c.c. bliatmn a pat) p i&ein. forty and nine hundred years is the 

length of this. 

1 a, b, d, e, i, k belong to the Synchronistic Tract already mentioned (p. 251) ; 
<?,/, g, h, to a Tract on the Ages of the World. The piece of which.;' forms the 
opening is imperfect, owing to the loss of portion of the MS. 



(e) Ib., p. 5 a, 1. 51. 

t)o'n cpeap aeip anbpo pip. 
In cpeap aeip m bomain, ip e 

peo in lin bliaban pil inci : .1. ba 
bliabam ceacpacac ap nai .c.aib ; 
.1. o 5em Qbpaim i cip Calbe- 
opum su sabail pisi bo t)auib. 
<5em abpaim, bano, ip i coppac 
na haipi peo lap pip. 

Of the Third Age here below. 

The Third Age of the world, this is 
the complement of years that is in it : 
namely, two years [and] forty above 
nine hundred ; that is, from the birth 
of Abram in the land of the Chaldeans 
until the assumption of kingship by 
David. The birth of Abram indeed, 
this is the commencement of this Age 
in reality. 

(d) lb. y p. 23 a, 1. 29. 

ba pap cpa Gpiu ppia pe .ccc. 
m-bliabain, conapcoppacc papp- 
colon ; no, ba bliabain ap mfle. 
Ocup ip pfp eippein. 0015 ip .l;c. 
bliaban ba plan bo Qbpaham in 
can pogab pappcolon epfu[-inn] 
1 ba bliabain .;cla. -j i;c .c. o Qbpa- 
ham co t)ilinb puap : .1., Ipc. afppi 
Qbpaham ppipin .1^. [pel.] pin, 
conao .c. In .c. pin ppipna .i^.c., 
conao mile ; i ba bliabain paip 
pin. Conabpollup appin, conao ba 
bliabain ap mtle o Dilmb co ciac- 
cain pappcolo[i]n a n-6pmn. 

OCG m-bliabna .1. -\ pe .c. -j ba 
mfli o copac bomain co cainis 
Pappcolon a n-6pinn. Uf .c. 
bliaban i ba mill, ace bi bliabain 
b'a eapbais, o Qbam co hQbpa- 

Now Eriu was deserted for the space 
of three hundred years, until reached it 
Parrtholon ; or, two years above a thou- 
sand. And that [latter calculation] is 
true. For it is sixty years were com- 
plete for Abraham [at] the time Parrtho- 
lon occupied Eriu. And two years [and] 
forty and nine hundred from Abraham 
to the Deluge upwards: to wit, sixty 
of the age of Abraham [added] to the 
that sixty [read: forty], so that [the 
sum] is a hundred. [Let] that hundred 
[be added] to the nine hundred, so that 
it is a thousand and- [there are] two 
years above that. So it is manifest 
therefrom, that it is two years over a 
thousand from the Deluge to the coming 
of Parrtholon into Eriu. 

Eight years [and] fifty and six hun- 
dred and two thousand from the be- 
ginning of the world until came Parr- 
tholon into Eriu. Six hundred years 
and two thousand, except two years 
wanting from it, from Adam to Abra- 



(e) Ib., p. 27 b, 1. 20. 

t)a piceac bliaban i pe .c. o gem 
Gbpaham co ciaccain Neimfb m 
n-6pinn : .1., in .l^x. pocaic Qbpa- 
ham co ciaccain pappcolo[i]n in 
n-Gpinn -| in .1. ap .u. c.aib pobai 
pil pappcoloin in n-6pinn i in 
.;c;c;c. pobai 6piu 15 pap. Conab 
lab pin na ba .;c;r. ] na .uf. c. 
bliaban o Qbpahani co Neimeab. 
t)a bliabain imoppo i .l;r. ~\ .u[i]. 
c. i mfle o t)ilfnb co ciacc Nei- 
meao a n-6pinn. 

t)o'n ceacpamab aeip annpeo 

In ceacpamab aeip bano, ip i 
peo a nuimip bliaban pil ince : 
,i., cccc.lpc^.in. bliaban. Ip anb 
imoppo posabap copac na haipi 
pein, o sabail pisi bo Domib (col- 
leccab na bpaice pop culu, p. 66> 
1. 39). 

Two score years and six hundred, 
from the birth of Abraham to the com- 
ing of Nemed into Eriu : to wit, the 
sixty Abraham spent until the coming 
of Parrtholon into Eriu and the fifty 
over five hundred the seed of Parrtho- 
lon was in Eriu and the thirty that 
Eriu was deserted. So those are the 
two score and the six hundred years 
from Abraham to Nemed. Two years 
indeed and sixty and five [read: six] 
hundred and a thousand from the 
Deluge until came Nemed into Eriu. 

?., p. 8 a, 1. 41. 

Of the Fourth Age henceforth. 

The Fourth Age indeed, this is the 
complement of years that is in it : 
namely, four hundred and eighty-three 
[read 485] years. It is where the com- 
mencement of this Age is reckoned, 
from the assumption of kingship by 
David ([and it lasted] to the dissolu- 
tion of the Captivity, p. 6b, 1. 39). 

(g)Ib. t p. 6b, 1.44. 

In coiceb aeip bano, ip i peo 
a nuimip bliaban : .1., naei m- 
bliabna l^ ap .u.c. bliaban. 
Ip i in aeip pea uile o popba na 
t)aipe baibilonba 50 sein Cpipc. 

The Fifth Age indeed, this is 
its number of years : namely, nine 
years [and] eighty above five hundred 
years. This Age is entirely from the 
completion of the Babylonian Captivity 
to the Birth of Christ. 

(h) Ib., p. 7b, 1. 1. 

Se;cca ecap incipic: .1., in pel- Sexto, etas incipit : namely, the Sixth 
peab aep, o sein Cpipc co bpac. Age, from the Birth of Christ to 
[Mi pil] imoppo nuimip bliaban Doom. Now [there is not] a definite 



aipi<5ci poppan aeip [p]ea illeic 
ppinbi, cm nobec [il]leic ppi t)ia. 
Oip m pil lap n-[b]ipiucc pcpib- 
nib ipin Scpipcuip bail apa cipab, 
cia beic bo coib mbci cena inab 
apa pasbaicea, nvjimip bliaban na 

QCC cena, bopimcap a ntnmip 
bliaban o Incollugub Cpipc co 
cpeibem bo <5 aeDea ^ ai b- TTIuipe- 
bac TYlumbeps, ba pig Ulab in 
can bopiacc pabpaic 6pinb -| 
Laesaipi, mac Neill, ba pi Gem- 
pac. pinbcab, mac ppaeic, pop 
Laigmb i Qensup, mac Nabppaic, 
pop TTIumain ; Qmalgaib, mac PI- 
acpac, pop Connacca. 

number of years in this Age as regards 
us, although there he as regards God. 
For there is not in directness of expres- 
sion a place in the Scripture whence 
would come, though there be indeed in 
context a place therein whence could 
be found, the number of the years of 
the Ages. 

But still there is reckoned the number 
of years from the Incarnation of Christ 
to [the reception of] Faith by the Gaidil. 
Muiredach Red -Neck, he was king of 
Ulster the time reached Patrick Eriu 
and Laegaire, son of Niall, he was king 
of Tara. Findchad, son of Fraech, [was 
king] over Leinster and Aengus, son of 
Nadfraech, over Munster ; Amalgaid, 
son of Fiachra, over Connacht. 

It endeth. 

(i) Ib., p. 41 a, 1. 16. 

Ip ipin bliabain pobpip Qla^an- 
baip mop, mac Pilip, in cac an 
copcaip Oaipiup mop, mac Qfp- 
pipi, ibon, ciu5[p]laic na pepp ; 
no, i cinb .un. m-bliaban lap 
mapbab ballapcatp i lap cogail 
babiloine bo Chfp mop, mac Daip 
(gu puleig pin in m-bpaib apin 
baipe baibilonba. Op ip e Cip 
poppuaplais -\ ballapcaip pop- 
cacc. Op ip e ballapcaip ciuj5[p]- 
laic na n-^allasba i Cip c. pig 
na pepp), mab bo peip na coim- 
aimpipoacc, ip map pin : mab 
bo peip in coiccinb, ipin cpeap 
aip in bomain cansabap meic 
TTIilib a n-Gpinn. 

It is in the year that Alexander the 
Great, son of Philip, gained [lit., broke] 
the battle in which fell Darius the 
Great, son of Arsames, namely, the 
last ruler of the Persians; or, at the 
end of seven years after the slaying of 
Balthasar and after the destruction of 
Babylon by Cyrus the Great, son of 
Darius (so that he allowed the captives 
from the Babylonian Captivity. For it 
is Cyrus liberated and Balthasar was 
enslaving them. For Balthasar was 
the last ruler of the Chaldeans and 
Cyrus, first king of the Persians), if 
[we reckon] according to the Synchron- 
isms, it was thus : if according to ttje 
common [reckoning], [it is] in the 
Third Age of the world came the sons 
of Miled into Eriu. 



(j}Ib. t p. 42 b., 1. 1. 

Incipic bo plaiciupaib 6penn 
-\ bia n-aimpeapaib, 6 pe ITIac 
TThVib Gppaine co hairnpip mic 
phiacpac, ibon, t)a[c]hi. 

hip ipm ceacpamab airnpeap in 
borhain cangabap 5 ae&l1 ' bocum 
n-Gpenn : ibon, a n-aimpip t>auib, 
mic leppe [lopep, MS.], bia pocpi- 
allao cempull Solrnan i *(?. TTI- 
bliabna plaicupa impepn pesip 
apipiopum, t)ia-&apbam bo laici 
peccmaiTie, .1. un.bes epca, i Ca- 
lainn TTlat mip gpene. 

It beginneth concerning the dynasties 
of Eriu and of tbeir durations [lit., 
times], from the time of the Sons of 
Miled of Spain to the time of the son 
of Fiachra, namely, Da[t]hi. 

It is in the Fourth Age of the world 
came the Gaidil unto Eriu : namely, in 
the time of David, son of Jesse [Joseph, 
MS.], when was attempted the temple 
of Solomon, and nine years of the 
rule of the kingdom of the Assyrians 
[were passed], on Thursday of the day 
of the week, on the seventh [and] tenth 
of the moon, on the Kalend [1st] of 
May of the solar month. 

(k) Ib., p. 36 b, 1. 38. 

(Poem of Gochaibh "Ua ploinb : (Poem of Eochaidh Ua Floinn, begin- 

ning with : 

Gipceab, aep eagnai aibtnb.) Listen, folk of wisdom pleasant.) 

ftauib, biapb' aimpeap ilbab, David, for whom the time was length- 


TCeiinpeac poppeis su poslan, The space spent he very innocently, 
"R arm cap in epic pin ceanbcap, Divided is that territory [Eriu] on this 

side [of the world], [Solomon. 
t)ia pa^nic ceampull Solrhan. Whilst he was making the temple of 

Seaccmao beg, Dia-bapbaine, 

Ooppic peacemab peap pene, 
<5abpab i callafnb cipe, 
1 Callafnb ITIai mfp spene. 

The seventh [and] tenth [of the moon], 
Thursday, [Fene, 

Occurred the expedition of the Men of 
Landed they on the soil of the country, 
On the Kalend [1st] of May of the solar 





Bawl. B 488. 

Fol. 11 a. 

[A.D. 665]. [Secnupac] mac blaic- 
maic pesnaipe incipic. 

[A.D. 666] Kal. TTlopp Qililla 
planneapp, rrnc Domnaill, mic 
Qeba, mic Qinmepec. TTlaelcafc, 
mac Scanblain, pi Cpuicne ; 
TVlaelbuin, mac Scanbail, pi 
Ceneoil Caipppe, obiepac. 
606015 laplaice, pi Cpuicne 
TYlibi ; Ouibinnpacc, ^QQ ) UT) _ 
caba, pi hUa-mbpiuin Ch, mop- 
cuup epc. ITIopp Cellaig, mic 
Ugaipe. Cac peipcpe icep Ullcu 
1 Cpuicne, in quo cecibic Cacu- 
pac, mac Luipcine. baicine, ab 
bencaip, qnieuic. paelan, mac 
Colmain, pi Laisen, mopcuupepc. 

[A.D. 667] Kal. TT1 op call cap in 
quo quocuop abaicep bencaip pe- 
piepunc, bepa6, Cumine, Colum, 
[-|] mac Qe6a. Cac Qme ecep 
Qpaoo i hUa-pisence, uibi ceci- 
bic Gosan, mac Cpunbmail. 5 uin 

Eolls' Ed., pp. 98-106. 

[665]. [Secnupac] mac blac- 
maic pegnape incipic. 

[666] Kl. TTlopp Oililla plain - 
neppa, mic ftomnaill, mic Qeoa, 
mic Qinmipec. TYlaelcaic, mac 
Scanbail, ibon, pf Cpuicne ; 
Tllaelbuin, mac Scanbail, pf Cinel 
Coipppi, obiepunc. 6ocaib lap- 
laice, pi Cpuicne, mopcuup. 
Ouibinbpacc, mac Ouncaoa, pf 
h"Ua-mbpiuinai,mopicup. TTIopp 
Ceallaig, mic ^uaipe. bellum 
pep[c]pi ecip "Ullcu -\ Cpuicne, in 
quo cecibic Cacupac, mac Luip- 
cim. baicim, ab benncaip, quie- 
uic. paelan, mac Colmain, pi 
Laigen, mopicup. 

[667] Kl. TTlopcalicap in qua 
quacuop abbacep benncaip 
pepiepunc, ibon, bepac, Cumine, 
Colum i Qeoan. Cac Qine ecip 
Qpabu ] hUa-pibgeince, ubi 
cecibic Gosan, mac Cpunnmail. 

[A.D. 665.] [Seclinusacli] son of Blathmac begins to reign. 

[A.D. 666.] Death of Ailill Flannessa, son of Domnall, son of Aedh, son of 
Ainmire. Maelcaich, son of Scannlan, king of the [Irish] Picts ; Maelduin, son 
of Scannal, king of Cenel- Cairpre, died, Eochaidh larlaithe, king of the Picts 
of Meath ; Duihinnracht, son of Dunchad, king of the Ui-Briuin-Ai, died. Death 
of Cellach, son of Cuaire 1 . The battle of Fersad between the Ultonians and 
[Irish] Picts, in which fell Cathasach, son of Luirchin. Baithine, abbot of 
Bangor, rested. Faelan, king of Leinster, died. 

1 Fghaire, a. 

[A.D. 667.] The plague [took place], in which four abbots of Bangor perished : 
Berach, Cumine, Colum and the 1 son of Aedh 1 . The battle of Ainne between the 
Men of Ara and the Ui-Figenti, where fell Eogan, son of Crunnmael. The 

i- 1 Aedhan, b. 



bpain pfrib, mic Ulailoccpaig, 
ibon, pi na n-t)epe TTluman. 

[A.D. 668] Kal. Nauisacio Col- 
mane, epipcopi, cum peliqui[i]p 
panccopum ab inpolam uacc[a]e 
ailb[a]e, in quo punbabac eacl- 
mam [sic: ecclepiam] -j nauisacio 
piliopum <5 a P CTiai ^ a ^ Ibepniam 
cum plebe Scic. peapsup, mac 
TTIuiceoa, mopcuup epc. 

[A.D. 669] Kal. Obicup Cumafne 
Chlbe [Qlbi], abaiceip lea -\ 
Cpican, abaceipp bencaip -\ 
TYlocua, mic Chuipc ] mopp 
TTIailpocapacais, mic Suibne, pi 
nepocum Cuipcpi. Icapnan i 
Oopmbu apub piccopep bepu- 
incci punc. lusalacio TTlailebuin, 
pilln iriaenaig. 

[A.D. 670] Kal. Ni5[p]ip pacca 
epc occib[enp]. ITIagna epcolc. 
lugalacio TTlaelebuin, nepocip 
TJonatn. TTlopp blaicmaic, mic 

5uin bpam Pinb, mic TTlailec- 
cpais, pf na n-t)epi TTluman. 

[668] Kal. Nauisacio Colmafn, 
epipcopi, cum peliqui[i]p Scoco- 
pum [panccopum] b inpolam 
uaccae albae, in qua punbabac 
ecclepiam : -j nauisacio piliopum 
^apcnaic ab "hibepmam cum 
plebe Sec [Scic]. Pepgup, mac 
TTluccebo, mopicup. "muipcep- 
cac Ndp, pf Connacc, ibon, mac 
5uaipe, mopicup. 

[669] Kl. Obicup Cuimini Qlbi, 
abbacip lae, -\ Cpicdin, abb 
benbcuip -\ TYlocuae, mic Cuipc: 
1 mopp maelipocaipci<5, mic 
Suibne, pig Nepocum Cuipcpi. 
Icupnan -| Copmba apub picconep 
bepuncci punc. 

[670] Kl. 

<5uin TYlaelibuin, nepocip "Ro- 
nain. TTlopp blaicmaic, mic TTla- 

wounding of Branfinn, son of Maelochtaraigh, namely 2 , the king of the 
Desies of Munster. 

2 om., b. 

[A.D. 668.] The sailing of Colman, the bishop, with relics of saints to the 
Island of the "White Cow [Inishofin], in which he founded a church and the 
.sailing of the Sons of Gartnat to Ireland with the people of Skye. Fergus, son of 
Muicedh, died. Muircertacl^Nar, king of Connacht, namely, the son of Guaire, dies 1 . 

1-1 om., a. 

[A.D. 669.] Obit of Cumine the Fair, abbot of lona and of Crittan, abbot of 
Bangor and of Mochua, son of Gust and the death of Maelfothtairtigh 1 , son of 
Suibne, king of TJi-Tuitre. Itharnan and Corindu 3 died amongst the Picts. The 3 
slaying of Maelduin, son of Maenach 3 . 

1 Maelfotharataig, a. 2 Cormda, b. 3 ~ 3 om., b. 

[A.D. 670.] The 1 West became black. 1 Great 1 dearth 1 . The slaying of Mael- 
duin, grandson of Ronan Death of Blaithmac, son of Maelcoba and the slaying of 

1-1 om., b. 




TTlailcoba -| msalacio Cuanna, 
mic TTIailebum, mic Cellais. 
Uenic senp <5apcnaic be hebep- 
ma. lusalacio bpam Pinb, rrnc 
TTIailpocapcais. ITIopp Duncaoa, 
nepocip "Ronain. 

[A.D. 671] Kal. TTIopp Oppu 1C 
ecilbpic, pig Sa;can. lusalacio 
Seacnupais, micblaicmaic,pie5up 
Cemopia inicio hiemip : 

ba 1 ppianac 1 , ba heclopca6, 
d[n] ceac a m-bic [Secnapac] ; 
ba himoa pui5ell pop plaic 
lpcai<5 a Tn-bi6 mac blaicmaic. 
Oubbum, pi genaip Caipppi, 
msalauic ilium. bpan Pint), mac 
ITlailoccpais, pi na n-Deippe 
TTluman, mopcuup epc. TTIael- 
puba in bpicamam 

1-1 pfanan, MS. 
[A.D. 672] Kal. Cac 
mic TTlailecuile, pi Ceneoil 
boguine. Loin5pea6 uiccop puic; 
cecibic. topca6 Qipb- 


elicoba -j lugulacio Cunbai, mia 

"Uemc 5 eTlu r 5 a P CTiaitl ^ G ^ 1- 
bepma. <5 U1T1 bpain Pint), mic 
TTIaelipocapcaig. Tllopp 
ca&a, nepocip "Ronain. 

[671] Kl. TTIopp Oppu, 
6tilbpic, pf Sapcan. 5 U1T1 
nupaig, mic blaicmaic, 
Cemopiae, imcio hiemip : 

ba ppianac, ba he61ap5ac, 
Qn cec ambiot) Secnapac; 
ba im&a pubell pop plaic 
Ipin cec amboio mac blafcmaic. 

Oubbtiin, pf Cinel Coipppi, lugu- 
lauic ilium. bpan pionn, mac 
TTIaelioccpais, mopcuup. 
TTIaelpuba in bpicamam naui- 

[672] Kl. bellum Oungaile, mic 
TTlaeilicuile, pf Cineoil 
l/oinspec uiccop puic -j 

Cuanna, son of Maelduin, son of Cellach The 1 Clan Gartnait came [back] from 
Ireland 1 . Slaying of Brannfinn, son of Mael-Fothartaigh. Death of Dunchadh, 
grandson of Ronan. 

[A.I>. 671.] Death of Oswy, son of Ethelfrith, king of the Saxons. Slaying 
of Sechnusach, son of Blaithmac, king of Tara, in the beginning of winter : 

It was full of bridles, it was full of horse-rods, 

The house in which was Sechnusach 1 : 

There were many leavings of plunder 

In the house in which was the son of Blaithmac. 

Dubduin, king of Cenel-Cairpre, that slew him. Branfinn, son of Mael[Fh]och- 
traigh, king 2 of the Desies of Munster 2 , died. Maelruba sails into Britain. 

1 om., a. 

2 - 2 om., b. 

[A.D. 672.] The battle [in which took place the death] of Dungal, son of 
Maeltuile, king of Cenel-Boguine. Loingsech was victor; Dungal fell. Burning 1 



TTIacai Cigi-celle. TTlopp Currmp- 
caig, mic Ronain. Cennpaela6, 
mac blaicmaic, pegnaipe incipic. 
epcpulpio Dpopco be pesno i 
combupcio benncaip bpiconum. 

im.bc.lum. [A.D. 673] Kal. 
lupc[in]ianup 1 Tninop,piliupConp- 
canc[ini], anmp p. pegnauic 1 . 
5uin Oomansuipc, mic Domnuill 
bpicc, pi Dcnlpiaca. Nauisacio 
pailbe, ab lea, in Ibepniam. 
TTIaelpuba punbabic ecclepiam 2 
Qpopcpopan. Combupcio 

1-1 From the Chronicle of Bede. 

2 MS. eclepiam. 

[A.D. 674] Kal. 5 U1T1 Congail 
cenbpaca, mic t)unca&a, pi Ulab, 
o bee boipce, mac blaicmaic. 
pepsup, mac Locain, pi Ulat>, 
[hoc] anno. Nub[e]p cenu[i]p -\ 
cpemula, ab pbeciam [ppeciem] 
celepcip apcup, nn. uigilia noc- 
cip, guinea pepia ance papca, 
ab Oipienci in Occibencem pep 
pepenum celum appapuic. l/una 
in pangenem ueppa epc. 

TTIopp Cumupccaig, mic TJonain. 
Cenbpaelab, mac blacmaic,pe5- 
nape incipic. 

[673] Kal. 

, mic t)om- 
naill bpicc, pf D^iilpiaba. 

Nauisacio pailbe, ab lae, in 
liibepniam. TTiaelpuba punbauic 
ecclepiam Qpopcpopan. 

[674] Kl. (5 U1T1 Consaile cenn- 
poba, mic ftuncaoa, pf "Ula& ; 
becc baipce inceppecic eum. 

Nubep cenuip -| cpemula, ab 
ppeciem coelepcip apcup, nn. 
uigilia noccip, u. pepia ance 
Papcha, ab Opience in Occiben- 
cem pep pepenum coelum ap- 
papuic. iuna in pansumem ueppa 

of Armagh and Tehelly 1 . Death of Cumuscach, son of Ronan. Cennfaeladh, son 
Blaithmac, begins to reign. Expulsion 1 of Drost from the kingship and burning 
of Bangor of the Britons. 

1-1 om., b. 

[A.M.] 4658 [! A.D. 673.] Justinian 1 the Younger, son of Constantine, reigned 
ten years 1 . The [mortal] wounding of Domangart, son of Domnall Brec, king of 
Dalriata. Sailing of Failbe, abbot of lona, to Ireland. Maelruba founded the 
church of Apercrossan. Burning 1 of Magh Luinge. 1 

1-1 om., b. 

[A.D. 674.] [Mortal] -wounding of Congal Long-head, son of Dunchadh, king 
of Ulidia, by 1 Bee Boirche, son of Blaithmac 1 . Fergus 2 , son of Lotan, king of 
TJlidia, died this year. 2 A thin and tremulous cloud in the appearance of a rainbow 
appeared, in the fourth watch of the night of the fifth day before Easter, from east 
to west, through a serene sky. The moon was changed into blood [colour]. 
l ~ l Becc Bairche slew him, b. 2 ~ 2 om., *. 




[A.D. 675] Kal. Cac pop Cenb- 
paelaft, mac blacmaic, maic Geoa 
Slmne, oc cis hUi ITIafne i n-t)ail 
Cealcpu, pe pinbacca pleaoac. 
lilac n-Duncaoa uiccop epac. 
pfna6ca plegac pesnape incipic. 
TTlopp Noi, mic Dainel. THopp 
piln panncea. 

[A.D. 676] Kal. Colamban, epip- 
copup inpol[a]e uacc[a]e ailb[a]e 
1 ptnaen appennam paupanc. 
Copcpab Qili<5 ppigpenb la pin- 
bacca plegac. pailbe be hibep- 
ma peuenbcup [peuepcicup]. 
lib Consal, mac TTlailebum ~[ piln 
Scanbaili Upcuile lusalaci punc. 

[A.D. 677] Kal. Scella comicep 
[comacal uipa epc luminopa m 
menpe Cepcimbip ec Occimbip. 
t)unca&, mac Ullcain, pi Oipgiall, 
occipup epc la TTIaelbuiri, mac 
TTlaelipicpis. Cac ecep pinba6ca 
1 Laijne6o, in loco ppo^imo Loca 
, in quo ptnna6ca uiccop 

[675] Kl. bellum Cinbpaela&, 
mic blaicmaic, mic Qooa Slame. 
Occipup epc Cennpaelao; pin- 
nacca, mac Ouncaba, uiccop 

pinnacca plebac pesnape m- 

[676] Kal. Columba, epipcopup 
Inpolae uaccae albae -| pinan, 
[mac] Qipenbam guieuepunc. 
Coipeacpab Qili^ ppispeinn la 
pinnacca, mac t)uncaoa. pailbe 
be hibepma peuepcicup. 

Consal, mac TTlaeilibuin i Qup- 
caile lusulaci punc. 

[677] Kal. Scella comicip [co- 
maca] uipa epc luminopa in 
menpe Sepcembpip -\ Occobpip. 
t>unca&, mac Ullcain, pf Qipgiall, 
occipup epc a n-Dun Popso la 
TTIaelbtiin, mac 
Cac ebip pinnacca ~\ 
in loco ppo^imo Loca 

[A.D. 675.] A battle was gained over 1 Cennfaeladh, son of Blaithmac, son of 
Aedh Slaine, at 2 Tech-Ua-Maine in Dal-Celtre by Finnachta the Festive 2 . The 3 
son 3 of Dunchadh was the victor. Finnachta the Festive begins to reign. Death 4 
of Noe, son of Daniel 4 ' Death of the son of Penda. 

1 of, b. 2 ~ 2 Cennfaeladh was slain, b. 3 ~ 3 Finnachta, the son, b. 4 ~ 4 om., b. 

[A.D. 676.] Columban 1 , bishop of the Island of the White Cow [Inisbofin], 
and Finan, son 2 of Airendan 2 , repose. Destruction 3 of Ailech-Frigrend by Fin- 
nachta the 4 Festive. 4 Failbe returns from Ireland. Congal, son of Maelduin, and 5 
the sons of Scannal 5 and Urthuile were slain. 

1 Columba, b. 2 ~ 2 Asrennam ! a. 3 consecration ! b. 

4-4 son of Dunchadh, b. 5 ~ 5 om., b. 

[A.D. 677.] A luminous comet appeared in the month[s] of September and 
October. Dunchadh, son of Ultan, king of the Oirghialla, was slain in 1 Dun- 
Forgo 1 by Maelduin, son of Mael-Fithrigh. Battle between Finnachta and the 
Lagenians, in a place in the immediate proximity of Loch Gabra, in which Fin- 

1-1 om., a. 



epac. Congpeppio Cuile TTIame, 
uibi cecibepunc t>a mac TTIaileac- 

beccan "Ruimean quieuic m m- 
pola bpicania. 

[A.D. 678] Kal. TTIopp Colsan, 
imc pailbe plamb, pi TTIuman. 
pmbsaine, mac Con cen macaip, 
pi TTIuman; t)aip6ill, mac hTJipice, 
eppoc <5^ ntn Da ^ aca 5 Comane, 
eppoc ; lYIaelbogap, eppoc Pep- 
nann, paupanc. ecep 1 pepcaip 
peccio genipip .1. pocai -[ bpiconep 
qui uiccopep epanc loaipnn i Cip 
m. 1 Cuaimpnama, pi Oppai&i, 
mopcuup epc la paelan Sencop- 
cal. bappDpopco, mic Oomnaill. 
Cac i Calicpop, in quo uiccup 
epc t)omnoll bpeacc. 

l - 1 [Read: Inceppeccio 5 eT11 P ] r 
Loaipnn i Cipfnn, ibon, cac ecep 
pepcaip pocai -\ bpiconep, ecc.] 

[A.J>. 679] Kal. Cfuiep pailbe, 
abacip lea. Cenbpaelao, papienp, 
paupac. Cac Caillcen pe pinb- 
pneacca concpa beicc m-boipce. 
t)opmicacio Neccain. 

quopinnacca uiccop epac. Con- 
Speppio Cuile TYlaine ubi cecibe- 
punc ba mac TTIaeliacbain. 
becan "Rtiminb quieuic in inpola 

[678] Kal. TTlopp Colsan, mic 
pailbe plainn, pf TTiuman. 

Daipcill, mac Cuipecai, eppcop 
ba loca, quieuic. 

TTlopp t)popco, mic Oomnaill. 

[679] Kl. qtnep pailbe, ab- 
bacippa. Cenbpaelao, papienp, 
quieuic. Cac pmnacca concpa 
bee baipce. t)opmicacio Mec- 

nachta was victor. The encounter of Cuil Maine, where fell the two sons of 
Mael-Achdain. Beccan Ruimen rested in the island of Britain. 

[A.D. 678.] Death of Colgu, son of Failhe Flann, king of Munster. Finn- 
guine 1 , son of " Hound- without-m other," king of Munster 1 ; Dairchill, son 
of hUirithe 2 , bishop of Glendalough 3 ; Cumaine 1 , bishop ; Maeldogair, bishop of 
Ferns, repose 1 . Massacre 1 of Cenel-Loairn in Tirenn : namely, a battle between 
Ferchair the Tall and the Britons, who were victors 1 . Tuaimsnama 1 , king of 
Ossory, was killed by Faelan Senchostal 1 . Death of Drost, son of Domnall. A 1 
battle in Calatross, in which was vanquished Domnall Brecc 1 . 

1-1 om., b. 2 Cuirete, b. 3 rested, ad., 6. 

[A.D. 679.] Besting of Failbe, abbot 1 of lona 1 . Cennfaeladh, the sage, 
reposes 2 . The battle of 3 Teltown 3 [was fought] by 4 Finnshnecta against Becc 
Boirche. The falling asleep of Nechtan. 

l ~ l abbess ! b. 2 rested, b. 3 ~ 3 om., *. * of, b. 



[A.D. 680] Kal. Colman, abap 
bencaip paupac. Cacal, mac 
TCasallais, mopcuup epc. J5uin 
pianamla, mic TTIailectiile, pi 
iai5"in -\ poibpea6an bia muinncip 
pein poseooam ap pinacca. Cac 
Sa;conum, ubi ccepic [cecibic] 
aimufne, piliup Opu. TTlopp 
TTlaelepocapcais, eppuic Qipb- 
ppaca. bpan, mac Conaill, pi 
Laisen, anno. Cac i m-baftna, 
ubi ceci[bi]c Conaill oipgmg, pi 
Ceneoil Caipppi. Leappa spau- 
ip[p"]ima in "hibepniam, qu[a]e 
uocacup bolsac. 

[A.D. 681] Kal. Conbupciopegum 
i n-t)un-ceicipn : ibon, Oungal, 
mac Scanbail, pi Cpuicne6 -\ 
Cenbpaelao, pi Ciannacca 5^ 1T1 ^ )1 
5emin, in inicio epcacip, laTTIael- 
buin, mac 

[680] Kl. Colman, ab benn- 
caip, cpJieuic. 5um pianamlo, 
mic ITIaelicuile, pegip Lasenopum. 
Ocup poicpecan bia muincip 
pepin pobseguin ap ptnnacca. 
Cacal, mac "Ro5allai5,mopicup. 
CacSa^onum ubi cecibic Qlmune, 
Oppu. TTlopp TYlaelipocap- 
eppcoip Qipb Spaca. 

Cac i m-boobgnu, tibi cecibic 
Conall Oipsnec, ibon, ptCoipppe. 
Leppa spauippima, guae uoca- 

Cac bldi Slebe popcea, icep 
TTlaelbufn, mac TTlailepicpiS T 

[681] Kl. Combupcio pesum a 
n-t)"tin-cecipn, ibon, Oungal, mac 
Scanbdil, pf Cpuicne -| Cenn- 
paelab, mac Suibne, pf Ciannacca 
(51mne 5 eTTieiT1 inicio aepcacip, 
IdTTlaelbiJin, macTTIaelipicpaig. 
Cidp, insen t)uibpea, quieuic. 
Cac blai Slebe popcea, inicio 
hiemip, in quo inceppeccup epc 

[A.D. 680.] Colman, abbot of Bangor, reposes 1 . Cathal 2 , son of Ragallach 
died 2 . [Mortal] wounding of Fianamail, son of Maeltuile, king of Leinster, and a 
messenger of his own people slew him for Finnachta. A battle of the Saxons, 
where fell Alfwine, son of Oswy. Death of Mael-Fothartaigh, bishop of Ard- 
sratha. Bran 3 , son of Conall, king of Leinster, [died this] year 3 . A battle [was 
fought] in Bagna, where fell Conall 4 the Raider 4 , king of Cenel-Cairpre. Most 
severe leprosy in Ireland, which is called the Pox. 

1 rested, b. 2 ~ 2 placed after next entry, b. 3 ~ 3 om., b. 4 ~ 4 in the genitive, a. 

[A.D. 681.] Burning of the Kings in Dun-Ceithirn : namely, Dungal, son of 
Scannal, king of the [Irish] Picts and Cennfaeladh, son 1 of Suibne 1 , king of the 
Ciannachta of Glenn- Given, in the beginning of summer, by Maelduin, son of 

The battle of Blai-sliabh afterwards, 
between Maelduin, son of Mael-Fith- 
righ and Flann, son of Mael[tuile, in 
which was slain Maelduin, son of Mael- 


The battle of Blai-sliabh afterwards, 
in the beginning of winter, in which 
was slain Maelduin, son of Mael-Fi- 
traigh, by the Ciannachta of Glenn- 

1-1 om., . 



plant), mac TTIaile, la Ciannacca 
'(5lmbi <5 eTT11T1 ' 

bapp Conaill cail, mic t)uncao, 
i Cinb-cipe. bapp Secnupaig, mic 
aipmeoaiQ--! Conain5,micCon5ail. 
Ciap,in<5en Duibpe, quieuic. 

[A.B. 682] Kal. (5\iin Cinbpaelao, 
mic Colgan, pi Conbacc -| Ul6a 
beps O CaellaiQ-e bo Cinmaicne 
Guile occibic eum, lap n-gabail 
cigepaip bo Conmaicne. t)uncab 
JTImppce, mac TYlaelbuib, pi 
Conacc, anno. Cac "Raca-moipe 
TTIuige l/ine concpa bpicoip 
[bpiconep], ubi ccepic [cecibic] 
Cacuppac, mac TTlailebuin, pi 
Cpuicne i "Ullcan, mac Oicolla. 
Obicup Suibne, mic TTIailumae, 
ppincipip Copcaige. Opcabe- 
TC-ep] belecea[-ae] punc la 
bpuibe. lupc[in]ianup 1 , ob cul- 
pam peppibiea[-iae] pesm slopia 
ppibacup[-uacup], e;cul in pon- 
pececib [pecebic] 1 . 
From the Chronicle of Bede. 

TTIaelbtJin, mac TTIaelipicpaig, la 
Ciannacca <5^ 1T1Tie 5 eiTT11T1 1 la 
planb pionn, mac TTIaelicuile. 
lusulacio Conaill, mic Duncaoa, 
a cCinn-cipe. lusulacio Secnu- 
paig, mic Qipmeoaig, -\ Conaing, 
mic Congaile. 

[682] Kl. lugulacio Cinbpoalab, 
mic Colsan, pf Connate ~\ lllcu 
beps hUa Caillibe bi Conmaicnib 
Cuile occibic eum. 

Cac "Raca-m6ipe inuige Line 
concpa bpiconep, ubi cecibe- 
punc Cacupac, mac TTlaelibuin, 
pf Cpuicne i "Ullcdn, 

gevin and by Flann the Fair, son of 

Fithrigh,] hy the Ciannachta of Glen- 

.[Violent] death of Conall the 2 Slender 2 , son of Dunchadh, in Cenn-tire. [Violent] 
-death of Sechnusach, son of Airmedach and of Conang, son of Congal. Ciar 3 , 
daughter of Duihre, rested 3 . 

2 ~ 2 om., b. 3 ~ 3 misplaced after first entry, b. 

[A.D. 682.] [Mortal] wounding of Cennfaeladh, son of Colgu, king of Comment 
and "Red-Beard" Ua 1 Caillidhe 1 of the Conmaicni- Guile slew him, after 2 a house 
[in which he chanced to he] was seized upon him 2 hy 3 the Conmaicni 3 . Dunchad 3 
of Muirisc,'son of Maeldub, king of Connacht, [died this] year 3 . Battle of Rathmor 
-of Magh-Line against the Britons, where fell Cathusach, son of Maelduin, king of 
the [Irish] Picts, and Ulltan, son of Dichull. Death 3 of Suibne, son of Maelume, 
abbot of Cork 3 . The 3 Orkneys were laid waste by Bruide 3 . Justinian 3 was de- 
prived of the regal dignity for the crime of perfidy and retired in exile to Pontus 3 . 
1-1 0' Caellaighe, a. 2 ~ 2 lit., after the capture of a house upon him. Om., b. 

3-3 om., b. 



[A.D. 683] Kal. Leo 1 .m. annip 
pesnauic 1 . papa 1 Sepesip [Sep- 
giup] in pacpapio beaci pecpi 
apofcoli cappam ap5enceim[-am] 
qu[a]e in angtilo obpcuipipimo 
biucipimo[-e] lacuepac -\ in ea 
cpucem biueppip ac ppecioppip 
lapib[ib]up abopnacom[-am], 
t)omino peuelance, pepepic : t>e 
qua cpaccip quacuop pecalip 
quibup 5emm[a]e inacaupa [in- 
clupae] epanc, Tnipea[-ae] masni- 
cubinip popcionem 115 paluici- 
pepi boTnimc[a]e cpucip incepiup 

[683] Kl. 

qu[a]e ecc e mope [e;c cempope 
itlo] anmp omnibup in bapilica 
Saluacopep[-ip] qu[a]e apellaco 
[appellaca] Conpcancimana, bie 
6;calcabionip[-cionip] eiup, ab 
omni aculacup[opcu-] acaque 
acopacup[ab-] populo 1 . Ouncao 
TYluippce, mac TTiaelbuib, pi 
Con[n]a6c, msalaeup. peapgal 
ai&ne,mac Qpc5aile,pi Con[n]acc. 
Cac Copainb in quo ceci[bi]c 
Colgu, mac blaicmaic i Pepsup, 
macTTIailbuin, pi Cenuil-Caipppe. 
1-1 From the Chronicle of Bede. 

t)unca& TTIuippce, piliup TTlaeil- 
buib, ibon, pt Connacc, lugula- 

bellum Copainb in quo cecibe- 
punc Colcu, mac blaicmaic -j 
pepsup, mac TTIaeilibum, nf 

[A.D. 683.] [Pope] 1 Leo reigned three years 1 . Pope 1 Sergius by revelation of 
the Lord found in the sacristy of the church of Blessed Peter, the Apostle, a silver 
casket, which had lain for a very long time in a very dark corner, and in it a cross 
adorned with divers precious stones. The four plates in which the gems were 
embedded having been removed from it, he beheld laid within a portion of won- 
drous size of the salutary wood of the Lord's Cross ; which from that time is every 
year kissed and adored by all the people, in the basilica of the Saviour, which is 
called the Constantinian, on the day of its Exaltation [May 3] 1 . Dunchadh of 
Muirisc, son of Maelduin, namely 2 , king of Connacht, is slain. Fergal 1 Aidhne, 
son of Artgal, [became ?] king of Connacht 1 . The battle of Corann, in which fell 
Colgu, son of Blaithmac and Fergus, son of Maelduin, king of Cenel-Cairpre. 
1-1 om., b. 2 om., a. 






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( 278 ) 

bcmi IN itioca, P . 9 a.) 

a Ppima ecap munbi, bon, in ceb dip bo'n boman, ip e 
peo lin bliaban aca inbci, ibon, pe bliabna coicac ap pe ceeaib, 
ap mill, bo peip TTIaisipbpec na n-6abpab. Ocup, mab t>o 
peip na Sgoile, ip cpi bliabna ap pin. Secunba ecap munbi, 
ibon, in t)-apa haip, ba bliat>ain cecopcac ap n6e cecaib, ba 
peip na maigipcpec. Ocup, mat) bo peip na Scoile, ap bliabain 
qp pin. Cepcia ecap inunt)!, it>on, in cpep aip t>o'n boinan, 
it)on, t>a bliabain cecopcac -\ n6e cec, to peip na TTlaigipcpec 
1 na Scale. CJuapca ecap, it>on, in ceacpama6 afp, it>on, cpi 
bliat>na peccmo^at) ap cecpi cecib, t>o p6ip na TTIaigipcpec. 
Ocup, mas (.! lege mat)) t>o peip na Scoili, ip t>a bliabain [beac] 
ap pin. Cfuinca ecap muntn, it>on, n6e m-bliat>na occmo^at) 
1 coic cec, t)o peip in t>a pant). Ocup ipan aip [p]m pobat>ap 
na h6abpai6e ann-a n-t)aippe pe pe peccmogat) bliaban. 
Ocup ipm n-aip cecna pin t>o pcpibaft ltjt>fch, pcaip t)o'n 
bibla. Se.xca ecap muntn, it>on, in pepe6 afp -\ m puil comup 
bliat>an popci, ace a bee map aip penopacfra a^on bomun i 
eg in t>oma[i]n uile a poipcenn pin [? lege pin] -j t>o na haipib. 

b O Q&am co t)ilint), t>a bliat>ain cecopcac, oa cec -\ oa 
mill. O t)ilinb co cecgabail 6penn, ibon, ba bliabain i mile: 
ibon, in can po^ab papcalon. TTiili bliaban imoppo pocaic a 
pil pfbein, co canic buinebac, ibon, cam ; comb be aca Camlacc 
a n-6pinn. t)a bliabain ap cpicaic bono pobai 6pi pap lap 
pin, co n-bagab T<leime&, mac Q^nomain, bo 5T ie 5 u1 ^ ) Sceicia. 
O thlfnb co Qbpaham, ba bliabain cecopcac -\ n6e cec. O 
abpam, imoppo, 50 cecgabail Gpenn, pepca bliaban. O 
Qbpaham co bap lopeph i n-G^fpc, bliabain -j pepca -\ cpi 
cec. O bap lopeph co eoipimcecc TTlapa "Roiiiuip, bliabain | 

( 279 ) 


a Prima etas mundi, the first age of the world, namely, this is 
the complement of years that is in it, to wit, six years [and] fifty 
above six hundred, above a thousand, according to the Masters of the 
Hebrews. And, if it is according to the School, it is three years 
above that. Secunda etas mundi, that is, the second age, two years 
[and] fifty above nine hundred, according to the Masters. And, if it 
is according to the School, it is a year above that. Tercia etas mundi, 
namely, the third age of the world, to wit, two years [and] two 
score and nine hundred, according to the Masters and the School. 
Quarta etas, namely, the fourth age, to wit, three years [and] 
seventy above four hundred, according to the Masters. And, if it 
is according to the School, it is two years [and ten] above that. 
Quinta etas mundi [namely, the fifth age of the world], to wit, nine 
years [and] eighty [and] five hundred, according to the two sides. 
And [it is] in that age were the Hebrews in their captivity for the 
space of seventy years. And [it is] in the same age was written 
Judith, a history in [lit., from] the Bible. Sexta etas mundi, namely, 
the sixth age and there is no measure of years upon it, but it is like 
a senile age in the world. And the dissolution of the whole world 
will be] the end of that and [lit., for] the ages. 

b Prom Adam to the Deluge, two years, [and] forty, two 
hundred and two thousand. Prom the Deluge to the first occupa- 
tion of Eriu, namely, two years and a thousand : that is, the time 
Partholon occupied [it], A thousand years indeed spent his seed, 
until came the man -plague, namely, pestilence : so that from it there 
is [the local name] Tamlacht in Eriu. Moreover, two years above 
thirty was Eriu deserted after that, until occupied it Neimed, son of 
Agnoman, of the Greeks of Scythia. Prom the Deluge to Abraham, [B.C.] 
two years [and] forty and nine hundred. Prom Abraham 1 , however, 1 [2017] 
to the first occupation of Eriu, sixty years. Prom Abraham to the 
death of Joseph 2 in Egypt, a year and sixty and three hundred. Prom 2 [1656] 
the death of Joseph to the Passage of the Bed Sea 3 , a year and sixty 3 [1511] 

280 lebcm baiu IN itioea. 

[fo]pepca i cee. O eoipimeece TTIapa "Rorhaip 50 gabail Gpenn bo 

macaib TTlilit) Gpbaine cecopca -] cecpi cec bliaban. O ^abail 

6penn co eo^ail Cpae, occ m-bliabna picec -\ epi cec. O eo^ail 

P. QbCpae co | cumbac Cempoill Solman, coica -| cec bliaban. O 

cumbac in Cempoill ^u beobplaea Gpapba, coic t>ec -\ ba cec. 

c Coic pig cpicac pobabap oc Qpapbaib. Cecopca bliaban 
ap bib cecaib ap mill pobai a plaicup. O popba placiupa 
Qpap&a gupin cec n-Qenac n-Olimp la 5r e 5 u > C P ] bliabna 
cecopcac. O'n cecna Olimp gu t)aipe beic Cpebe, p6 bliabna 
coicac i cec. O "Daipe beig Cpebe 50 lopcub in Cernpoill, pe" 
bliabna cpicac. t)a bliabain cecopcac ap cecpi cecaib pobai 
in Cempoll lap n-a cumbac 50 a lopca&. O lopcub in Cempaill 
co popcenn plac[iup]a TTIeb, cpica bliaban [ann(opum), MS.]. 
Occ pi popalnapbaip o TTlea&aib. ~N6e m-bliabna coicac ap 
cec boib. O popcenb plac[iup]a T11ea6 co cocup ap t3aipe 
babilonba -| 50 hacnuisea&us in Cempaill, cecopca bliaban. 
O acnui6ea5u6 in Cempoill 511 beipea6 plac[iup]a na pepp, 
cpi cec [bliaban] : ibon, ba pig &ec po[p]olla[m]napbaip o 
peppaib. bliabain ap cpicaic ap ba cecaib pobai a plaiciup. 

d plaiciup 5r e 5 lapum [pope, MS.]. Ip e cecna pig pobai 
bib pibein, ibon, Gla;canbaip, mac pilip : p6 bliabna a plaicup. 
pocolameup, mac Laipge, lapum [pope, MS.] : cecopca bliaban 
bo. 1pm occmab bliabain bee a plaicupa paein pogab Cim- 
baec, mac pmbcain, pigi eamna-TTIaca. O gabail Gpenn co 
haimpip in Cimbaec pin, ba bliabain -\ ba cec i mile. IDab o 
coppac placiupa 5r e 5? ^P 1 bliabna cpicac. "Nibab peppa i 
nibab bepba pcela -| pencupa phep n-Gpenn comgi Cimbaec, 
mac pmbcain. (1) Cimbaec, mac pmbcain, pegnauic annop, 
ibon, a occ piceb. (2) 6ocai& Ollacaip pe^nauic annop 
ui^mci. (3) "Uamancenn, mac Copamb, pice bliaban. (4) 
Concobap Rob, mac Cacaip, pe^nauic cpiginca annop. (5) 
piaca, mac peiblimce, pegnauic annop pebecim. (6) t)aipe, 



and a hundred. From the Passage of the Red Sea to the occupation [fo] 
of Eriu by the sons of Milesius of Spain, forty and four hundred [B.C.] 
years. From the occupation of Eriu to the Destruction of Troy 4 , 4 [1182] 
eight years [and] twenty and three hundred. From the Destruction 
of Troy to the "building of the Temple of Solomon 5 , fifty and a hundred 5 [1033] 
years. From the building of the Temple to the last prince of the 
Assyrians 6 , five [and] ten and two hundred. 6 [821] 

c Five kings [and] thirty were for the Assyrians. Forty years 
above two hundred, above a thousand was their rule. From com- 
pletion of the Assyrian kingdom until the first Olympian Assembly 1 1 [776] 
by the Greeks, three years [and] forty. From the first Olympiad to 
the Captivity of the Ten Tribes 2 , six years, fifty and a hundred. 2 [747] 
From the Captivity of the Ten Tribes to the burning of the Temple 3 , 3 [591] 
six years [and] thirty. Two years [and] forty above three hundred 
was the Temple after its building 4 to its burning. From the burning 4 [1033] 
of the Temple to the end of the kingdom of the Medes 5 , thirty years. 5 [561] 
Eight kings ruled of the Medes. Mne years [and] fifty above a 
hundred [were reigned] by them. From the end of the kingdom of 
the Medes to the return from the Babylonian Captivity 6 and to the 6 [521] 
renewal of the Temple 7 , forty years. From the renewal of the Temple i [520] 
to the end of the kingdom of the Persians 8 , three hundred [years] : s [330] 
that is, two kings [and] ten ruled of the Persians. A year above 
thirty, above two hundred was their rule. 

d The kingdom of the Greeks afterwards. This is the first king 
that was of these, namely, Alexander 1 , son of Philip : six years his i [325*] 
reign. Ptolemey 2 , son of Lagus, afterwards: forty years [were 2 [285*] 
reigned] by him. It is in the eighth year [and] tenth 3 of his reign 3 [307] 
that Cimbaeth, son of Finntann, assumed the kingship of Emain of [* Obit.] 
Macha. From the occupation of Eriu to the time of that Cimbaeth, 
two years and two hundred and a thousand. If from the beginning 
of the kingdom of the Greeks, three years [and] thirty. They are not 
known and they are not certain, the Tales and the Histories of the 
Men of Eriu as far as Cimbaeth, son of Finntan. [The kings of Ulster 
were:] (1) Cimbaeth, son of Finntan, reigned eight [and] twenty 
years. (2) Eochaidh Ollachair reigned twenty years. (3) Uaman- 
cenn, son of Corand, a score of years. (4) Conchobar Eod, son of 
Catair, reigned thirty years. (5) Fiacha, son of Feidlimid, reigned 
sixteen years. (6) Daire, son of Fuirg, a year [above] seventy. 

282 ieb<TO bain IN itioca. 

[d]mac Pop^o, bliabain [ap] peccmosaib. (7) Gnna, mac "Roecec, 
coic bliatma. (8) piac, mac pia&con, coic bliabna cecopcac 
pegnauie. (9) pinbca&, mac baic, . . . (10) Concobap TTlael, 
mac puici, t>a bliabain bee. (11) Copmac Loigee, occ bliabna 
picee a pi$e. (12) TTloceai, mac TTIupcopab, epi bliat)na. (13) 
6ocai&, mac t)aipe, coic bliabna pe^nauic. (14) 606016 Sal- 
buibi, mac Loic, epica btiaoan pe^nauic. 

e Ipin occmao bliabain b6c a plaicupa paem oepecic pe,x 
\_lege pe^num] ^P 600 ! 113111 ' IP 1aD f loein pobai am bliabain ap 
cecpi piccaib ap t>a cecaib. t)a pig beg bopoltamnapcaip 
uaibib i aen pian. Ip ann pin cinbpcna plaicupa "Roman. Ip 
lab pi&ein poillpigcep co bepea6 in beaca. 5 a ^ ai r ^ U1 ^ Cep- 
paip pige. Qp eipiben cecna pogab pige "Roman : coic bliabna 
pobai i n-a plaicup. Occapin Uigaipc, p6 bliabna coicac 
pegnauic. [Cibep] Ceppaip "Ugaipc 'n-a beabaig pibein. Ocup 
ipin cecpamab bliabain bee plaicupa [Occapin] Cepaip abbac 
6ocat& 8albui6i, pi Ula&. Ipin coiceb bliabain beg plaicupa 
Cibep Cepap Ugufpc bocinbpcain Concobap, mac "Neapa, poll- 
amnacc a n-6amain ; qui pe^nauic annop, pepca bliaban. 
Ipin occma& bliabain piceb plaicupa Concobaip, mic "Neappa, 
(Ip e pioein in b-apa bliabain cecopcac plaicupa Cepaip 
"Ugaipc.) po^emaip in Coimbi, ibon, Ipu Cpipc. Ipan b-apa 
bliabain cecopcac plaicupa Concobaip acbac Cepap "Ugaipc, 
ipin cpep bliabain peccmogab a aipi. 

f Cibip Secpaip, pogab in pige a n-&ea&ai& a acap : ceicpi 
bliabna piceb a plaicup. In beacma& bliabain plaiciupa Cibip 
Segpaip acbac Concobap, mac "Neppa. In occma& bliabain 
lapum [pope, MS.] ap Cibip, pocpocao Cpipc. Secc m-bliabna 
coicac ap ba cecaib [o bap Concobaip, mic] "Neppa, 50 ^abail 
pige bo Chopmac, mac [Qipc, mic Cuinb. 1pm] coiceao 
bliabain be$ plaiciupa Cibip Shegpaip [bo baicpeb] Cpipc 
ocup bo cmbpcain ppoi;5e[pc Coin bapcaipc. Ipin occmab] 
P. lOabliabam be^ plaicupa Cibip [Segpaip bo cpoca6 Cpipc.] | Ipin 
cpep bliabain be^ lap cpocao Cpipc, bobeacai& pea&ap bocum 
"Roma i ipin coiceb bliabain lapum [pope, MS.] pocpocao' 



(7) Enna, son of Roethach, five years. (8) Fiach, son of Fiadhcu, [d] 
five years [and] forty reigned he. (9) Findchadh, son of Bac. . . . 
(10) Concobar the Bald, son of Futh, two years [and] ten. (11) 
Cormac Loighthe, eight years [and] twenty his reign. (12) Mochtai, 
son of Murchoru, three years. (13) Eochaidh, son of Daire, five years 
reigned he. (14) Eochaidh Yellow-heel, son of Loch, thirty years 
reigned he. 

e It is in the eighth year [and] tenth of his [Eochaid's] reign failed [ B . c.] 
the kingdom 1 of the Greeks. It is these same that were [in power] l [29] 
one year, above four score, above two hundred. Two kings [and] ten 
ruled of them and one queen. It is then [was] the beginning of the 
kingdom of the Romans. It is these that are revealed to the end of 
the world. Julius Cesar assumes 2 kingship. It is he first assumed 2 [49] 
kingship of the Romans : five years was he in his reign. Octavius 
Augustus 3 , six years [and] fifty reigned he. [Tiberius] Cesar Augus- 3 [44] 
tus 4 after this one. And it is in the fourth year [and] tenth of the 
rule of [Octavius] Cesar died Eochaid Yellow-heel, king of Ulster. 
In the fifth year [and] tenth of the rule of [Octavius] Cesar 
[Tiberius Cesar, MS.] Augustus, began Concobar, son of Ness, 
domination in Emain and he reigned sixty years. In the eighth 
year [and] twentieth of the rule of Concobar, son of Ness (This same 
is the second year [and] fortieth of the rule of Cesar Augustus.), was 
T)orn the Lord, namely, Jesus Christ. In the second year [and] 
fortieth of the rule of Concobar died [Octavius] Cesar Augustus, in 
the third year [and] seventieth of his age. 

f Tiberius Cesar 1 , received he the kingship after his [step-] father : i [14] 
four years [and] twenty his rule. In the tenth year of the rule of 
Tiberius Cesar died Concobar, son of Ness. In the eighth year after- 
wards of [lit., for] Tiberius was Christ crucified. Seven years [and] 
fifty over two hundred [from the death of Concobar, son of Ness,] 
to the taking of kingship by Cormac, son [of Art, son of Conn. In 
the] fifth year [and] tenth of the reign of Tiberius Cesar [was] 
hrist [baptised] and began the preaching [of John the Baptist. In 
the eighth] year [and] tenth of the reign of Tiberius [Cesar was 
Christ crucified]. In the third year [and] tenth after the crucifixion 
of Christ, went Peter to Rome 1 . And in the fifth year after was Peter 1 [43] 

* The regnal A.D. dates are those of the initial years. 


284 tebQR bcun UNI rnoca. 

mpeabap a "Roim -\ bocuaift pol po cloi&em, in ppima peppe- 
cueione, pub "Nepone. Seace m-bliabna iapum [pope, MS.] co 
eocuipe& Goin, mfc [^/ebebe, o] Oippfp ab baehmop inpolum. 
Ceopa bliabna iapum [pope, MS.] co ciceain co hOppfp ieepum r 
pope mopcem "Oomibiani. Ip po pibein pecunba peppecueio. 
Ceicpi bliabna o cacup 16no co haimpip Gpoiani. Ip le pibe irr 
cpeap mspeim. Ip anbpm bapinbpcmn hip, pe;cco anno pe^nr 
pui. Secc m-bliabna coicac lap pibe copin ceacpamaft n-in- 
5peim, pub Ualepiano ec 

g Nae m-bliabna picec lap paibe, in peipeaD in^peim, pub 
TTla.riiTiiano. Cfuacuop anni lap pai6e copin peccma& n- 
, pub t)ecio. Occ m-bliabna o paibe copin n-occma6 
, pub Ualipiano ec 5 a ^ lone : 1T1 cf^a Sippiane epip- 
copop ec Copmlip mapcipio coponaci punc. PICI bliaban o'n 
occ[mao] ingpeim pin 50 gabail pigi Cempac bo Chopmac, ua 
Cumb, ipm cpep bliabain Ppobi Impepacopip. Coic bliabna 
picec iap pai6e, in noemab in^peim, pub t)ioclipiano. Secc 
m-bliabna beg lapum [pope, MS.], cupcompag penaib "N&ece : 
occ n-eapcoib beg ap cpi cecaib ipin bail pin. Cpica bliaban 
iapum [pope, MS.] gu bap Qnbconi monachi. Secc m-bliabna 
beg iapum [pope, MS.] gu bap "hilapn piccame. Secc m- 
bliabna iap pai&ein $u hes Qmbpofp. 

li "Nae m-bliabna be^ lapum [pope, MS.] $u heg naem 
THapeain. t)a bliabain iap pai&e 50 gabail eapcobaibe bo 
Qu^upcin, in hipone Qpppice. Coic bliabna picec iapum 
[pope, MS.] co Cipine. t)eic m-bliabna lap pin co beg Qu- 
gupcin. Ip i pin bliabain bopabab palabiup a papa Celepcino 
bo pposecc popcela bo Scocaib. Ip i pin in e-aenmao bliabain 
ap cecpi cecaib o cpoca& Cpipc. TTlab o copac bomain, imoppo, 
ip ba bliabain [cpicac] ap pe cecaib ap coic mill. Ip 6 Ifn 
bliaban ap pin booeacaio pabpaic gu ppogepc bocum n-6penn. 
6ciup -} "Ualepianup, ba conpul ipin bliabain pin. Ip i pin 
bliabain pogab ;ci;ccup abbaine na l^orha a n-oea&aijj Che- 
lepcini. Ip i pin in ceacpama& bliabain bo pie Laegaipe,' 
mic Neill, i Cempaig. Ip eipi6e in cpep pig bee popollam- 
napcap Gpinn o aimpip na cuig pigpa n-oipbepc popoi[n]b- 





crucified 2 in Rome and Paul underwent 2 the sword, in the First Persecu- [f] 
tion, under Nero. Seven years after, until the deportation 3 of John, 
son [of Zebedee,] [from] Ephesus to the island of Patmos. Three 
years after, to [his] coming to Ephesus again 4 , after the death of 
Domitian. It is under this [emperor took place] the Second 
Persecution. 5 Four years from the return of John to the time of 
Trajan. It is by this [emperor was caused] the Third Persecution 6 . 6 [107] 
It is then he began Hir [?], in the sixth year of his reign. Seven 
years [and] fifty after this, to the Fourth Persecution 7 , under 7 [162] 
Yalerianus and Gallienus [read Aurelius and JElius Yerus]. 

g Nine years [and] twenty after this, [took place] the Sixth 
Persecution 1 , under Maximianus [Maximinus]. Four years after this l [235] 
to the Seventh Persecution 2 , under Decius. Eight years from this to 2 [250] 
the Eighth Persecution 3 , under Yalerianus and Gallienus : in which 3 [257] 
Cyprian 4 , the bishop and Cornelius 5 were crowned with martyrdom. 4 [258] 
A score of years from that Eighth Persecution to the taking of the * * 
kingship of Tara by Cormac, grandson of Conn, in the third year 6 of 6 [278] 
Probus the emperor. Five years [and] twenty after this, [took 
place] the Ninth Persecution 7 , under Diocletian [Aurelius]. Seven 7 [272] 
years [and] ten after, the assemblage of the Synod of Nice 8 : eight 8 [325] 
bishops [and] ten above three hundred in that Council. Thirty years 
after, to the death of Antony 9 , the monk. Seven years [and] ten 9 [359] 
after, to the death of Hilary 10 of Poitiers. Seven years after this, 10 [369] 
to the decease of Ambrose 11 . u [397] 

Ii Nine years [and] ten after, to the decease of Saint Martin 1 . > [397] 
Two years after this, to the reception of the episcopate 2 by Augustin, 2 [396] 
in Hippo of Africa. Five years [and] twenty after, to Jerome 3 . A 3 [420] 
score of years after that, to the decease* of Augustin. It is that year 4 [430] 
was sent 5 Palladius by Pope Celestine to preach the Gospel to the 5 [431] 
Scots. That is the first [read fourth] year above four hundred from 
the Crucifixion of Christ. If from the beginning of the world, how- 
ever, it is two years [and thirty] above six hundred, above five 
thousand. This [which follows] is the complement of years above 
that when went Patrick to preach unto Eriu. Etius and Yalerianus 
[were] the two consuls in that year 6 . That is the year in which e [432} 
received Sixtus the abbacy of Eome after Celestine. That is the fourth 
year of the kingship of Loegaire, son of Niall, in Tara. This is 
the third king [and] tenth that governed Eriu from the time of the 


286 lebGR bain IN rfioca. 

[h]pebap Gpinn eceppo a coic pennaib: ibon, Concobap, mac 
Neppa i Qilill, mac TYlaca i Caipppi "Nfapep, mac Roppa Ruai& 
1 6ocai&, mac Lu"6ca -j Cuipi, mac t)aipe. In t>-apa bliabain 
ap ceicpi cecaib anbpin o cpoca& Cpipc. In cpeap bliabain 
cpicac imoppo, ap pe cecaib, ap coic mill o copac t>omam 

pinic. Omen. 


(tebcm baiLi IN I'noca, p. iia.) 

[Notes at end of sections are variants of the Hieronymo-Eusebian Chronicle.^ 
a Gt>am ppimup pacep puic ec 6ua cet> bean in beaca ocup 
cec macaip na n-uile. Cafn a cec mac; ip leip pocumtjaiget) 
cacaip, it>on, 6noch, ocup leip t>opi5net> ap ocup buain ap cup. 
Qbel, imoppo, in mac canaipoe o'aoam. Qp eippen cec pipen 
ocup cec maipcip ocup cec pagapc ocup cec 05 bobai bo pit 
Gbaim. Laimiac, mac TTIacupalem, mic Tilanacelem, mic 
Sipiac, mic 6noc, mic Cain, mic Gbaim, ap e peap cug ba 
mnai, ibon, Gba ocup Glla. Ruj Gba mac bo Laimiac, ibon, 
luban. Ip e coipec poclecc cpuic ocup o'pgan. Rue bino Sealla 
mac ele bo['n] Laimiach cecna, ibon, Cubalcafn. Rob' eipibe 
cec goba ocup cec ceapb ocup cec paep bobai bo pil Gbafm. 
Ocup "Nema, a piup piben, ap i bopfnbi uafm -\ cuma ap cup. 

b Gnos, mac lapec, ap e cec lincba bobi piam. Rocuipim Noi 
cpi maccu pian n-[t)]ilinb. Conab uaibibpigen pogenaip na 
t>a cenel peccmobab lap n-bilinb. Ceopa meic 05 Noi : ibon, 
Sem ocup Cam ocup lapeb. Ropainb iapum Noi in boman a cpi 
ecep a cpiup mac: Cam i n-Gppaicc, S6im i n-Gippia, lapeb i 
n-Gopaip. Ocup Oliua a bean pibe. Occ meic laip, ibon, 5 orne P 
ocup 1110505 ocup ma^ai ocup luban ocup Cubal ocup Cipap 
ocup TTlapoch ocup TTIaipeacha. 5 orne P> T uaD acac^allcibas- 
bai, ibon, Sallaspese. TTlagos, T uat> Sceicegba. Ocup b'a pil' 
pibe bo 5 ai belaib, ibon, 5 ait>e ^ 5^ a F> mac Inuil, TTHC pemiupa 


five illustrious kings that partitioned Eriu between them into five[li] 
parts : to wit, Concobar, son of Ness and Ailill, son of Mata and 
Coirpri the Champion, son of Ross the lied and Eochaid, son of Lucht 
and Cuire, son of Daire. The second [read, fifth] year above four 
hundred [was] then from the Crucifixion of Christ. But the third 
year [and] thirtieth above six hundred, above five thousand from 
the beginning of the world to that. 

It endeth. Amen. 


(BOOK OF BALLYMOTE, p. 11 a.) 

a Adam was the' first father and Eve the first woman of the 
world and the first mother of all. Cain [was] their first son ; it is 
by him was built a city, namely, Enoch and by him were [lit. was] 
done sowing and reaping at first. Abel indeed [was] the second son 
for Adam. It is this one [was] the first righteous and first martyr 
and first priest that was of the seed of Adam. Lamech, son of 
Mathusalem, son of Manathelem, son of Siriath, son of Enoch, son 
of Cain, son of Adam, he is the man that took two wives, Ada and 
Alia. Ada bore a son for Lamech, namely, luban. It is he first 
practised harp and organ. Sealla too bore another son for the same 
Lamech, namely, Tubalcain. This one was the first smith and the 
first artificer and the first mason that was of the seed of Adam. And 
Nema, his sister, it is she that did sewing and embroidery at first. 

b Henoch, son of Jared, he is the first fowler that ever was. 
Noah begot three sons before the Deluge. So that [it is] from these 
were born the two tribes [and] seventy after the Deluge. Three sons 
had Noah : namely, Sem and Cham and Japhet. Afterwards divided 
Noah the earth in three between his three sons : Cham in Asia, Sem 
in Africa and Japhet in Europe. And Oliva [was] the wife of this 
[last]. Eight sons had he : namely, Gomer and Magog and Magai 
and Juban and Tubal and Tiras and Masoch and Maisech. Gomer, 
it is from him are the Galladagdae, that is, the Gallogregi. Magog, 
it is from him [are] the Scythians. And from his seed [were] the 
Gadelians, namely, Gadel the Green, son of Inul, son of Fenius 

288 . lebGR bam IN itioca. 

[fo]papppaib, mic baaca, mic 1110505, TTIIC lapec, inic Noi, o 
cac Jaibil. 1110501, ip uab acaic TTIe6a, ibon, in placup. 
Ipicon, mac Qlofnfup, mic Ibaic, mic 1110505, mic lapeb. 
Qi5e pibe compai5ib ppan5caib ocup TComanais, ibon, in 
placup, ocup aibomia i n-Qpia ocup bpecafn. Sa;cap, mac 
"Neua, o paicep Sa^'ain. 

c Cam, mac "Naei, ceicpi meic laip : ibon, Cup ocup TTIeappam 
ocup PUC ocup Canban. Qp uaibib pioe Qppaccai5. Sem, mac 
"Naei, coic meic laip, ibon, Qlam ocup Qpup ocup Qpapa.xab, 
tufb ip Gnam. Galam, ip uab acaic 6lamiba, ibon peppa, ibon, 
in placup. Qpup, ap uab acac Qpap&a, ibon, in cec plaicup in 
bomain. Qpapa.xab, ap uab acac Calla6a ocup Gabepba, ibon, 
6bep, mac Saile, mic Gipepa;cab. laccan, mac 6bep, ceicpe 
meic be5 occa. Gp uaibib popilpab Ipanufbia. Sem, mac bo pibe 
Gpup ; mac bo pi&e bel ; mac bo pi&e "Nin. Ip epibe ceic pi in 
bomain. Ipin aenmab bliabain be5 iap n-5en "Nin, mic beil, 
bap Cairn ocup Iape6. Ocup in bliabain b'a n-beipi, "Nfn, mac 
beil, bosabail p^e, ibon, ipm [fpf MS.] aen [bliabain] picec 
bo pise "Nin, 5^in Gbpacam. Occ [m-bliabna] cecopcac ap 
noi c6caib o Gbam 50 5ein Gbpacaim. Samfpafmfp, ben "Nfn, 
ba [bliabain] cecopcac. Gp le boponab mup baibilomia. Ocup 
cuccapcaip a mac pein cufce b'pip, ibon, Nfnfap, ocup abbac 
lap pin. 

d "Ninfap, ibon, a mac -j a peap, bosab p^e occ [m-bliabna] 
cpicab. Ocup ipin cuiseb (no, ipm m.mab) bliabain a p^e, 
bap "Nae. Coica ap noi c6caib aep "Naei copin peccmab 
[un.peab, MS.] bliabain "Nfnfap cainis pappcalon a n-Gpinn. 
Ocup ipin pepcamab bliabain aepa Gbpacam. Gpin occmab 
bliabain iap cecc bo pappcalon, abbac in cec peap b'a 
muinncep, ibon, pea, mac Copn, bi a ba TDas peaa. Ocup in 
bliabain b'a epe, bap Slansa, mic pappcolom, bia ca pi . . 

Gen bliabain iap pin, [bap] Laislmni, bi a ca loc 


Farsad, son of Baath, son of Magog, son of Japhet, son of Noah, from[b] 
whom are the Gaidil. Magai, it is from him are the Medes, namely, 
the kingdom. Isicon, son of Aloinius, son of Ihath, son of Magog, 
son of Japhet. At him unite the Franks and Eomans, namely, the 
kingdom and Albania in Asia and the Britons. Saxas, son of Neva, 
pt is] from him are called the Saxons. 

c Cham, son of Noah, four sons had he : namely, Cus and 
Mesram and Futh and Candan. It is from these [are] the Africans. 
Shem, son of Noah, five sons had he : namely, Elam and Assur and 
Arphaxad and Lud and Aram. Elam, it is from him are the Elam- 
ites, that is, Persians ; namely, the kingdom. Asur, it is from him 
are the Assyrians, that is, the first kingdom of the world. Arphaxad, 
it is from him are the Chaldeans and Eberians, namely, [from] Heber, 
son of Sale, son of Arphaxad. Jactan, son of Heber, four sons [and] 
ten had he. It is from them sprang Isanudia. Sem, a son to him 
[was] Asur ; son to this one, Belus ; son to this one, Ninus. It is 
this one [was] first king of the world. In the eleventh year after 
the birth of Ninus, son of Belus, [took place] the death of Cham and 
Japhet. And in the year after them Ninus, son of Belus, took king- 
ship ; namely, in the one [two and-]twentieth [year] of the reign 
of Ninus [took place] the birth of Abraham. Eight [read two] years 
[and] forty above nine hundred from Adam [read Deluge] to the [B.C.] 
birth of Abraham. Semiramis 1 , wife of Ninus, [reigned] two [years 1 [1965*] 
and] forty. It is by her was built the wall of Babylon. And she 
took her own son to her for husband, namely, Ninias and she died 
-after that. 

d Ninias 1 , namely, her son and her husband, he took kingship [for] l [1927] 
eight [years and] thirty. And in the fifth (or, in the third) year of 
his reign, [took place] the death of Noah. Fifty above nine hundred 
[was] the age of Noah, up to the seventh year of Ninias, [when] came 
Parthalon to Eriu. And in the sixtieth 2 year of the age of Abraham 2 [1957] 
[came he]. In the eighth year after the coming of Parthalon, died 
the first man of his people, namely, Fea, son of Torn, from whom is 
[named] Magh Fea. And in the year after that, [took place] the 
death of Slainge, son of Parthalon, from whom is [named Inber-] 
Slainge. One year after that, [took place the death] of Laiglinn, 

* The regnal B. c. dales are those of the final years. 

290 Lebcm bain IN Thoca. 

[d]Lai5lmni. Qen bliat>am lap pm, bomaibm loc[a] 6ccpa. Ipinr 
beacmab bliabam, bap Ruj5paibe, mic pappcolom, a quo LOG 
"Rubpai^e. 1pm aenmab bliabam beg, bap pappcoloin pop 
Sen TTlab 6lca 6baip. Gpniup 1 , cpica bliaban ; ^en Ipaic, 
inic Gbpacam, i n-a pe. Gpailiup, cecopca [bliaban]; 
bap Gapa ocup 6bep, mic Saile, 'n-a pe. Sep;tep, cpica 
[bliaban]; ocup bap Gbpacaim, ocup ipm cpep bliabam beg; 
a paige. Qpminnencep 2 , occ [m-bliabna] cpicac ; bap Saile,. 
mic Gipepa;cab ocup Ipmail, mic Qbpacaim, pe [a] Ifnb. 

d. l Arius. 2 Armamitlires. 

P. 11 b e beloccup, cpica [bliaban] 1 . balleup, coic [bliabna] coicac 2 . 
Comaibm LocaTTlepca 'n-ape. Qlcabup 3 , coic [bliabna] cpicac*. 
TTlaimincup 5 , cpica [bliaban]. Caimlecca muinncipe pappco- 
loin 'n-a pe. TTlapailiup 6 , cpica [bliaban], ipm picecmab bliab- 
ain a pi^e cainig Nemeb a n-Gpinn. 1pm becmab bliabam lap 
cecc bo Neme6, bomaibm Loca Cal ocup Loca TTIunbpemaip. 
1pm occmab bliabam lap pin, cac "Ruip "Raecan pop 5 aTin ocup 
pop Sean^ann, ba pig pomopac. 1pm b-apna bliabam be^ 
lap pin cac pin, poclapa pigpaic la "Nemeab, ibon, Raic Cinbec 
i n-t)ail-lbnu ocup "Raic Cimaeic apSemmiu. Sepeapup 7 , pice 
bliaban ; ocup ap e ba pi in bomain 05 benam na n-^nimapcab 
pin. TTlamiliup 8 , cpica bliaban. 5 en TTlcrfr 6 ] r in c ? e F bliabam, 
a pi^e. 1pm picecmab blabam lap pin, poclapa ba ma;5 be5 la 
Nemeb i n-6pmn. Ulappapciup 9 , cecopca [bliaban]. Qpca- 
iciap 10 , cecopca, ~\ ipm peccmab bliabam a pi^e, cac bagna la 
"Nemeab, ocup ipm b-apa bliabam lap pm, cac TTlupbuils ocup 
Cnampoip pe [a] linn. Spu, mac 6ppu, pop lomgep a hGappam 
co Sceicia a cmn ba bliaban ocup a mac, ibon, 6bep Scoc. 

e. i 35. 2 52. 3 Altadas. * 32. 5 Mamylus. 6 Manchaleus. 
7 Spherus. Mamylus. 9 Sparethus. 10 Ascatades.- 

f Nemeb, mac a^nomam -\ ba mile b'a mumbcip, abbacabap 
ipm cpep bliabam be^ pige Qpcaiciap. 1pm bliabam lap pm, 
bap dmbinn, mic Nemi&, a quo Loc n-Qmbmn ocup 01616- 



from whom is [named] Lake Laiglinni. One year after that, the[d] 
eruption of Lake Echtra. In the tenth year, [took place] the death 
of Rugraide, son of Parthalon, from whom [is named] Lake Rudraige. 
In the eleventh year, [took place] the death of Parthalon on Old L B - C -J 
Magh-Elta of Edar. Arms 3 , thirty years [reigned he] ; the birth of 3 [1897} 
Isaac, son of Abraham, [took place] in his time 4 . Aralius 5 , forty 4 [1917] 
[years]; the death of Tara and of Heber, son of Sale, [took place] 5 L 18o7 3 
in his time. Xerxes 6 , thirty [years]. And the death of Abraham 6 [1827] 
[took place] 7 . And [it is] in the thirteenth [fifteenth] year of his 7 [1842] 
reign [it happened]. Armamithres 8 , eight [years and] thirty. The 8 [1789] 
death of Sale, son of Arphaxad and of Ishmael, son of Abraham, 
[happened] in [his] time. 

e Belocus 1 , thirty [and five years]. Balleus 2 , five [read, two years 1 [1754] 
and] fifty. The eruption of Lake Mesca [took place] in his time. L 1 * 02 
Altadcns 3 , five [read, two years and] thirty. Mamithus 4 , thirty [years]. 3 [1669] 
The plague-destruction of the people of Parthalon [happened] in his " 
time. Manchaleus 5 , thirty [years] ; in the thirtieth year of his reign 5 [1609] 
came JS"emed into Eriu. In the tenth year after the coming of 
kerned, [took place] the eruption of Lake Cal and of Lake Mund- 
remair. In the eighth year after that, [was gained] the battle of 
Ros-Raecain over Gann and Seangann, two kings of the Fomorians. 
In the twelfth year after that battle, were erected [lit., dug] royal 
forts by Nemed, namely, the Port of Cendech, in Dal-Idnu and 
the Fort of Cimaeth, in Semine. Spherus 6 , a score of years; and 6 [1589} 
it is he was king of the world at the doing of those deeds. 
Mamylus 7 , thirty years 8 . The birth of Moses [took place] in the third 7 [1559] 
year of his reign [read 17th year of Sphaerus]. In the twentieth ; * 
year after that, there were cleared twelve plains by Nemed in Eriu. 
Sparethus 9 , forty [read 39 years]. Ascatades 10 , forty. And in the ^[1520] 
seventh year of his reign [was fought] the battle of Bagain by ^ 
Nemed in Eriu. And in the second year after that, [took place] the 
battle of Murbolg and the battle of Cnamros in [his] time. Sru, 
son of Esru, [went] upon an expedition from Spain to Scythia to 
the end of two years and his son, namely, Eber Scot. 

f Xemed, son of Agnoman and two thousand of his people, they 
died in the thirteenth 1 year of the reign of Ascatades. In the year 1 [1509] 
after 2 that, [occurred] the death of Aindenn, son of Nemed, from 2 [1506] 
whom [is named] Lake Aindinn. And the death of Starn [took 

292 lebciR bam IN rhoca. 

[f]Sbaipn i Copanb. If in ceacpamab bliabain lap m-bap "Nemib, 
co^ail Cuip Conains la pil "Nemib, co na cepna ace cpica cpen- 
pep. 6bep Scoc a pi$e Sceicia. Ipin t)-apa bliabain iap co^ail 
Guip Conain5,bap t>eocai5. Gmencep 1 , coic [bliabna] cecopcac. 
Ipin b-apa bliabain a pi^e, bap 6bip Scuic. Ipin coicet) bliabain 
lap pin, bap a^namam ipin Sceicia. pip-bolg co n-a coic pi^aib 
bocum 6penn, ipin peccmab bliabain picec pi^e Qmencep. Ipin 
t>-apa bliat>ain iap pin, bap Slain^e, mic t)ela, cec pi Gpenn. 
t)a bliabain iap pin, bap "Rubpai^e, mic "Deala, ipin 
Ceicpi bliabna, in can at)bac 5 aT1T1 ocup 5 enariri ocup 
apna 5 ae ^ ai 5 1 b- Ocup ipin occnria& [bliabain] iap pin, bap 

f. l Amyntes. 

g belocup, coic [bliat>na] picet), ocup a ingen, ibon, Qhopa 1 
ocup QpaiinipaiTnip 2 a 6a hainm. Ocup in bliabain apep pi^e 
t)O gabail bo, bap piaca Ceinnpinbain. Ocup ipin peccmab 
bliabain a pi^e, bap "Rinnail. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip bap Sean- 
^ainb. Gocaib, mac 6pc, bebplaccup peap-mbol^. Ipin c-pecc- 
mab bliabain be^ pige belocup abbac Gocaib. Ocup Cuaca 
be t)ananb bo cecc a n-6pinn ocup cec cac THuige Cufpeb ocup 
bpep bo gabail pi^e n-6penn. Ocup ipin peccmab bliabain 
iap pin, "Nuaba Qip^eablam bo gabail pige ocup bpep bo bicup. 
poilipoipip 3 , cpica [bliaban], ocup ip i n-a occmab bliabain 
piceb, cac Tllui^e Cufpeb ecep Cuacaib be "Oananb ocup pomo- 
paib, a bopcaip "Nuaba. Ocup Lug bogabail pige ocup bap 
bpepe, mic 6la6an, a Capn Ua-"Neib. 

g. l Atossa. 2 Semiramis. 3 Balepares. 

b Lamppibep, ba [bliabain] cpicac, ocup ipin occmab bliabain 
a pise, bap Ceapmaba, mic in t)a5ba. Ocup ipin coiceb 
bliabain beg iap pin, bap Caipbpi, pileb, bo gae 5r eTie ocup 
bap 6abdme ocup bap C6m, acap Lo^a. Ceicpi bliabna iap 
pin, bap Qlloib ocup t)anomne. Soppaippep 1 , 6en [bliabain] 
picec 2 , ocup ipin cpep bliabain a pige, bap Logo Lampaba la TTIac 
Cuill. Ocup 606016 Ollacap, ibon, in Dagba, bo ^abail 



place] in Corann. In the fourth 3 year after the death of Nemed, [f ] 
[took place] the destruction of the Tower of Conang by the posterity 3 
of Kerned, so that there escaped not but thirty brave men. Eber Scot 
[was then] in the kingship of Scythia. In the second 4 year after 4 [1500] 
the destruction of the Tower of Conang, [happened] the death of 
Beothach. Amyntes 5 , five [years and] forty. In the second 6 year of 5 [14351 
his reign [took place] the death of Eber Scot. In the fifth 7 year after' t 14 ? 9 ] 
that, [took place] the death of Agnaman in Scythia. Fir-Bolg with 
their five kings [came] unto Eriu, in the seventh [and] twentieth 88 [1454] 
ye c nr of the reign of Amyntes. In the second year after that, [took 
place] the death of Slainge, son of Dela, first king of Eriu. Two 
years after that, [occurred] the death of Rudraige, son of Dela, in 
the Brugh. Four years [of his reign were spent], the time died 
Gann and Genann and Gaidel of the Gaidil. And in the eighth 
year after that, [took place] the death of Seangann. 

g Belocus 1 , five [years and] twenty and his daughter, namely, l [1410] 
Atossa and Asaimiramis her two names. And the year after kingship 
being taken by him, [took place] the death of Fiacha White-head. 
And in the seventh year of his reign, [took place] the death of 
Rinnal. And it is in his time [happened] the death of Seangann. 
Eochaid, son of Ere, [was] the last prince of the Fir-Bolg. In the 
seventh [and] tenth year of the reign of Belocus died Eochaid. And 
the Tuatha de Danann came into Eriu and the first battle of Magh 
Tuired [was fought] and Bres took the kingship of Eriu. And in 
the seventh year after that, Nuada Silver-Hand took the kingship 
and Bres was expelled. Balepares 2 , thirty [years]. And it is in 2 [1380] 
his eighth year [and] twentieth [was fought] the [second] battle 
of Magh Tuired, between the Tuatha de Danann and the Fomorians, 
wherein fell Nuada. And Lug took the kingship and the death of 
Bres, son of Eladu, [took place] in the Cam of the TJi-Neid. 

li Lamprides 1 two [years] and thirty. And in the eighth year 1 [1348] 
of his reign [took place] the death of Gear mad, son of the Dagda. 
And in the fifth year [and] tenth after that, [took place] the death 
of Cairbre, the poet, by the spear of [Mac] Grene and the death of 
Edain and the death of Cian, father of Lug. Four years after that, 
[took place] the death of Allod and of Danoinn. Sosares 2 , one [year 2 [1328] 
and] twenty [read, twenty]. And in the third year of his reign [took 
place] the death of Lug Long-Hand by Mac Cuill. And Eocho 

294 lebcm bain IN Thoca. 

[h]t)eic m-bliabna lap pin, in can abbacabap in c-aep bana, ibon, 
Cpebne, cent) ocup 5 ol b neil b goba ocup "Oiancecc Iiai6. Ocup 
bo cam abbacabap. 86 bliabna lap pin, bap Geba, mic in 
t)a5t)a ocup Cpicfn bel-caince ocup lopcat> "Neit) a n-Oilec. 
lampaipep 3 , occ [m-bliabna] cpicac 4 to appige, in can abbac 
THananban a cac Cuillmn. Secc m-bliat>na lap pin, in can at>- 
bac TTIit)ip bpileic. piamineap 5 , coic [bliat>na] cecopcac, ocup 
coic bliabna t>o appi^e, in can at>bac Qen^up, nriac in "Dagba. 
t)a bliat>ain beg lap pin, in can can^abap 5 ait>1 ^ 5 nGppain a 
ceicpi longaib: it>on, bpac, mac "Deoca, t>iap'bo mac bpeo^an. 
Cpi bliabna beg lap pin, in can abbac in t)agba ocup t)elbaec 
bo pi5a6. t)ec m-bliabna iap pin, bap t)elbaec ocup piaco bo 
pi^ao. Suppapbup 6 , n6i [m -bliabna] picec 7 , ocup coic bliabna 
P. 12abo a pi^e, in can abbac piaca, | mac "Dealbaeic. In bliabam 
iap pin pogabpac clainne Cepmaba pige n-Gpenn. 

h. ! Sosares. 2 20. 3 Lampares. 4 30. 

6 Panyas. 6 Sosarmus. 7 19. 

i TTIecapalniup 1 , occ [m-bliabna] picec 2 . Cpi bliabna bo a pige, 
in can came Ic, mac bpeo^ain, a n-6pmn ocup abbac. Ocup 
coic bliabna bo a pise, in can cangabap mic TTIileb a n-6pmn r 
t)ia-bapbafn, ocup cac Caillcen ecep macaib TTlilib ocup 
Cuaca be t)ananb. Gpeamon ocup Gbep, ibon, bliabain. 
Gpeamon iap pin ocup TDuimne ocup Luigne ocup Laigne. 
Cucanep 3 , ba bliabam cpicac 4 ; ocup ip pe [a] linn bogab lapual, 
paic, pige n-Gpenn ocup Gicpial, mac Ipeil ocup Conmael, mac 
6bip. plaiciup 5 , cpica [bliaban] 6 ; ocup Cigepnmup, macpoll- 
015, pe [a] linn. t)appellup 7 , cecopca [bliaban]. Ocup 'pe pe 
lin t)auib, ocup pe [a] linb copac na ceacpafme aepe. Ocup 
Cigepninup, ba pi Gpenn annpin. Lapalep 8 , noi [m -bliabna] 
cpicac 9 . Ocup ip pe [a] linb bap Ci^epnmaip ocup cpi ceacpaime 
peap n-Gpenn. Ocup 6060 ebgocac bu ^abail pi^e. Lauip- 
cencep 10 , coic [bliabna] cecopcac. Ocup pannca 6penn ecep 
Ceapmna ocup Sobaipce ocup abbac Ceapmna iap pin. 



Ollathar, namely, the Dagda, took the kingship. Ten years after that, [h] 
[was] the time died the folk of handicraft, to wit, Credne, the wright 
and Goibnenn, the smith and Dianceeht, the leech. And of plague died 
they. Six years after that, [took place] the death of Aed, son of the 
Dagda and [the death] of Ciithin of the satirical mouth and the [ B .c,] 
"burning of Mad in Ailech. Lampares 3 , eight [years and] thirty 3 [1298] 
[were spent] by him in kingship, the time died Manannan, in the 
battle of Cuillenn [read, Lampares reigned thirty years]. Seven years 
after that, the time died Midir of Bri-liath. Panyas 4 , five [years and] 4 [1253] 
forty. And five years [were spent] by him in kingship, the time 
died Aengus, son of the Dagda. Two years [and] ten after that, the 
time came the Gaidil to Spain in four ships : namely, Brath, son of 
Deoth, whose son was [lit., for whom was son] Breogan. Three years 
[and] ten after that, the time died the Dagda and Delbaeth was 
made king. Ten years after that, [took place] the death of Delbaeth 
find Fiacha was made king. Sosarmus 5 , nine [years and] twenty 5 [1234] 
[read, ten]. And five years [were spent] by him in kingship, the 
time died Fiacha, son of Delbaeth. The year after that, assumed the 
children of Cermad the kingship of Eriu. 

i Mithreus 1 , eight [read, seven years and] twenty. Three years 1 [1207] 
[were spent] by him in kingship, the time came Ith, son of Breogan, 
into Eriu and died. And five years [were spent] by him in kingship, 
the time came the sons of Miled into Eriu, on Thursday and [was 
fought] the battle of Tailltiu, between the sons of Miled and the 
Tuatha de Danann. Eremon and Eber, namely, [reigned] a year 
[[jointly]. Eremon [reigned] after that and Muimne and Luigne and 
Laigne. Tautamus 2 , two [years and] thirty [read, thirty-one]. And 2 [1176] 
it is in [his] time took Irual, the prophet, kingship of Eriu and 
Eithrial, son of Irial and Conmael, son of Eber. Teuteus 3 , thirty 3 [1135] 
[read, forty years]. And Tigernmus, son of Follach, [was] in [his] 
time [ Thinaeus 4 , thirty years.]. Dercylus 5 , forty [years]. And it 4 [1106] 
is he [was] in the time of David and in [his] time [was] the beginning 5 1 

of the Fourth Age. And Tigernmus, he was king of Eriu then. 
Eupales 6 , nine [read, eight years and] thirty. And it is in [his] time 
f took place] the death of Tigernmas and of three fourths of the men of 
Eriu. And Eocho the Yestured took the kingship. Laosthenes 7 , five 
[years and] forty. And the Divisions of Eriu [took place] between 
Cearmna and Sobairce [in his time]. And Cearmna died after that. 



296 lebdR bain IN riioca. 

[rjbioibip 11 , cpica [bliat>an] ocup a epp aen bliabna bugab pige 
ocup bu^ab Gocai&paebupbeps, mac Comnail, ocup ipin coiceb 
bliabain a pi^e, comaibm Loca 6pne. t)a bliabain be$ lap pin, 
comaibm Loca Ce ocup Loca 5 abai P- Cpi bliatma lap pin, bap 
Gcbec, mic Conmail. In bliabain lap pin, pogab piaca La- 
bpainne pi^e n-Gpenn. 

i. i Mithreus. 2 27. 3 Tautamus. 4 31. 5 Teutaeus. 

6 40. Here follows Thinaeus, with 30 regnal years. 7 Dercylus. 

8 Eupales. 9 38. 10 Laostlienes. Peritiades. 

j Oppacolup T , pice [bliaban], Ocup ipin peipet> bliatain beg 
a pige, in can abbac piaca Labpainne ocup in bliaban o'a ep 
bosab 606016 TTIumo pi^e. Oppacenep 2 , pecc [m-bliabna] 
pepcac 3 bo a pige, in can abbac 6ocaib TTIumo. Ocup in bliab- 
ain iap pin po^ab Qensup Olmuccaib pige n-Gpenn ocup 
abbac Qensup iap pin, ipin c-peipeab bliabain beg ap picib a 
Oppacenep. Ipin bliabain iap pin pogab Gnba Qipgneac 
n-6penn. Qcpapcabep 4 , cecopca [bliaban] 5 . Ocup p6 
bliabna beg bo a paige, in can abbac Gnba Qipgneac. Ocup 
in bliabain iap pin, pogab "Roceaccais pige n-6penn ocup 
abbac "Roceccaib -| pogab Sebna aipbpige n-6penn. <Gomup 
Concolep 6 , bo'n <5P ei <5> i^on, Sapbapapallup 6 , pice [bliaban] : 
beo6plaic Qpapba. Ocup ipin peccmab bliabain a pige, pogab 
piaca pmpcoicec pige n-6penn. Qbbac piaca lap pin. 

j. ^phrataeus. 2 Ophratanes [ph = f]. 3 50. 4 Acrazapes. 5 42. 
6-6 Tuonoa Concolerus, qui vocatur Graece Sardanapallus. [36 Assyrian kings in 
Eusebius = B-Text, plus Thinaeus.] 

k Qapbacup 1 , ibon, cec pi TTleab, ceicpi [bliabna] picec 2 . 
Ocup cpi bliabna bo a pige, in can abbac TTIufneamon ocup 
Oillebepgoib, mac TTluineamoin, bo gabaib \lege gabail] pise. 
Ocup ceicpi bliabna beg bo Qpbacup a pige, in can pogab 
Ollam pobla pige n-6penn. Sogapanep 3 , cpica [bliaban]. 
Ocup coic bliabna beg bo a pige, in can abbac Ollam pobla. 
Ocup in bliabain iap pin, pogab pinacca, mac Ollaim pobla, 
pige n-Gpenn. TTiaibiup 4 , cecopca [bliaban]. Ocup p6 bliabna 
bo a pige, in can pogab Slanoll, mac Ollaim pobla, pige 
n-Gpenn. Secc bliabna beg iap pin, in can pogab 5 eoe 
Ollgocac pige n-Gpenn. Caipbipip 5 , cpi [bliabna] beg. Ocup 
bliabain bo a pige, in can pogab piaca, mac pinacca, pige 
n-Gpenn. "Dionep 6 , ba [bliabain] coicac 7 . Ocup coic bliabna 



Pcritiades 8 , thirty [years]. And at the age of one year took he the [i] 
kingship. And Eochaid Ruddy -Weapon, son of Conmael [took the 8 fe* 
kingship in his time]. And in the fifth year of his reign [occurred] 
the eruption of Loch Erne. Two years [and] ten after that, [oc- 
curred] the eruption of Loch Ce and of Loch Gabair. Three years 
after that, [took place] the death of Echaid, son of Cumael. The 
year after that, took Fiacha Labrainne the kingship of Eriu. 

j Ophrataeus 1 , a score [of years]. And in the sixth year [and] 1 [ 933 1 
tenth of his reign [was he] the time died Fiacha Labrainne and the 
year after it took Eochaidh Mumo kingship. Ophratenes 2 , seven 2 [883] 
[years and] sixty [were spent] by him in kingship \_Read: Ophra- 
tanes reigned fifty years.], the time died Eochaidh Mumo. And the 
year after that, took Aengus Olmuccaid kingship of Eriu. And died 
Aengus after that, in the sixth year [and] tenth above twenty in the 
reign of Ophratenes. In the year after that, took Enda the Silvery 
the kingship of Eriu. Acrazapes, 3 forty [read: 42 years]. And six 3 [841] 
years [and] ten [were spent] by him in kingship, the time died Enda 
the Silvery. And the year after that, took Rotectech the kingship 
of Eriu. And Rotectaid died and Sedna took the arch-kingship of 
Eriu. Thonos Concolerus 4 , namely, in [lit. from] the Greek, Sardana- 4 [821] 
pallus, a score [of years] : the last Assyrian prince. And in the 
seventh year of his reign, took Eiacha Finscoitech the kingship of 
Eriu. Died Fiacha after that. 

k Arbaces, namely, the first king of the Medes, four [years and] 
twenty. And three years [were spent] by him in kingship, the time 
died Munemon and Oilledergoid, son of Munemon, took the kingship. 
And four years [and] ten [were spent] by Arbaces in kingship, the 
time took Ollam Fodla kingship of Eriu. Sosarmus, thirty [years]. 
And five years [and] ten [were spent] by him in kingship, the time 
died Ollam Fodla. And the year after that, took Finachta, son of 
Ollam Fodla, the kingship of Eriu. Mamycus, forty [years]. And 
six years [were spent] by him in kingship, the time took Slanoll, 
son of Ollam Fodla, the kingship of Eriu. Seven years [and] ten 
after that, the time took Gede the Great-voiced the kingship of Eriu. 
Cardaces, three [years and] ten. And a year [was spent] by him 
in kingship, the time took Fiacha, son of Finachta, the kingship of 
Eriu. Dejoces 1 , two [read: four years and] fifty. And five years 1 [655] 

298 lebcm bain IN rhoca. 

[k] bo a pi^e, in can po^ab beapn^al, mac 5 et) e, T^S 6 * OCU P 
bliaban t>o a pi^e, in can po^ab Oilill, mac Slanoill, 
n-Gpenn, ocup coic [bliabna] cpicac bo a pi^e, in can 
Sipna Saeglac pi^e n-Gpenn. Coic bliabna be$ lap pin, cac 
'TVIona-Cposaibe, a bopcaip pip Gpenn ocup pomopaic. 

k. i Arbaces. 2 28. 3 Sosarmus. 4 Mamycus : he precedes Sosarmus. 
6 Cardaces. 6 Dejoces. 7 54. 

1 ppaopcep 1 , ceicpi bliabna picec. Ocup cecpi bliabna bo a 
pi^e, in can pogab "Roceccaib pi^e n-Gpenn. Ocupipin peccmab 
bliabam lap pin po^ab Giltm, mac "Roceccaib, pi^e ocup po^ab 
iap pin Jiallcab, mac Oilella, ocup pogab lap pin Qpc Imleac, 
mac Gilfm. Cipappeppep 2 , ba [bliabam] cpicac. Ocup ipm 
becmab bliabam a pige, pogab "Nuaba pmbpail pi^e n-Gpenn. 
lp 'n-a aimpip bocuaib "Nabcobon[opop] a m-baibil6m ocup ip 
'n-a pe poloipceb ceampall Solman. Qpbiaigep 3 , pe6c [m-bli- 
abna] picec 4 . Ocup complacup bo ocup bo "Nab5abon[opop]. 
Cip 5 , mac "Daip, ceb pi$ Pepp. Ocup ip leip abpocaip pallabap, 
ibon, pig bo 5 eT1Tlca ^ a 5 DU ocup pugapbap m-bpoib a baibilom. 
Ocup "Nuaba pmbpail, ba pi Gpenn anbpin. Campaipep 6 , mac 
Cip, pe paicea "Nab^abonappop 6 , occ [m-bliabna]. Ocup bpeap- 
pi;5, mac Qipc Imlic, pi^ i n-a pe. t>apiup, mac 7 lopcappep 7 , 
p6 [bliabna] cpicac 8 . Ocup Gocai6 Opcac, bo pil Lufg&ec, 

P. I2bmic lea, mic bpeo^am, i n-a pe. | Ocup pmb, mac bpaca, 
ocup Sebna inb Qppaib, beic m -bliabna a complacup bo. 
Sep;tep 9 , mac t)aip 9 , pice [bliaban]. Ocup bap Sebna inb 
Qpaib i n-a pe. Ocup Simon bpeac pe [a] linb. Ocup t)uac, 
mac Sebna, bu gabail pige. 

I. 1 Phraortes [ph = f]. 2 Cyaxares. 3 Astyages. * 38. 5 30 years 
are assigned to him. 6 " 6 Cambysen aiunt ab Hebrseis secundum Nabuchodonosor 
vocari : sub quo historia Judith, quse Holophernem interfecit, scribitur. 7 - 7 filius 
Hystaspis. 8 36. 9 " 9 Xerxes [filius] Darii. 

in Qpcapanep 1 , pecc mf. dpcappe;cep 2 Longemanup 2 , ibon, 
lampaba, cecopca. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip abbac t)uac, mac 
Sebna, ocup pemip coic pig bo pigaib Gpenn pocaic Qpcap- 
pep^rep : ibon, TTIuipeabac bol^pac ocup Gnba t)ep5, mac 
t)uac Pmb, ocup Lugaib lapbonan, mac Sebna ocup Siplam, 
mac Pmb, ocup Gocai& Uaipceap. Ocup ip 'n-a pe po^ab 
Gocaib piabmume ocup Conamg beaseglac pige n-Gpenn. 


{were spent] by Mm in kingship, the time took Berngal, son of Gede, [k] 
kingship. And twenty years by him in kingship, the time took Oilill, 
son of Slanoll, the kingship of Erin. And five [years and] thirty by 
him in kingship, the time took Sirna Long-lived [read, the Readier] 
the kingship of Erin. Five years [and] ten after that, [was fought] 
the battle of Moin Trogaide, wherein fell the men of Eriu and the 
Fomorians. [*.c.] 

1 Phraortes 1 , four years [and] twenty. And four years [werei [631] 
spent] by him in kingship, the time took Rotechtaid the kingship 
of Eriu. And in the seventh year after that, took Eilim, son of 
Rotechtad, the kingship. And there took [it] after that Giallchad, 
.son of Oilill. And there took [it] after that Art Imlech, son of 
Eilim. Cyaxares 3 , two [years and] thirty. And in the tenth years [-599] 
of his kingship, took Nuada Findfail the kingship of Eriu. It is in 
his time went Nebuchodonosor into Babylon and it is in his period was 
burned the Temple of Solomon. Astyages 4 , seven [read: 8 years and] 4 [561] 
twenty [read: 30.] And synchronous reigning [was] by him and by 
Nebuchodonosor. Cyrus 5 , son of Darius [reigned 30 years], [he wasp [531] 
the first king of the Persians. And it was by him fell Balthasar 6 , 6 [560] 
namely, king of the Chaldeans and he took spoil from Babylon. And 
Kuada Findfail, he was king of Eriu then. Cambyses 7 , son of Cyrus, 7 [523] 
who was called Nebuchodonosor [the Second], eight [years]. And 
Breasrig, son of Art Imlech, [was] king in his time. Darius 8 , son of a [436] 
Hystaspes, six [years and] thirty. And Eochaidh Opthach, of the 
seed of Lugaid, son of Ith, son of Breogan, [was] in his time. And 
Finn, son of Brath and Sedna of the Recompense, ten years were 
[they] in synchronous reigning with him. Xerxes 9 , son of Darius, a 9 [465] 
score [of years: read 21 years]. And the death of Sedna of the Recom- 
pense [took place] in his time. And Simon the Speckled [was] in 
[his] time. And Duach, son of Sedna, took the kingship. 

in Artabanus 1 , seven months, Artaxerxes Longimanus 2 , that is, i [465] 
Long-Hand, forty [years]. And it is in his time died Duach, son 2 C 425 3 
-of Sedna. And the time of five kings of the kings of Eriu spent 
Artaxerxes : to wit, Muredach Bolgrach and Enna the Red, son of 
Duach the Fair and Lugaid lardonan, son of Sedna and Sirlam, son 
of Finn and Eochaidh Uairches. And it is in his time took Eochaid 
Fair [?] -Neck and Conaing Little -Fearing the kingship of Eriu. 



lebcm bam IN rhoca. 

[m] Seppep 3 , ba mf. Ocup 6ocai& ocup Conaing i n-a pe. 

benup 4 , pecc mf. Ocup 6ocai& ocup Conaing [i n-a pe]. 
Daipiup Nocup, noi [m-bliat)na] be$. Ocup pemfp cpi pig ba 
pigaib 6penn pocaic : ibon, Lugaib, mac Gcbec Uaipcep ocup 
Conaing be^e^lac ocup Gpc Imleac, mac lufgbec. Ocup ip 
'n-a pe pogab pige piaca, mac TTluipeoai$. Gpcappep;cep 5 , 
ibon, TTlemnon 5 , cecopca [bliaoan]. Ocup Oilillpmt), macQipc r 
i n-a pe, ocup 6ocai&, mac Oilella pint) ocup Qipgebmaip t>o 
gabail pige i n-a pe pop. Qpcap^e^pep Ocup 6 , pecc [m-bli- 
abna] cpicac 7 . Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip abbac Qipgebmaip ocup 
"Ouac Lagpac ocup Lugaib Laigec. Ocup Qe& "Ruab, mac 
tmbufpnn, bu gabail pise. 

in. l Artabanus. 2 ~ 2 Artaxerxes Longimanus. 3 Xerxes. 

4 Sogdianus. 5 ~ 5 Artaxerxes . . . Mnemon. 6 Artaxerxes, qui et Ochus. 7 26 > 

n peppep Oce 1 , cecpi [bliabna]. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip abbac 
Qe6 "Ruab. t)aipiup 2 mop, mac Qppamfn 2 , ibon, pig beiginao 
pepp, occ 3 m -bliabna ocupabpocaip la hQla.xancaip, macpilip r 
ibon, cec pi (5r e 5- Ocup t)icopba, mac t)fmafn, i n-a pe. 
Gle;caneaip, ibon, cec pi 5r e 5> coic 4 bliabna. Ocup Cimbae6 r 
mac pmncain, i n-a pe. Colamenp 5 , mac Laipge 5 , cecop6a 
[bliaban]. Ocup TTIaca TTlon[5]puab i n-[a] pe. Ocup 
TCeccaib Rigbepg ocup Ugaine mop i n-a pe pop. Colamenp 
plobealbup 6 , occ [m-bliabna] cpicac. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip 
abbac U game mop. Ocup Laegaipe Lope pe [a] linn. Ocup 
Cobcac Caelbpeg ocup Labptiib Loingpec bu gabail pige i n-a 
pe. Colamenp Gbepgicep 7 , pecc [m-bliabna] picec 8 . Ocup ip 
'n-a aimpip abbac Labpaib Loingpec. Ocup Tnocopb pe [a] linn. 
Ocup Qen^up Oilill i n-a pe. Ocup lapambgleo bu gabail pige. 
Colamenp pilipocup 9 , occ [m-bliabna] beg 10 . Ocup peapcopb i 
n-a pe. Ocup Connla Cupaib-celupg pe [a] lin. Ocup Con- 
cobap "Rob, mac Cacaip, a pige n-Ula& pe [a] Ifnb pop. 

n. l Arses Ochi [filius]. 2 - 2 Darius Arsami [filius]. 3 6. 4 6. 

6 ' 5 Ptolemseus, Lagi filius. 6 Philadelphus. 7 Evergetes. 8 26. 

9 Philopater. 10 17. 

o pocolomeup 1 Gpipanep 2 , piliup Gbilipocup, cpi [bliabna] 
picec 3 . Ocup Oilill, mac Conlla, pe [a] linb. Ocup Qbamap 
polccam ocup 606016 polcleabup bu gabail pige [i n-a pe]. 



Xerxes 3 , two months. And Eochaid and Conaing were in his time. [m] 
Sogdianus 4 , seven months. And Eochaid and Conaing [were in his 3 ^- c ;] 
time], Darius Nothtis 5 , nine [years and] ten. And the time of 4 [425] 
three kings of the kings of Eriu spent he : to wit, Lugaid, son of 5 C 406 J 
Eochaid Uairches and Conaing Little-Fearing and Art Imlech, son of 
Lugaid. And it is in his time took Piacha, son of Muredach, the 
kingship. Artaxerxes 6 , that is, Mnemon, forty [years]. And Oilill 6 [366] 
the Pair, son of Art, [was] in his time. And Eochaid, son of Oilill 
the Fair and Airgedmair took the kingship in his time also. 
Artaxerxes Ochus 7 , seven [read: six years and] thirty [read: twenty]. 7 [340] 
And it is in his time died Airgedmair and Duach Lagrach and Lugaid 
Laigech. And Aed the Bed, son of Badornn, took the kingship. 

11 Arses Ochi 1 , four [read: three years]. And it is in his time died 1 [337] 
Aed the Red. Darius the Great 2 , son of Arsames, namely, the last kings [331] 
of the Persians, eight [read : six] years and fell he by Alexander, son 
of Philip, that is, the first king of the Greeks. And Dithorba, son of 
Diman, [was] in his time. Alexander 3 [son of Philip], first king of thes [325] 
Greeks, five years. And Cimbaeth, son of Pinntan, [was] in his time. 
Ptolemey 4 , son of Lagus, forty [years]. And Macha Red-Hair, in4[ 2 85] 
[his] time [was she]. And Rechtaid Red-arm and Ugaine the 
Great [were] in his time also. Ptolemey Philadelphus 5 , eight years 5 [247] 
[and] thirty. And it is in his time died Ugaine the Great. And 
Laegaire Lore [was] in [his] time. And Cobthach Caelbreg and 
Labraid Loingsech took the kingship in his time. Ptolemey Ever- 
getes 6 , seven [read: six years and] twenty. And it is in his time died 6 [221] 
Labraid Loingsech. And Mog-Corb [was] in [his] time. And Aengus 
Oilill [was] in his time. And larainngleo took the kingship. 
Ptolemey Philopater 7 , eight [read : seven years and] ten. And Per- 7 [204] 
corb [was] in his time. And Connla Curaid-celurg [was] in [his] 
time. And Concobar Rod, son of Cathair, [was] in the kingship of 
Ulster in [his] time also. 

o Ptolemey Epiphanes 1 , son of Philopater, three [read: four years i 
and] twenty. And Oilill, son of Conla, [was] in [his] time. And 
Adamar Pair-hair and Eochaidh Plo wing-hair took the kingship [in 


302 Lebcm baiLi IN rnoca. 

[o]Colamenp 4 pilamecup 5 , coic [bliabna] cpicac. Ocup 

polcleabup i n-a pe. Ocup Gen^up Cupbeac bu ^abail pi^e. 
Ocup piaca, mac pei&lig, appi^e n-Ula6. Colamenp 4 Gbep- 
5icep 6 , noi [m-bliabna] picec. Gen^up Cupmeac i n-a pe. Ocup 
Conall Collampac ocup "Nia Se^amam ocup Gnba 
bu ^abail pi^e. Colamenp 7 Pipo 7 , pecc [m-bliabna] 
Cpimcann Copcapac i n-a pe, ocup "Rugpaibe t>o ^abail pi^e. 
Colamenp 8 Qla^xa^^ep 8 , t>eic [m-bliat)na]. OcupRu^paibe i n-a 
pe. Ocup 6cint) Qbmaip ocup bpepal t)obiba& ocup Lu^aib 
Luai^ne bu ^abail pige. Ocup PIOC, mac pia&con, appi^e 
n-Ulab. Colomenp pipcon, occ [m-bliabna]. Ocup Con^al 
Claipmsneac i n-a pe. Colomenp t)iompiup 9 , cpica [bliaban]. 
Ocup Cental Claipfngneac i n-a pe. Ocup "Ouac, balca tDegaiO, 
ocup pmbcab, mac baic, a pige n-Ulab. Ocup Concobap 
TTlael, mac pufce ocup Copmac, mac Laici^, i n-a pe pop. 
Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip cu^ab i[n] cac Cacapba, ocup Copmac, 
mac Laicig, a pi^e n-Ulab 05 cabaipc in caca Cacapba. 
Ocup TTlocca, mac TTlupcopab, pe [a] linb. Cleopacpa, ibon, in 
pi^an, ocup ip i beo5plaicJ5r e 5> <oa bliabam bi. paccna pacac 
i n-a pe. 

o. J Ptolemseus. 2 Epiphanes. 3 24. 4 Ptolemaous. 

8 Philometor. 6 Evergetes [Secundus]. 7 ~ 7 Ptolemaeus Phuscon, idemque Soter. 
*- 8 Ptolemseus, qui et Alexander. 9 Dionysus. 

p luil Sepaip, ibon, cec pi Roman, coic [bliabna]. Ocup 
Geocaib peibleac i n-a pe, ocup 'n-a aimpip abbac. Ocup 
6ocai6, mac t)aipe, a pige n-Ulab a complacup ppi hluil. 
Ocup 6ocai& Qipem bu gabail pi^e, ocup 6ocai& 8ulbuf6e, mac 
Loc, cpi bliabna a complacup ppi 606016 Oipeam. Occapin 
lugupb, p6 [bliabna] coicac. Ocup ba bliabam bo a pige, 
P. I3ain can po^ab Pep^ap, mac Lece, pi^e n-Ulab. | Ocup ip 'n-a 
pe abbac 6ocai6 Oipeam. Ocup 6ceppcel, coic bliabna 'n-a pe. 
Ocup "Nuaba "Necc, ba paice. Ocup ipin coiceb bliabam beg 
bo pi^e Occapfn bogab Conaipe mop pi^e n-6penn ocup 
bogabapcap Concobap pige n-Ulab. Q n-aen bliabam, map pin, 
bo pi$ab Concobap ocup Conaipe. Ocup ipin bliabam cecna' 


his time]. Pfcolemey Philometor 2 , five [years and] thirty. And[o] 
Pergus Flowing-hair [was] in his time. And Aengus Turbech took t 1 ^ J 
the kingship. And Piacha, son of Peidlech [was] in the kingship 
of Ulster [in his time]. Ptolemey Evergetes 3 [the Second], nine 3 [116] 
[years and] twenty. Aengus Turmech [was] in his time. And 
Conall Collamraeh and Nia Segamain and Enda the Raider took the 
kingship [in his time]. Ptolemey Phuscon 4 , seven [years and] ten. 4 [99] 
Crimthann the Conqueror [was] in his time. And Rudraige took 
the kingship [in his time]. Ptolemey Alexander 5 , ten [years]. And 5 [89] 
Rudraige [was] in his time. And Etind [son] of Admar and 
Bresal of the Cow-Plague and Lugaid of the Spear took the kingship. 
And Piac, son of Piadcu, [was] in the kingship of Ulster [in his 
time]. Ptolemey Phuscon 6 [reigned again] eight [years]. And 6 [81] 
Congal Clairingnech [was] in his time. Ptolemey Dionysus 7 , thirty 7 [51] 
[years]. And Congal Clairingnech [was] in his time. And Duach, 
foster-son of Degad and Pindcad, son of Bac, [were] in the kingship 
of Ulster [in his time]. And Concobar the Bald, son of Puith and 
Cormac, son of Laitech, [were] in his time also. And it is in his time 
was fought [lit. given] the Civil battle [of Pharsalia] 8 and Cormac, son 8 [49] 
of Laitech, was in the kingship of Ulster at the fighting \lit. giving] 
of the Civil battle. And Mochta, son of Murcoru, [was] in his time. 
Cleopatra, namely, the queen and it is she [was] last ruler of the 
Greeks, two years [were reigned] by her [when Julius Cassar became 
Dictator] 8 . Pachtna the Prophetic [was] in her time. 

p Julius Cesar 1 , namely, the first king of the Romans, five years. J [44] 
And Eochaid the Hospitable [was] in his time and in his time died he. 
And Eochaidh Airem, son of Daire, [was] in the kingship of Ulster 
in synchronous rule with Julius. And Eochaid Airem took the king- 
ship and Eochaid Yellow-eye [recte, -heel], son of Loc, [was] three [A.D.] 
years in synchronous rule with Eochaid Airem. Octavius Augustus 2 , 2 \ob. 14] 
six [years and] fifty. And two years [were spent] by him in king- 
ship, the time took Pergus, son of Leith, the kingship of Ulster. 
And it is in his time died Eochaid Airem. And Eterscel [was] five 
years in his time and Nuada Necht, two quarters [of a year]. And 
in the fifth year [and] tenth of the reign of Octavius took Conaire 
the Great the kingship of Eriu and took Concobar the kingship of 
Ulster. In one year, according to that, were Concobar and Conaire 
made kings. And in the same year was Eriu divided between the 

304 tebcm baiLi IN rfioca. 

[p]bo panbab 6piu ecep na coi^ea&acaib, ibon, Concobap, mac 
Neapa, ocup Caipppi "Nfapeap -\ Ci^eapnbac Cebbanbac i "Oe&ab, 
mac Sm ocup Oilill, mac TTlat>ac. Ocup in bliabam apeip na 
ponba pin pu^at) Cuculamb. Ocup ipin peipet) bliat>ain be^ bo 
pi^e Occapfn Ugupb, ceacpa bliabna be^ lappan point) pin na 
coij5ebiiia&, pu^ab TTluipe : ibon, ipin ceacpama& bliat>ain t)65 
t>o pi^e Conaipe ocup Concobaip posenaip TTluipe ; loon, cpi 
[bliaona] beg ba plan bo Chofnculamb anbpin. Ocup ipin 
ceacpamab bliabam iap n-^ein TTluipe, pluaiseb Cana bo 
Cuail^ne. Qp pollup ap pin gupub' caepca Cam na [Cogail na] 
bpuf&nf ; opboig ip anbpan occmao bliabam beg bo pise 
Conaipe pluai^eb Cana bo Cuailgne. 

q Secc m-bliabna be^ ba plan bo Comculamb anbpin : 
ibon, ipa[n] b-apa bliabam beg ap picic bo p^e Occapin 
lu^upb, in pluai^eb cecna. Occ m-bliabna iap pluaigeb Cana 
bo Cuail^ne pogenaip Cpipc ocup ba plan ba bliabam beg 
bo TTluipe annpm. Ocup cecopca bliaban ba plan b'Occapm 
i n-a pige annpm. Ocup ipin peipeb bliabam picec bo pige 
Conaipe ocup Concobaip ocup ba bliabam iap n-gem Cpipc 
ceapbo Cuculamb. Ocup pecc bliabna picec pae^ul Cbon- 
culamb co pm. Occapin U^upb, coic [bliabna] beg bo a pige 
iap n-^em. Cibep Se;caip, pecc [m-bliabna] picec 1 . Ocup 
pecc bliabna be^ bo a pige m can bocepab Cpipc. Cpi 
[bliabna] cpicac bo Cpipc a colamb, o ^em co cepab. Ocup 
ipin [ip i in, MS.] bliabam apep cepba Cpipc bap Concobaip : 
ibon, ipin occmab bliabam beg Cibip ocup ipin pepcabmab 
bliabam bo a pige Conaipe abbac Concobap. Ocup abepaib 
apaile ap ipm m-bliabam [ip i in bliabam, MS.] iap cepab 
Cpipc bap TTluipe. Coic bliabna bo Cibip a pige iap m-bap 
Concobaip. j5^ ai F n f> mac Concobaip, noi [m-bliabna] a pige 
n-Ulab. Ocup ipm coiceb bliabam a pige bap Cibip. 

q. l 23. 

r 5 aiu r Caillicula, pecc [m-bliabna] 1 . Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip 
ceb pcpibeann in c-[p]oipcela la TTTaca. Ocup Conaipe a 


five [Provincials] : namely, Concobar, son of Ness and Cairpre the [p] 
Champion and Tigernnach Tedbannach and Dedad, son of Sin and 
Oilill, son of Madu. And in the year after that division, was born 
uculainn. And in the sixth year [and] tenth of the reign of 
Octavius Augustus, four years [and] ten after that division of the 
five [Provincials], was born Mary : namely, in the fourth year [and] 
tenth of the reign of Conaire and of Concobar was born Mary ; that 
is, three [years and] ten were complete for Cuculainn then. And in 
the fourth year after the birth of Mary, [took place] the Hosting of 
the Cattle-foray of Cuailgne. It is manifest therefrom that earlier 
was the Cattle-foray than [the Destruction] of the Palace [of Da 
Derga] ; for it is in the eighth year [and] tenth of the reign of 
onaire [took place] the Hosting of the Cattle-foray of Cuailgne. 

q Seven years [and] ten were complete for Cuculainn then : 
namely, in the second year [and] tenth above the twentieth of the 
reign of Octavius Augustus [took place] the same Hosting. Eight 
years after the Hosting of the Cattle-foray of Cuailgne, was born 
Christ and there were complete two years [and] ten for Mary then. 
And forty years were complete for Octavius in his reign then. And 
in the sixth year [and] twentieth of the reign of Conaire and 
Concobar and two years after the birth of Christ, failed Cuculainn. 
And seven years [and] twenty the age of Cuculainn to that. Octavius 
Augustus, five [years and] ten [were spent] by him in kingship after [A.D.] 
the Nativity. Tiberius Cesar 1 , seven [years and] twenty. And seven 1 [14*] 
years [and] ten [were spent] by him in kingship, the time suffered 
Christ. Three [years and] thirty [were spent] by Christ in the body, 
irom Birth to Passion. And in the year after the Passion of Christ 
pook place] the death of Concobar : that is, in the eighth year [and] 
tenth of Tiberius and in the sixtieth year of the kingship of Conaire 
died Concobar. And others say it is in the year after the Passion of 
Christ [took place] the death of Mary. Five years [were spent] by 
Tiberius in kingship after the death of Concobar. Glaisni, son of 
Concobar, nine years [was he] in the kingship of Ulster. And in 
the fifth year of his reign [took place] the death of Tiberius. 

r Cains Caligula 1 , seven [years]. And it is in his time [took i [37] 
place] the first writing of the Gospel by Matthew. And Conaire 

* A.D. regnal dates are those of the initial years. 

306 lebcm baiu IN rhoca. 

[r] compile ppip. Claubiup, cpi [bliabna] bej5. Ocup ipin cpep 
bliabam a pi^e cogail bpuibni 'Dabepg pop Conaipe mop, 
mac Gceppceoil [Gcepippceoil, MS.]. Ocup Ipial 5^ ur > a P> 
mac Conaill Cepnai^, a pi^e n-Ulab 05 Cogail bpufonf, 
Ocup coic bliabna bu Cempai^ 5011 pig lap Co^ail bpui&ni. 
lugais Spiabnbeps bu gabail pi^e n-Gpenn ocup Ipial 5^n- 
map a pi^e n-"Ulab annpm. "Neapo Se;cap, pecc [m-bliabna] 2 
beg. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip bap TTlinpe TTIagbaleTi. Ocup ip 
'n-a aimpip comaibm Linb-muine cap Liac-muine, ibon, Loc 
n-6acac, ocup comaibm Loca "Rib, mic TDuipeoa, cap Tlla^ 
n-Qippen. Ocup Ipial 5^ UT1Tna Pj Tnac Conaill, a pi^e n-Ulab- 
anbpin ocup Lugaig Spiabnbep^ a pige n-epenn. Ocup ip 'n-a 
aimpip po cpocab pebap ocup po biceannab pol ocup poiloip- 
ceb TCofm. 5 a ^ UQ3 ocup pipon, ibon, a balca, loca ocup 
becilliup 3 , cpi leicbliabnaboib. "Ueppepianup, noi [m-bliabna]. 
Ocup ipm coiceb bliabain a pige [6c] Lufgec Spiabnbeip^. Ocup 
Concobap Qbpabpuab bo ^abail pi^e i n-a pe ; ocup Cpfmcann 
Nfanap bo gabail pi^e. Ocup in bliabain apeip pi^e bo 5abail 
bo, bo cpocab Qnbpiap appbal. Cicup, ba bliabain bo. Ocup 
Cpimcann T^fanap i n-a pe. 

r. l 3 years and 10 months. 2 13. 3 ~ 3 Galba, 7 months ; 

Otho, 3 months ; Vitellius, 8 months. 

s t)omicianup, coic [bliabna] bej. Ocup bap Ipeil 
in bliabain bu^ab p^e. Ocuppiacapmbamnap bu gabail 
ibon, mac Ipiail. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip abbac Cpimcann "Nfanap.. 
Ocup Caipbpi Cinbcaib i n-a pe. Ocup peapabac pmbpeccnac, 
pecc bliabna a complacup ppip. Ocup Tnopan,maclTlafn, i n-a 
pe. Ocup ba bliabain apeip pi^e bu ^abail bo pepabac, bomap- 
bab Comap Qppbal. "Neap[u]u, ibon, bliabain. Ocup ip 'n-a 
aimpip popcpib 6ofn in Sopcela, ibon, ipin peccmao bliabain 
peapabais ptnbpeccnais. Cpoianup, noi [m-bliabna} 
Ocup ipin cpep bliabain a pige abbac 6ofn, ocup ipin 
cpep bliabain beg bo pige pepabaig [pinb]peccnais. Clemenp 
Papa bo bacub i n-a pe. Ocup piacac pinn a pige n-Ulab 
pop. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip abbac pepabac pmn[peccnac]. 
Ocup piacac pinn, mac Daige, bu ^abail pi$e n-6penn i n-a 




5 [68] 
5 [69] 

[was] in synchronous rule with him. Claudius, 2 three years [and] [r] 
ten. And in the third year of his reign, [took place] the Destruction E/r 
of the Palace of Da Derga against Conaire the Great, son of Etersceol. 
And Irial the Kneed, son of Conall Cernach, [he was] in the kingship 
of Ulster at the Destruction of the Palace [of Da Derga]. And five 
years for Tara without a king, after the Destruction of the Palace [of 
Da Derga]. Lugaid Red- Stripe took the kingship of Eriu and Irial 
the Kneed [was] in the kingship of Ulster then. Nero Cesar, 3 seven 
[years and] ten. And it is in his time [took place] the death of 
Mary Magdalen. And it is in his time [happened] the eruption of 
the Pool of the Hedge over the Grey [Plain] of the Hedge, namely, 
Loch ISTeagh and the eruption of the Lake of Rib, son of Muired, over 
Magh-Airfen. And Irial the Kneed, son of Conall [Cernach, was] in 
the kingship of Ulster then and Lugaid Red- Stripe in the kingship of 
Eriu. And it is in his time was Peter crucified and Paul beheaded 
and Rome burned. Galba and Piso, 3 namely, his fosterling, Otho 5 and 
Yitellius 5 , three half-years [were reigned] by them. Yespasian 5 , nine 
[years], And in the fifth year of his reign, [took place the death] of 
Lugaid Red-Stripe. And Concobar Red-Eyebrow took the kingship 
in his time and Crimthann Manair took the kingship. And the 
year after kingship was assumed by him, was crucified Andrew, the 
Apostle. Titus 6 , two years [were reigned] by him. And Crimthann 
Manar [was] in his time. 

s Domitian 1 , five [years and] ten. And the death of Irial the 
Kneed [took place in] the year he took the kingship. And Piacha 
Pindamnas took the kingship, namely, the son of Irial. And it is 
in his time died Crimthann Nianar. And Cairbre Cat-Head [was] 
in his time. And Peradach Pinnfechtnach [was] seven years in 
synchronous rule with him. And Mo ran, son of Man, [was] in his 
time. And two years after the taking of kingship by Peradach was 
slain Thomas, the Apostle. JSTerva 2 , one year. And it is in his time 
wrote John the Gospel, namely, in the seventh year of the reign of 
Peradach Pinnfechtnach. Trajan 3 , nine years [and] ten. And in 
the third year of his reign, died John and in the third year [and] 
tenth of the reign of Peradach [Pinn]fechtnach. Pope Clement was 
drowned 4 in his time. And Piatach the Pair [was] in the kingship 4 [100] 
of Ulster also. And it is in his time died Peradach Pinn[fechtnach]. 
And Piatach the Pair, son of Daig, took the kingship of Eriu in his 



308 lebcm bain IN itioca. 

[s]pe. Ocup piacac pmb|alac bo gabail pie n-Gpenn pop. 
P- 13b Qbpianup, ibon, bliabam ap picic. Ocup ip 'n-a aimpip 

acnugub lapupalem, ocup bap piacai^ pinnalaig la heifm, 
mac Connpac, ocup Glfm bo gabail pige. Ocup ip 'n-a pe 
bogab Cuacal Ceaccmap pi^e n-Gpenn. Qnconiup, ba [bli- 
abain] picec a compile bo Cuacal. Ocup ip 'n-a pe cu^ab 
piagail na Cape ^upna Cpipcai^ib ocup pocaibbeb in bopoina. 
Ocup TTIal, mac "Rocpaibe, i n-a pe. 

tlTlapcup Qnnconi[n]upnoi [m-bliabna]be5. Ocuppeiblfmfb 
"Reccmap i n-a pe. Ocup Cacaip TTlop i n-a pe. Ocup Conn 
Cebcacac bu ^abail pi^e. Qncom[n]up Commabup, cpi [bli- 
abna] be^. Ocup ipm coiceb bliabam a pie cugab cac TYluise 
Lena, aic abpocaip TTlos "Nua&ab. t)a bliabam lappin cac pin 
TTIui^e Lena, acopcaip Conn Cebcacac a Ouaic Qmpoip la 
Cibpaibe Cipeac, la pig "Ulab. Conaipe, mac TTIosa Lama, 
i n-a pe. Ocup Qpc Qenpep bu gabail pige. pepcina^ 1 
Se[ne];c, pecc mi 1 . Seuepup popcina^ 2 , occ [m-bliabna] beg 
a complacup ppi hQpc Q^aman, mac piacac pmn, a pi^e 
n-Ulab. Quipilianup, pecc [m-bliabna]. Ocup cac Cinb- 
Qbpab pia maccaib Conaipe, mic Trio^a, ibon, na cpi Caip- 
ppi. Ocup pop Lu^aib, mac Con, aic abpocaip "Nemib, mac 
Spaibcinn, la Caipppi "Ri^poba, ocup, bo peap abpai[le], la 
hGogan, mac Oilella. Cac "PHut^e TDucpuma t)ia-bapbam pia 
Lu^aib, mac Con, [aic] abpocaip Qpc, mac Cufnb ocup pecc 
meic Oilella Oluim. Lugaib La^a, pobic Qpc a Cuplac Qipc. 
benne bpic, pobic Gogan, mac Oilella. Lugaib, mac Con, 
bu gabail pi^i. 

t. l ~ l Mlius Pertinax, 6 months. 2 Severus, 19 years. 

* Sub hujus [Pii I] episcopatu frater ipsius, Hermes, librum scripsit, in quo 
mandatum continetur, quod ei praecepit angelus Domini, cum veniret ad eum in 
habitu Pastoris, ut sanctum Pascha die dominico celebraretur (Liber Damasi pon- 
tificalis \_spurius]}. 

Licet nos idem Pascha praedicta [Dominica] die celebremus, quia tamen quidam 


time. And Fiatach Findalach took the kingship of Eriu also. [s] 
Adrian 5 , a year above twenty. And it is in his time [was] &e 
renewal of Jerusalem and the death of Fiachach Findalach by Elim, 
son of Connra and Elim took the kingship. And it is in his time 
assumed Tuathal the Acceptable kingship of Erin. Antoninns 6 , 6 [138] 
two [years and] twenty in cotemporary sovereignty with Tuathal. 
And it is in his time was brought the Rule of the Easter to the 
Christians* and was exacted the Boromean Tribute. And Mai, son 
of Rocraide, [was] in his time. 

t Marcus Antoninus 1 , nine [years and] ten. And Fedlimid the 1 [161] 
Law-giver [was] in his time. And Cathair the Great [was] in 
his time. And Conn the Hundred-Battled took the kingship. 
Antoninus [read Aelius Aurelius] Commodus 2 , three [years and] ten. 2 [180] 
And in the fifth year of his reign was fought [lit. given] the battle of 
Magh Lena, a place where fell Mog Nuadad. Two years after that 
battle of Magh Lena, fell Conn the Hundred-Battled in Tuaith- 
Amrois by Tibraide Tirech, [namely] by the king of Ulster. Conaire, 
son of Mogh Lama, [was] in his time. And Art the Solitary [lit. Sole 
Man] took the kingship. Pertinax Senex 3 , seven months. Severus 3 [193] 
Pertinax 3 , eight [years and] ten, in cotemporary sovereignty with 
Art Agaman, son of Fiatach the Fair, in the kingship of Ulster. 
Aurelian 4 , seven years. And the battle of Cenn-Abrad [was gained] 4 [211] 
by the sons of Conaire, son of Mog, namely, the three Cairpris. And 
[it was gained] over Lugaid, son of Cu, a place where fell Nemid, 
son of Stripe-Head, by Cairpre Long-Arm, or [and, MS.], according 
to others, by Eogan, son of Oilill. The battle of Magh Mucruma 
[was gained] on Thursday, by Lugaid, son of Cu, [a place] where 
fell Art, son of Conn and seven sons of Oilill Olum. Lugaid Laga, 
slew he Art on the Hill of Art. Benne Brit, slew he Eogan, son of 
Oilill. Lugaid, son of Cu, took the kingship. 

inde dubitarunt, ad corroborandas animas eorum eidem Hermae angelus Domini in 
habitu Pastoris apparuit et praecepit ei, ut Pascha die Dominica ab omnibus cele- 
braretur (Epistola [spuria] Pii I ad Justum episcopum}. 

Hermes scripsit librum qui dicitur Pastor, in quo praeceptum angeli continet, ut 
Pascha die dominico celebraretur (Beda, Chronicon, sub Antonino Pio, A.D. 13961). 

310 tebcm bain IN itioca. 


Nin, mac bel, po^a na pi^, 
Oipbepc a blab, 'p a buain 
Q se^li ba blobaib bep, 
Cec pi in Domain co t>ilep. 


PICI ocup bliabain blabaig 
t)o "Nin a gem Qbpacaim : 
Linn ap mebap gan mepblat), 
'N a lebaip '5 a lanbepbab. 


Cpi picic bliaban 

t)haip Qbpacaim 

"Nepcib abbpoploig pa bloit) 

QS cecc pappcalom popc^loin. 


6n bliabain cepc pe comol 
Suil bu^ab pope papcalon : 
t)opuaip gnai ip beccbail 50 m-blab, 
Qg ceppbail noi ba nepcmap. 


"Nfnfap, mac "Nin, nfa 50 nepr, 
'"N-a peapeb bliabam biccepc, 
puaip ap^apc beapa ip babba 
TTlac Seapa co pean banba. 


papcalon, "Nfnfap nepc ma, 
t)iap bpigmap 50 m-buain peca6; 
"Ni ba paeibpiagail u a plac, 
"Re haen bliabam abbacpac. 




Mnus, son of Belus, choice of the kings, 
Illustrious his fame and his firm strength, 
His branching splendour with different good customs, 
The first king of the world legitimately. 


Twenty famous [years] and a year 

[Were ruled] by Mnus at the birth of Abraham : 

A complement that is certain, without deceptive fame, 

In its length being full-certified. 


Three score of years diversified 

[ Were passed] of the age of Abraham eminent 

At the coming of Parthalon 


One year exact was in completion 
Before a port received Parthalon 
Found he 
In managing a ship was he powerful. 


Ninias, son of Mnus, a champion with power, 

In his sixth year ever just 

Received he 

The son of Ser with old Banba. 


Parthalon, Ninias powerful hero 

A vigorous pair with abiding guilt ; 

It was not a deceptive rule [that arose] from their destruc- 

In one year died they. [tion, 

312 lebcra bain IN rtioca. 


[v] O bap papcaloin ppimba, 

O baip Qbpafm oillTnilla, 
Q lus an luibi map capufb 
Coic coic up ap occmoftaib. 


O bap Qbpainri pump onoip 
5o p' clai&eb clann papcaloin, 
"Ni t)OCG bla6, ip bla& nac bpe5, 
a pecc, occmo6a, ip aen. 


TTlamfnfcup pa mop 05, 
'"N-a pis Qpap&a implan ; 
5^6 oipecc pobai ip becca 
pai 05 coicecc m cannlecca. 


t)a bliat)am, cpi t>eic berrnn, 
O'n cam 50 cecc cpiac Nemit> ; 
Ip labpa nac tomap cop, 
banba polam 05 pmncan. 


w Tilapailiup, po bo mop blab, 

Qg cecc bo Nemib nepcmap : 
Qpum glan, 506 cip o capba, 
'N-a pi abbal Qpapba. 


Nai m-bliabna ocup cec gan coll, 
O ceacc "Nemib na mamslonb 
t)a plas 'p ba bic baec bambal 
Co cam epic laecba O-Liacan. 



[v] Prom the death of Parthalon the leader, 

[And] from the death of Abraham very distinguished, 
[Erin] lay without herbage ? like 
Pive [by] five full years above eighty. 


Prom the death of Abraham who got honour, 
Until were smitten the posterity of Parthalon, 
"Not narrow the fame, it is fame that is not falsehood ; 
Seven, eighty [years] and one. 


Mamithus with [lit. under] great felicity, 

He was the absolute Assyrian king ; 

Every preeminence and goodly deed was 

"With him at the coming of the plague -destruction. 


Two years, thrice ten certain, 

Prom the Plague to the coming of the hero BTemed ; 
It is a saying that endures not disturbance, 
Banba [was] deserted at [the coming of] Pintann. 


w Manchaleus, whose fame was great, 
At the coming of Nemed the powerful, 
Clear the narration, each land profited, 
He was the mighty Assyrian king [lit. in his king]. 


Mne years and a hundred without deceit, 

Prom the coming of Nemed of the heroic actions 

It was a plague and it was a destruction 

To the plague of the heroic districts of Ui-Liathian. 

314 lebdR bain IN riioca. 


[w] Clpsacpiap, plaic peit)il, 

Q^ eoibecc eaim epiaic "Nemib; 
t)ocuip 506 conaip po cloinb, 
Ip 05 cogail Cuip Coning. 


Coica ip ba bliabam co im-blait>, 
O caimlecc "Nemit) nepemaip : 
"Ni cop aipmi pe po^pa 
Ju p'^oib Slaine pen phobia. 


dmeneep, ba mcnc a mop, 

Q^ coibecc pep m-bol^ m-bla&Tinop : 

t)abai 5011 aipbpig abbail, 

'N-a aipbpig op Qpapbaib. 


x Cpica 'p a ceacaip 'nap'clob, 

placup [na] pep m-bolg Tn-blabmop 
Luce na cupaifte, ip becc in bann, 
Qg cecc Cuaca be Oanann. 


65 cecc Cuaca be t)anann 
5o banba b'a buancaball, 
belocup, ba cpom capba, 
Op pann pob^lap Qpapba. 


"Noca, occ bliabna, ^an bpon 
TCemeap Cuaca t)anann, bpeac mop ; 
"Ni bpes, ace ip becc a pab, 
Ip cec co cepc ip coicab. 



[w] Ascatades, persevering prince, 

[Reigned] at the coming of the plague of the chief Nemed ; 
Who placed every path under [the sway of his] posterity, 
And [reigned he] at the destruction of the Tower of Conang. 


Fifty and two years with fame, 
From the Plague-destruction of Nemed powerful 
It is not obliquity of computing to proclaim [it] 
Until Slaine occupied ancient Fodla. 


Amyntes, good was his greatness, 

At the coming of the Fir-Bolg of great fame, 

Was he without vast power 

The arch-king [lit. in his arch-king] over the Assyrians. 


x Thirty and four [years], in which was heard 
The rule of [the] Fir-Bolg of great fame : 
The folk of the coracles, eventful is the destruction, 
At the coming of the Tuatha de Danann. 


At the coming of the Tuatha de Danann 
To Banha to permanently occupy it [lit. for its permanent 
Belocus, it was a weighty advantage, occupation], 

[Reigned] over the green-swarded Assyrian slope. 


Ninety, eight years without sorrow, 

[Was] the space of the Tuatha de Danann, great the prospect: 

Not false, but eventful is its duration, 

It is a hundred exactly and fifty. 


316 leboR bam IN riioca. 

[x] TVIecapailiup ba lup apt) aft, 

GS cecc mac TTIilet) m-bicngapb 
P. 14 a lOftla puil ba 

t)o pil Qpuip 


Secc cec cpi bliat>na 
PICO o ppimcecc papcalain, 
5an gabail pe plogapc pleaj, 
5u gabail mop mac TTIilet). 


Cuis pi^a, pice, pip ^ap, 
O TTIecapailiup ajamap 
t)peam nap' cameat) pe cpuap lib 
"Re n-aipeam puap co paep T^in. 

Mm, mac, 




[x] Metarailius, distinguished the felicity, 

[Reigned he] at the coming of the sons ever-fierce of Miled : 

Of the distinguished Assyrian seed. 


Seven hundred, [and] three years famous 
[And] twenty from the first coming of Parthalon, 
Without occupation by a speared host [was Eriu] 
Until the great occupation of the sons of Miled. 


Five kings [and] twenty, knowledge brief, 
Prom Metarailius of great felicity 
Polk that for fierceness are not lamented by ye 
[Are] to be counted up to noble Ninus. 

Mnus, son, etc. 


( 318 ) 


[Roman capitals (A, B) respectively denote the A and B Texts, pp. 278 to 316; 
Roman letters and Arabic figures (thus, d, u 4) refer to the sections 
and verses."] 

a (an, art.), A a, e ; B v 3, x 1. 

a (pr. infix. 3 s. fern.), (conb)a(5ab), 

a (poss. 3 s. masc.), A b, c, d, e, f ; 

B a, b, d, e, f, gr, h, j, 1, m, n, o, 

p, q, r, s, t, u 1, 2, 5, v 1, 4, w 5, 

a (poss. 3 s. fern.), A a ; B c, d, gr, v 2, 


a (poss. 3 pi.), A a c; B a. 
a (prep.), B e, 1, u 2. 
a (rel.), B d. 
a (i and rel.), B k. 
a (i), A e, f, h ; B b, e, f, gr, h, i, j, k, 

1, n, o, p, q, r, s, t. 
a m- (i m-), B 1. 
a n- (i n-), A b, e, f, h; B d, e, gr, h, 

i, P. 

a rib- (poss. 3 p.), B c. 
Qapbacup, B k. 
abbaine, A h. 
Gbel, B a. 
Gbpabpuat), B v. 
Qbpam, Ab; -aim (g.), B v 2, 3 ; 

-aham, A b. 
Gbpacam, B c, d; -aim (g.), B c, d, 

u2, 3. 

G6papcabep, BJ. 
a6c, A a ; B f, x 3. 
a&, B x 4. 
Gt>a, B a. 
Gt>am, A b ; B c ; -aim (g.), B a. 

Qbamap, B o. 

abbail, B w 5 ; -al, BW!. 

abbac, A e ; B c, d, f, gr, h, i, j, k, 

m, n, p, q, s ; acb-, A e, f. 
abbacabap, B f, b. ; -cpac, B v 1. 
abepaib, B q. 
abbpoplois, B u 3. 
Gbmaip, B d. 
abpaili, B t. 
Gbpianup, B s. 
Ge&, B m, n; -ba (g.), B b.. 
aen (num.), A e ; B c, d, i, p, v 1, 3 ; 

-mob, Ah; B c, d. 
aenac, A c. 

Bh, j, n, o. 

aep, B d ; -pa (g.), B d ; -pe (g.) ,B i. 

aep-bana, B h. 

Gppaicc, Bb; -015, B c. 

05 (sb.), B v 4. 

05 (prep.), A a ; B b, e, o, r, u 3, 4, 

v4, wl, 3, 5, xl, 4. 
asa(map), B a, b. 
Gsnamain (g.), B f; GSTIO-, A b; 


Qhopa, B g-. 
ai&i&, B f. 

(05, ac and pr. suf. 3 s. masc.), 


Chlill, A h. 
aimpip, A d, h ; B gr, 1, m, n, o, p, 

r, s. 
ain, A e. 



Gmbinn, B f. 
hamm, B g. 

B vr 5. 

B w 5 ; -ge, BJ. 
aipeam, B x 6. 
Gipepaocab, B d. 
Gipem, B p. 
n-Gippen, B r, 
Qipseablam, B g-. 
Gipsebmaip, B m. 
Qipsneac, B j ; -e6, B o. 
aipmi (g.), B w 4. 
Gipc (g.), Bl, m, t. 
aip, A a ; B u 3 ; -pi (g.), A e ; -paib, 

A a. 

Gippia, B b, 
aic, B t. 
Qlarh, B c. 
Qla;canbaip, A d ; -bep, B o ; -caip, 

B, n. 

Qlbania, B b. 
Qlla, B a. 
dlloib, Bh. 
Glofnfup, B b. 
Glcbup, B e. 
Qmbpoip (g), Agr. 
Gmencep, B f, w 5. 
an (art. ac.), A a, c. 
Qnbpiap, B r. 
anbpan (i and art.), B p. 
ombpin, A f, h ; B 1, p> q, r. 
ann (i and pr. suf. 3 s. neut.), B i. 
annpm, B i, q, r. 
Qnconiup, B s. 
anconmup Commabup, B t. 
appbal, B r, s. 
ap (sb.), B a. 
ap (prep.), A a, c, e, f, gr, h ; B a, c, 

d, j, q, s, v2. 
ap- (in-), Bh, o. 
ap(eip), B p ; ap(fin) A a, h. 
apa (ala), A a, e, h; B e, f, q. 

dpapaxat), B c. 

apait), B 1. 

apaile (-li), B q. 

Qpailiup, B d. 

Gpam, B c. 

Gpbacup, B k. 

apt), B x 4. 

apep, B 8. 

apsapc, B ti 5. 

Gprnimencep, B d. 

apna (ala), B e. 

Gpniup, B d. 

appab, B 1. 

Gpyamin, B n. 

Gpc, B 1, m, t. 

Gpcapanep, B m. 

Gpcappe^ep, sm; -eppcep, B m. 

apum, B w 1. 

ap (vb.), A a, e ; B a, b, c, e, p, q, 


ap (prep.), A c ; B p. 
GpaiTnipaimip, B g. 
Gpap&a, A b, c; B c, j, v 4, w 1> 

x 2 ; -baib, AC; B w 5. 
Qpcaieiap, B e, f. 
, B 1. 
, B w 3. 
Qpm, B b. 
apin (ipm), B d. 

apna (apnaib : a and art. d, p.), B f. 
Gpup, BC; Qpiup,Bac4 
aca, A a, b; acaic, B b, c ; -ac, 

B b, c. 

acap (g.), A f ; B h. 
acnusut) B s ; (hjacrmiseatm^, A c ; 

-gut), A c. 

b' (ba), B a, p. 

ba, B e, i, 1, p, q, u 1, 4, v 1, w 2, 5, 

x2, 4. 
baaca, B b. 
babiloin, B 1; baibiloima, B c. 



babba, B u 5. 

batmipnn (g.), B m. 

basna, B e. 

(t)o)bai, sa; (ba)bai, Bw5; (po)bai, 

A b, c, d, e; B v4; (po)bat>ap, 

A a, c. 

bcnc (g.), Ad; BO. 
balleup, B e. 
bcmba, B v 5, x 2. 
barni, B x 1. 
bap, A b, g ; B c, d, f, g, h, i, 1, q, 

r, s, v 2, 3 ; baip (?), B y 2. 
baeut>, B s. 

bease5la6, B m ; bes-, B m. 
bean, B a, b; ben, B c. 
beapa, B u 5. 
beapnsal, B k. 
beaca, A e; B a. 
be6c, B x 1, 3 ; -ca, B v 4 ; be6c- 

bail, B u 4. 
beil, B c ; bel, B u 1. 
bel-caince, B h. 
belocup, B g, x 2 ; -coup, B e. 
benne, B t. 
beocaig, B f. 
bep, B u 1. 
bee, A a. 
becillup, B r. 
(bo)bi, B b. 
bibla, A a. 
(po)bic, B t. 

bic(cepc), B u 5 ; bicnsapb, B x 4. 
blab, B u 1, 4, v 3, w 1, 5, x 1 ; 

blaib (d.), B w 4. 

blabais, B u 2, x 5; mepblab, B u 2. 
bliabmn (n.), A a, b, c, d, e, f, h ; 

B e, h, i, k, p, s, u 2, 4 ; (d.), A d, 

e, f, g ; B c, d, e, f, g, h, j, 1, p, 

q, r, s, t, u 5 ; (ac.), B v 1 ; (dual), 

B f, h, i, o, p, q, v 5, w 4. 
bliabem (g. p.), A a, b, c, d, e, la. ; 

B d, e, q, u 3. 

bliatma (g. s.),. B i ; (n. p.), A a, b, c, 
d, e, f, g, b. ; B f, h, i, j, k, 1, n, 
p, r, s, w 2, x 3, 5. 

bloib, B u 3 ; -mb, B u 1. 

bo (vb.), B h, w 1. 

bobibafc, B o. 

bolspac, B m. 

bopoma, B s. 

bpac, Bh; -ca, (g.), B 1. 

bpea6, B 1. 

bpeappis, B 1. 

bpes, B v 3, x 3 ; -gba, B u 3, x 4. 

bpeosan, B h; -am, (g.), B i, 1. 

bpep, Bg; -pe, (g.), Bg. 

bpepal, B o. 

bpecain, B b. 

bpis, B u 1 ; -smap, B v 1. 

bpileic, B h. 

bpic, B t. 

bpoib, B 1. 

bpon, B x 3. 

bpui&ni (g.), B p, r. 

bptJig, B f. 

buain, B a, v 1, u 1; -an(caball), 


Caelbpes, B n 

Caillicula, B r. 

Cairn (g.), B c. 

Cam, B a. 

(nap')caineat), B x 6. 

atpo6aip, B 1, n, t ; bopcaip, B s, k. 

Caipbpi, B h, s. 

Caipbipip, B k. 

Caipppi, B p, t. 

pocaic, Ab; B m. 

Cal, B e. 

Calla&a, B c. 

Cam, B b, c. 

Campaipep, B 1. 

Cant>an, B c. 



Capri Ua-Neib, B g. 

capufb, B v 2. 

cape, B s. 

cac, B e, g, h, i, k, o, t ; -ca (g.), 

B O. 

cacaip, Ad. 

Cacapba, B o. 

cacaip, B a, t. 

Cacaip (g.), B n. 

Ce, si. 

ceapb, B a. 

Ceapmaba (g.), B h. 

Ceapmna, B i. 

ceacaip, B x 1. 

ceacpa (num.), B p. 

ceacpaime (g. s. ; n. p.), B i. 

ceacpamab, A a, c, f, h ; B f , p. 

ceb (ord.), B a, 1, r. 

Cebcaca6, B t. 

C6in, B h. 

Ceirmpinbain, B g. 

ceic (ord.), B c. 

ceicpe, B c ; -pi, B c, f, h, k, I. 

cenel, B b. 

Ceprnaba (g.), B h. 

cepb, B h. 

cepc, B u 4, x 3 ; bi6c-, B u 5. 

cepab, B q ; cepba (g.), B q ; bo- 

cepab, B q. 
Ceppaip, A e. 
cec (card.), A b, c, d; Bb, w2, ac3, 5; 

(ord.) A a, b, c, e, f , h ; B a, c, d, 

f, g, k, n, p, u 1 ; -aib, A a, c, 

e, f, g, la. B d. 
cecna (ord.), A c, d, e ; (same) A a ; 

B a, p, q. 
cecopca, A b ; B, d, e, i, j, k, m, n, 

q; -cac, AC, d, e; B c, f, h, i. 
cecpi, B 1, n. 
Cimaeic, B e. 
Cimbaec, Ad; B n. 
Cinbec, B e. 

Cinbcaib, B s. 

cmn, B e. 

Cip, B 1. 

Cipappeppep, B 1. 

Cipme, A h. 

clai&eb, B v 3. 

Claipin5nea6, B o. 

clarm, B v 3 ; clamne (p.)> l 1 - 

poclapa, B e. 

Claubiup, B r. 

poclecc, B a. 

Clemenp, B s. 

(nap')clob, B x 1. 

cloibem, A f. 

Cleopacpa, B o. 

cloinb, B w 3. 

Cnampoip, B e. 

co (conj.), A b; B f; co n-, A b; 

co (prep.), A b, c, d, e, f, h ; B q, 

u 1, 5, w 2, x 6 ; co m-, B w4 ; 

co n-, B f. 
co (cepc), B x 3. 
Cobcac, B n. 
coic, A a, b, c, d, e, gr, h; B o, e, f; 

gr, b., i, k, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, v2 ; 

-ca, AC, e; Bd, w4; -cab,Bx 3; 

-caic, A a; -cac, Ab, c; Be, k, p; 

-ceb, A e, f ; B t, h, i, p, q, 

r, t. 

coiseaoacaib, B p. 
coisebriiao (g. p.), B p. 
Coimbi, A e. 

Choinculamb (d.), B p, q. 
Coipppi, A h. 
colainb, B q. 
coll, B w 2. 
Collampac, B o. 
complacup. B 1, p, s. 
cornel, B u 4. 

B b. 
(d.), B r, s. 



Con (g.), B t; Conn, B t. 

Conains (g.), B f, m, w 3. 

conaip, B w 3. 

Conaipe, B p, q, r. 

Con all, B o ; -mil (g.), B r, 

Concobap, A d, f, li ; B n, o, p, q, r ; 

-aip (g.), A e; B q. 
Chonculamb (g.), B q. 
Consal, B o. 
comb, A b. 

comsi, Ad; conn-, Ah. 
Conmael, B i ; -mail (g.), B i. 
Connla, B o ; Connla Cunaib- 

celups, B n. 
Connpac (g.), B s. 
cop, B v 5, w 4. 
Copanb, B f ; -ainb (g.), A d. 
Coprnac, Ad; BO; -aic (g.), A g, h. 
Copcapac, B o. 
copm (co and art.), A f, g ; B d. 
Cpebne, B h. 
cpiac, B v 5. 
epic, B W 2. 
Cpimcann, B o, r, s. 
Cpipc, A e, f, 3i ; B q ; -oaisib, B s. 
Cpicin, B h. 
cpocab, Af, h; (bo)c-, sr; (po)c-, 

A f ; B r. 
cpuic, B a. 
(bo)cuaib, A f ; B 1, 
Cuculamb, B p, q. 
cufce (co and pr. suf. 3 s. fern.), B c. 
cms, Ah; B s: 6 ; -geb, B d. 
Cuillinn, B h. 
Cuinb (g.), A g-; B t. , 
bocuip, B w 3. 
Cuipi, A h. 
cum a, B a. 
cumbac, A b, c ; (pojcumbaiseb, 

B a. 

cupaibe, B x 1. 
Cup, B c. 

b'(be, bi), Bb, c, d, f,j,u3, x 2. 

b' (bo), B a, c, q. 

ba (ca), B d. 

ba (num.), A a, b, c, d, e, f, h; B a, 

b, c, e, f, g, h, i, k, 1, m, o, p, q r 

r, s, t, v 5, w 4, 5. 
(ni)bab (cac), A d. 
baec, B w 2. 
Dasba, B h. 
Dense (g.) B s. 
bail, A gr. 
t)onl-lbnu, B e. 
Daip, Bl. 

Dcnpe, A c, d, h ; B p ; -ppe, A a. 
t)aipiup, B m, n. 
baled, B o, r. 
bambal, B w 2. 
Danoinne, B h. . 
Dapiup, B 1. 
Oappellup, B i. 
Dauib, B i. 
be (be and pr. suf. 3 s. masc. or neut.) r 


(bo)oeacaio, A f, h. 
beaoaib, A f ; -015, A e, h. 
bee (num.), A c, d, e, f, gr, h. 
bee m-, B h. 
Nbece, A g\ 
becmab, B e, 1 ; -maib, A d, f ; bead-,, 


Oeoab, B p. 
bebplaccup, B g-. 
beg (card.), B c, d, e, f, g-, h, i, j, k, 

m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t. 
Desaio, B o. 

beic, A b, h ; B o, v 5 ; -15, A c. 
beic m-, B h, 1. 
bejsmac, B n. 
beipeab, A c, e. 
Delbaee, B h ; -ei6 (g.), B h. 
berrnn, B v 5. 
ben am, B e. 



beobplaca, Ab; beoftplaic, BO. 

t)eoca, B h. 

bepba, A d ; (lan)bepbab, B u 2. 

Deps, b, m. 

bi (prep.), B d. 

bi (bo and pr. suf. 3 s. fern.) B o. 

bid (bo and rel.), B h. 

t)ia-bapbafn, B ^ t. 

Diancecc, B h. 

biap, B v 1. 

bib (card.), A c. 

bib (bi and pr. suf. 3 pi.), A d. 

(po)biceannab, B r. 

bicup, B g. 

bilep, B u 1. 

bilinb, B b ; -nn, A b. 

t)imdin (g.), B n. 

t)ionep, B k. 

t)ionipirjp, B o. 

bino, B a. 

bis, B u 2. 

tMcopba, B n. 

bo (prep.), A a, h ; B a, b, d, e, k, q, 

s, u2, wl, x4. 
bo (bo and pr. suf. 3 s. masc.), B c, g, 

h, i, j, k, 1, p, q, r. 
bo (be, bi), A a, b, h ; B a, c, h, 1, m, 

p, q, s. 
babai (vbl.pcle.), Bw5; bobai, Ba; 

bo bacub, B s ; bobi, B b ; 

bocepab, Bq; bocpocab, sr; 

bocuaib, Af; Bl; bocrjip,Bw3; 

booeacaio, Af,h; bobicup,Bgr; 

bopollamnapcaip, A e ; 

bopuaip, B u 4 ; basab, A b ; 

bosab, B d, i, j, s; 

bogabail, B c, gr, h, m, o, p, r, s ; 

bosabapcap, B p; bomapbab, 

B s; bo pcmbab, B p; 

bo pisao, B h, p ; boponab, B c ; 

bo pcpibao, A a ; bo cecc, B g; 

bo Ginbpcain, A e. 

bocc, B v 3. 

bocum, A f , h. ; B f . 

boib, (bo and pr. suf. 3 p.), B r. 

bomdibm, B d, e. 

boman, Aa; Bb; -cun (g.), Ah; BO, 

e, u 1 ; -un, A a. 
t)ornicicmup, B s. 
bo'n (be in), B j. 
bpeac, B x 3. 
bpeam, B x 6. 
bu (bo, prep.), B r. 
bu (bo, vbl. pcle.), b^sab, B i, s; 

brj gabail, B i, 1, m, n, o, p, r, 

s, t, u 4. 
t)Tja6, B 1, m, o. 
buinebac, A b. 

e (pr. pers. 3 s. masc.), A a, d, li ; Ba, 

b, c, e, i. 
Gabepba, BC; -bpab, Aa; Gbpaibe, 

A a. 

n-6acac, B r. 
Gabdine, B h.. 
Galam, B c; -miba, B c. 
eapcoib, A g ; -cobaibe (g.), A h. 
6bep, B c, d, e, f, i ; -ip (g.), B f, i. 
6bepsicep, B n, o. 
Gbilipocup, B o. 
Gcbec (g.), B i, m. 
Gccpa, B d. 
Gbaip, B d. 
ebgocac, B i. 
eg, A a, g, h. 
Gilim, B 1. 
ap(eip), BP, r, s. 
eipibe, A h ; B a ; -ben, A e ; eippen, 

B a ; epiben, A e. 
Gicpial, B i. 
6laoan, B g. 
ele, B a. 
hGlirn, B s. 



eica, B d. 

en, B u 4. 

emain, A e ; eamna (g.), A d. 

Gnba, B j, m, o, u 4 ; Grina, A d. 

ertoch, B a ; -05, B b. 

enoo, B a. 

6o6aib, A d, e, h ; B g, h, i, j, 1, in, 

o, p; 6060, Hi; -cu, Ad. 
605011, B t. 
6oTn, A e ; B s. 
6opaip, B b. 
Gpipanep, B o. 
epeamon, B i. 
6pc, B g. 
6pi, A b; Gpiu, B p; -perm (g.), 

A d, b. ; B f, h, i, k, 1, m, r ; 

(d.), A b ; (ac.), A h ; -pirm (d.), 

B d, e, g-, i. 
6pne, B i. 

ep, B j ; (ap)ep, B q; epe, B d. 
eppain, B e, b. ; epbaine (g.), A b. 
6ppu, B e. 
epp (aip), B i. 
ecep (prep.), B b, gr, i, p ; ecappo, 


Gceppcel, B p ; -ceoil (g.), B r. 
B o. 

pa (prep.), B u 3; v 4. 

paccna, B o. 

pab, B x 3. 

paebupbeps, B * 

pai (pa and pr. suf. 3 s. masc.), B v 4. 

pair, B i. 

pallabap, B 1. 

(po)palnapbaip, A c. 

pann, B x 2. 

papppaib (g.), B b. 

pdp, Ab. 

Pacac, B O. 

Pea, B d ; peaa, B d. 

peap, B a, d, i ; peapcopb, B n. 

peap-bols (g. p.), B s ; Pep-, 

BW 5, ac 1. 

peapabac, B s ; -015 (g.), B s. 
peibil, B w 3. 

peibleac, B p ; -115 (g.), B o. 
peibltmfb, B t ; -blrnice (g.), A d. 
pein, B c. 
peimupa (g.), B b. 
pep (g. p.), A d. 
pepabac, B s ; -bais (g.), B s. 
pepso (g.), A d. 
pep sup, B o, p. 
peppa, A d. 
pia6, Ad; BO; -ca, Ad; B gr, h, i, 

j, k, m, o, s; -6015 (g.), B s; 

-co, B h. 

piaocon (g.), Ad; B d. 
piabrrmine, B m. 
piacac, B s. 
pice, Ad; B e, j, k, 1, x 5, 6 ; -ceb, 

A d, e, g-, b. ; B g ; -cec, A b, f ; 

B c, f, h, i, k, 1, n, o, q, s ; 

-ccaib, A e ; -cecmab, B e. 
pici, B u 1 ; -6ib, B j ; -cic, B q, s, 

u 3. 

pileb (g.), B h. 
pinacca, B k. 
pinb, B 1 m ; -bamnap, B s ; -bcao, 

Ad; BO; -bpail, B 1. 
pmbpeccnao, B s ; -015 (g.), B s. 
pinbalac, B s; -nalais (g.), B s. 
pirm, B s ; pinbcam (g.), A d ; 

-ncan, B v 5 ; -ncain (g.), B n. 
pmpcoice6, B j. 

pip (d.), B o ; (p.) B k ; -bol/5, B f. 
pipen, B a. 
pipo, B o. 
pip, B x 6. 
pipcon, B o. 
plaic, B w 3 ; placa (g.), A b, c, d ; 

-ciup, A c, d, e, f ; -ciupa (g.), 

Ad, e, f ; -cup, B c, i. 



beooplaic, B j. 
placup, B b, c, x 1. 
po, A f ; B w 3. 
pob(5lap), B x 2. 
pobla, B w 4. 
pospa, B w4. 
poillpiscep, A e. 

poip6enn, A a ; pop-, A c ; -nb, A c. 
polam, B v 5. 
, B i. 

pollaTrma6c, A e; -apbaip, A c; 

-apcaip,Ae; -cap, Ah. 
pollup, B p. 

polccain B o ; -cleabup, B o, 
pomopac, B e ; -aic, B k ; -aib, B gr. 
pop, B d, e, r; popci (pop and pr. 

suf. 3 s. f.), A a. 
popba, A c. 
pop, B m, n, o, s. 
Ppanscaib, B b. 
Ppaopcep, B 1. 
ppi, B P . 

ppip (ppiandpr.suf.3s.masc.), Br, s. 
pump, B u 5, v 3 ; (bo)p-, B u 4. 
puil (vb.), A a. 
PUG, B c ; puice, B o ; -ei, A d, 

'5 (05), B u 2. 

5ab, A b, d, e, h ; B b, d, i, j, 1, m, 
P, s, u 4, w 4 ; -bail, A b, d, gr, 
h ; B c, gr, h, i, j, k, 1, m, n, o, r, 
a,t, x 5 ; -baip, A e ; -bapcap, 
B p ; -bpac, B h. 

(5abafp, B i. 

506, B v 4, w 3. 

5ae, B h. 

<5aebldi5ib, B f. 

<5cubel, B b, f ; -il, B b, h. 

<5aiup, B r. 

Sallabasbai, B b ; -llagpese, B b. 

(5aVlua, B r. 

gan (cen), B r, u 2, w 2, 5, x 3, 5. 

(5ann, B e, f. 

gap, BX 6. 

(bicn)5apb, B x 4. 

Segli, B u 1. 

(5ebe, B k. 

Sen (sb.), B c, d, e ; gein, B c, p, q, 

(po)5einaip, A e; (po)5en-, B p; 

-ap, B b. 
(5enaim, B f. 
<5enncatla5bu, B 1. 
frallcab, B 1. 
5laipm, B q.. 
5lan, B w 1. 

glap, B h ; (pob)5lap, B x 2. 
(popc)5loin, BU 3. 
(5lunmap, B r ; -maip (g.), B s. 
51101, B u 4. 

bopigneb, B a ; bopinbi, B a. 
Snirnapcab, B e. 
50 (co, prep.), AC; B c, h, u 5, v 3, 

x 2. 

50 m- (co m-, prep.), B u 4, v 1. 
5oba, B a, h. 
<5oibnenb, B h. 
5omep, B b. 
5pe5, B n, o ; -015, B j ; -511, A c ; 

-5uib, A b. 
5pene, B h. 
5U (co, prep.), A b, c, g-, h ; B x 5 ; 

(conj.), A b ; B p, w 4. 
o-upm (50(00) and art. s.), A o. 
5upna (50(00) and art. p.), B s. 

hdbpahaTn, Ab. 
haen, B v 1. 
hainm, B gr. 
haip, A a; -ib, A a. 
hQlaocancaip, B n. 
hacnuijeaouj, A a. 



hGbpoibe, A a. 
Ties, A g:, h. 
h6lim, B a. 
hip, A f. 
hluil, B p. 

Tl6o5an, B t. 

heppain, B h, e. 

i (prep.), Ah; B f ; 1 n-, B b, d, e, e, 

1, n, o, p, q, s, t. 
i (pr. pers. 3 s. fern.), Ah; B a, o. 
Ia6ccm, B c. 
lab (pr. pers. 3 p.), A e. 
lapeb, B b, c. 
lap, A f, g: ; B c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, 

1, q, r ; lap m-, B f, q ; lap n-, 

AC; B c, p, q. 
lappan (lap and fern, art.), B p ; -fin 

(lap and art), A b, h ; B e, t. 
lapum, A d, f, g-, h; B b. 
lapainbsleo, B n. 
lapbonan, B m. 
lapec, B b. 
lapual, si. 
lapupalem, B s. 
Ibaic, B b. 
ibon, A a, b, c, d, h ; B a, b. c, d, e, 

g, h, i, j, k, 1, m, n, p, q, r, s. 
Imleoc, B 1, m ; -lio (g.), B 1. 
imoppo, A b, h; B a. 
implan, B v4. 
m (art.n. s.m.andf.), A a, c, e, f, g:, h ; 

B a, b, c, d, f, g-, h, i, j, k, 1, o, 

p, q, s, x 1 ; (g. s.), A a, b, c, d, 

e ; B a, c, e, h, o, u 1, v 4 ; (d. s.), 

A a, c, g: ; (ac. s.) A a, b, c, f, g ; 

B b ; (g. dual f.) A a. 
int> (art. g. s.), B 1; in b-, A a, e, h; 

B e, f ; in c-, Ah; Bh, r. 
inbci (i and pr. suf . 3 s. f.), A a. 
B g. 

, A g, h. 
Inuil, B b. 
lono (Goin), A f. 
lopep, Ab. 
loco, B r. 
lopcoppep, B 1. 
hip, A f. 
Ipial, BT; -lail (g.), B s ; Ipeil (g.), 

B i, s. 
if (vb.), A a, d, e, f, h ; B a, b, c, g, i, 

1, m, n, o, p, r, s, v 3, 5, x 1, 3. 
if (ocup), B c, u 4, 5, v 3, 4, w 3, 4, 


Ipaic (g.), Bd. 

ipan (i and art.), A a ; -[n]b, B q. 
Ipanuibia, B c. 
Ipicon, B b. 
ipm (i and art.), B c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, 

1, p, q, r, s, t. 
ipinb (i and art.), B e, f. 
ipin c-, B g, j. 
Ic, B i; ltd (g.), B 1. 
luban, B a, b. 
lubich, A a. 
lusupb, B p, q. 
lull, A e; BP. 

la (prep.), A a, h ; B e, f, h, n, r, s, t. 

labpa, B v 5. 

l/abpaib, B n. 

l/abpairme, B i, j. 

laecba, B w 2. 

Laesaipe; Ah; B n. 

1,050, B t. 

B m. 

, B m. 

, B i. 

, A d ; B n. 
laip, B b, c. 
iaicis, B o. 
l/aimiac, B a. 



Lampaba, B h, m. 

Lampaipep, B h. 

Lamppibep, B h. 

lan(bepbab), B u 2. 

Lapalep, B i. 

Lauipcencep, B i. 

te (prep.), A f ; B c. 

lebaip, B u 2. 

leip, B a, 1. 

leiobliabna, B r. 

Lena, B t. 

Lece, B p. 

liai&, B h. 

Liacmume, B r. 

lib, B x 6. 

Ifn, A a, h ; lint), B d, i, 1, n, o. 

Linbmuine, B r. 

linn, B e, i, n, u 2. 

lincba, B b. 

loc, B d, f, p, r; -ca, B e, i, r. 

Losa (g.), B h. 

I,oi6 (g.), A d. 

, A d. 

, B e. 

, B n. 

(po)loipceb, B 1; (poi)l-, B r. 
lomap, B v 5. 
lonsaib, B h. 
Longeincmup, B m. 
Lope, B n. 

lopcab, AC; B h ; -ub, A c. 
l/uaigne, B d. 
luce, B x 1. 
Lucca (g.), Ah. 
Iu5, B v 2. 

Lus, Bgr; -gaib, sm, o, t; -5015, Br. 
luibi (a.), B v2. 
Lutb, B c. 

, B 1, m ; -506 (g.), B r. 

, B i. 
Vup (? laip), B x 4. 

mac (nom.), A b, d, e, f ; B a, b, c, d, 
e, f, g, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o, p, r, s, 
t, u 1, 5; (ac.), Ad; Br; (g.p.), 
x4, 5. 

Tllaca, Ad; B n. 

macaib (d. p.), A b; B i; maccu 
(ac. p.), B b. 

ITlac Cuill, B h. 

mob (mag), B d. 

mab (conj.), A a, d, b.; mag, A a. 

TTIabae, B p. 

TTIael, Ad; BO. 

mas, B d, r. 

ITlasai, B b. 

1110505, B b. 

TTIaibiup, B k. 

maisepbpec (g.p.), A a; -cpe6, A a. 

Tnaimincup, B e. 

TTIatn (g.) B s. 

maipcip, B a. 

niafpe, B e. 

maic, B w 5. 

TTIal, B s. 

maipeach, B b. 

TDamiliup, B e. 

Tnamimcup, B v 4. 

TTlananban, B To.. 

TTIanacaleni, B a. 

(asa)map, B x 6. 

map (conj.), A a ; B p, v 2. 

mapa (g.), A b. 

(bo)mapbab, B s. 

TTlapcup Qncomnup, B t. 

ITlapcain (g.), A h. 

TTIapailiup, B e, w 1. 

TTIapoch, B b. 

TTIappapciup, B e. 

TTlaca, Ah.; B r. 

macaip, B a. 

TTlacupalem, B a. 

TTIeab, AC; sk; -oa, Bb; TTle&aib, 
A c. 



TYIeappam, B c. 

rnebap, B u 2. 

nrieic (n. p.), B b, c, t. 

TTleTnnon, B m. 

Tnepblab, B u 2. 

TTlepca, B e. 

TTlecapailiup, B x 4, 6 ; -alniup , B i. 

mf, B m. 

rrnc (g.), A e> h. ; B a, b, c, d, f, g-, 

h, i, 1, r; rmc (p.), B i. 
ITIibip, B h. 

mile, A b, c, d, li ; B f ; -li, A a, b. 
TThleb, B i, x 4, 5 ; -it), A b ; B i. 
Tnnai (dual), B a. 
TTIocca, B o ; -ai, A d. 
TTIoscopb, B n ; -5 Nuaoaft, B t. 
TYlona-Cposaibe, B k. 
TTlonspuab, B n. 

mop, B n, p, r, t, v 4, w 1, 5, x 3, 5. 
THopan, B s. 
TTlucpuma, B t. 

rnuise (g.), B g, t. 

Ulumine, B i. 

TTlinnearnoin (g.), B k. 

muinbcip (d.), b f ; -nncep, B d; 

-nncipe (g.), B e. 
TTIuipe, B p; TTluipe TTlasbalen, 

B r. 

TTIuipeoa (g.), B r. 
ITIuipeabeao, B m; -ebaig (g.), Bm. 
TTluTno, B j. 
TTIunbpemaip, B e. 
mup, B c. 

HI up cop a&, (g.), Ad; BO. 

'n (in, art), A a, c, g. 

'n- (i n-), A e ; B d, e, g:, 1, m, n, o, p, 

r, s, u 2, 5, v 4, 5, w 1, 5. 
na (art. g. s. fern.), A a; B i, p, s; 

(n. p.), B b ; (g. p.) A a ; B a, e, 

p, u 1, w2, x 1 ; na n- (g. p.), 

B e; na[ib], B p, s. 
na (conj. compar.), B p; (neg.), B f , 

xl, 6. 
Nabcobonopop, B 1; Nabsabonap- 

pop, B 1; -nopop, B 1. 
nac (neg.), B v 3, 5. 
Mae, B d; Naei, B o, d. 
naem, Ah. 
nai m- (num.), B w 2. 
Neapo, B r. 
Neap[u]ti, B s. 

Neapa (g.), A e ; B p ; -ppa, A e, f. 
Nbece, A g. 
Necc, B p. 
Neib (g.), B h. 
Neill (g.), A h. 
Neimeb, A b. 
Memo, B a. 
Nemeab, Be; -et>, B e, f ; -it) (n.), Bt; 

(g.), Bf,v5,w2, 3,4; (d.),wl. 
nepc, Bu5, vl; -cib, u 3 ; -cmap, 

B u 4, w 1 ; -cmaip (g.), B w 4. 
Neua, B b. 

m (neg.), A a d; B v 1, 3, w 4, x 3. 
ma, bu 5, v 1 ; Nianap, B o ; -apep, 

A b. ; -apeap, B p ; -anap, B r, s. 
mamslonb, B u 2. 
Nin, B c, u 1, 2, 5, x 6. 
Nmiap, B c, d, u 5, v 1. 
no (conj.), B d. 
no6a, (num.), B x 3. 
noe (num.), A a, c, d ; -emab, A gr. 
noi (sb.), B u 4 ; (pr. n.), B b ; (num.), 

B c, d, h, i, m, o, q, r, s, t. 
Nuaba, B gr, 1, p. 

o (prep.), A b, c, d, f, gr, h ; B c, a, 
v 2, 3, 5, w 2, 4, x 5, 6 ; (o ?} 
B w 1 ; (o and rel.), B b. 

O-Liacan, B w 2. 

oc (prep.), A c 



occa (oc and pr. suf. 3 s. masc.), B o. 
o6c, A d, g ; B b, c, d, h, i, 1, o, x 3, 

-cmat), A d, e, g ; B d, e, f, gr, h, 

p, q; -cmooa, B v3; -oaib, B 

v 2 ; occm-, B n, q. 
Occapin, A e ; B p, q. 
ocup, passim. 
oen, B h. 

Oppacenep, B j ; -colup, B j. 
05, B a. 
osla (?), B x 4. 
Oilec, B h. 
Oillebepsoib, B k. 
Oilill, B k, m, n, o, p ; -lelta (g.), 

B 1, m, t. 
oilmilla, B v 2. 
oipbepc, B u 1 ; oipp-, A h. 
Oipeam, B p. 
oipecc, B v 4. 
oipesba, B u 3, x 4. 
Olimp, A c. 
Oliua, B b. 
Ollacaip, A d. 
Ollam pobla, Bk; Olaim pobla, 


(po[p])olla[rn]napbaip, A c. 
Ollacap, B h. 
OUsocac, B k. 
Olmuccaib, B j. 
Oluim (g.), B t. 
onoip, B v 3. 
Opca6, B 1. 
opbois (apbms), B p. 
opsam, B a. 
op, B w 5, x 2. 
Oppip, A f. 

pctopcnc, A h. 

Papcalon, B u 4, v 1 ; papp-, B d ; 
papp colon, A b ; -loin (g.), 
B u 3 ; pappco-, B d, e ; 
cal-, B v, 2, 3, x 5. 

pecao, B v 1. 

Peabap, A f ; pebap, B r. 

pepibioibip, B i. 

Pepp, AC; B 1, n ; -ppa, B c ; -paib, 

A c ; -pep O6e, B n. 
pmmineap, B h. 
Pilamecup, B o. 
Pilip, Ad; B n ; -pocup, B n. 
Pipon, B r. 
plas, B w 2. 
plobealbup, B n. 
Poilipoipup, B g. 
Pol, A f ; B r. 

pope, B u 4 ; popc(5loin), B u 3. 
Pocolameup, A d ; -omeup, B o. 
ppimba, B v 2 - f -mcecc, B x 6. 
Ppobi, A g. 
pposecc, Af, h. 

p' (po, vbl. pcle.), B v 3. 

"Raeca[i]n, B e. 

raise (pise, g.), B d, j. 

painb (g. dual), A a ; (po)painb, B b. 

paic, B e ; -te, B p. 

paicea, B 1 ; -cep, B b. 

(bo)pcmbab, B p; -nnca, B i. 

pe (sb.), A a ; B d, e, 1, m, n, o, p, r, 

s, t. 
pe (prep.), B d, e, i, 1, n, o, u 4, v 1, 

w 4, x 5, 6 ; pe (le), A a ; pe n- 

(le n-), B x 6. 
pe (le andrel.), B 1. 
(bo) peap, B t; (bo) peip, A a. 
pemeap, B x 3 ; -rmp, B m. 
"Reccaib, B n; -cmap, B t. 
pennaib (pann-), Ah. 
pi (sb.), A c ; B c, e, f, i, k, 1, n, p, 

Tl 1, W 1. 

pia (la), B t ; pia n-, B b. 
piasail, B s; (paeib)pia5<nl, B v 1. 
piam, B b. 
Rib, B r. 



pi5 (n. s.), A d, h ; B 1, n ; (d.), B v 4 ; 

(ac.), B r ; (dual), Be; (n. p.), 

A c, e ; (g. p.), B m, u 1 ; -aib, 

B f, m. 

pisao, B h, p ; -san, B o. 
pi5d (n. p.), B x 6 ; -56 (g.), B c, d, e, 

f, g-, h, i, j, k, 1, n, o, p, r, s, t ; 

(d.), Ah; B c, f, h, i, k, 1, n, o, 

p, CL, r, s ; (ac.), A e, f ; B d, g, 

h, j,k, 1, m, p, r, s; pi5Tiaic, 

Be; -51 (g.), A g; (ac.), Ad. 
pisan, Ae; -spa (g. p.), Ah. 
"RiSbeps, B n ; -5poba, B t. 
"Rinnail, B g. 
po (vbl. pcle.), pob', B a ; 

pobcn, A b, c, d r e ; B v 4 ; 

pobabap, A a, c ; pobic, B t ; 

biap'bo, B h ; pobo, B -w 1 ; 


gop'clai&eb, B v3 ; 

poclapa, B e ; poclecc, B a ; 

nap'clob, B x 1 ; 

pocpocab, Af ; B r; 

pocunibai<5eb, B a ; 

pobicecmnab, B r; 

popalnapbaip, A c ; 

po[p]olla[Tn]napbaip, A c : 

posab, A b, d, e, h; si, j, k, 1, 

m, p ; gup'sab, B w 4 ; 

posabpac, Bh; poseinaip, AC; 

posenaip, BP; -ap, Bb; 

poloipceO, B 1; poil-, B r ; 

poponnb, Bb; popoi[n]bpe- 

cap, A h ; popcpib, B s ; 

popilpab, B c ; pocaibbeb, B s ; 

puc, Ba; pus, sa; pusab, BP; 

-apt>ap, B 1; pocuipim, B b. 
po (vbl. pcle. infixed), abpocaip, B 1, 

n, t; bopcaip, B g,k; bopisneb, 

sa; bopinbi, Ba; t>op[oc]mb- 

pccrni, A f ; bopabab, A h ; 

boponab, B c. 

Rocpaibe, B s. 

Rob, Ad; B n. 

posa, B u 1. 

"Rofm, B r; "Roma, A h; TJoman, 

AC, B p ; -nai<5, B b. 
pomb, B p; ponba (panba), B p; 

(po)poi[n]bpecap, A h. 
"Roppa (g.), A h. 
Roceccmb (g.), B 1; -eaccaib, BJ; 

-015, B j. 

pu (po, vbl. pcle.), supub', B p. 
puab, B m, n ; puaib (g.), A h. 
"Rubpaise, B f. 
Rugpaibe, B d, o. 
Ruip (g.), B e. 

'? (ip, vb.),Bi. 

'p (ip = ocup), B u 1, w2, x 1. 

paegul, B q ; -5X06, B k. 

paeib(pia5ail), B v 1. 

paem (pen, demons.), A d, e. 

paep, B a, x 6. 

pasapc, B a. 

-pcnbe, A g, h; -bein, A gr. 

Saile, B c, d. 

palbuibi, A d, e. 

Sarnipafmfp, B c. 

Sapbapapallup, B j. 

Sa^ain, B b ; -;cap, B b. 

Sceicia, A b ; B e, f ; -cesba, B b. 

pcela, A d. 

Scoc, B e, f; Scuic (g.), B f; 

Scocaib, A h. 
(po)pcpib, B s : (bo)pcpibao, A a ; 

pcpibeann, B r. 
Sbaipn, B f. 
pe (num.), A a, c, d, e, h; B h, i, j, k, 

1, P. 

Sealla, B a. 
pean, B u 5. 
Secmsarm, B e; -gamb (g.), B f, gr. 



Seapa, B u 5. 

peapeb, B u 5. 

Secpaip, Af; Sesp-, A f. 

pecc, A f, gr ; B j, k, 1, m, n, o, q, r, 

s, t, v 3, x 5 ; pecc m-, B h, q. 
peccmab, A g; B d, e, f, g, j, 1, s ; 

-mooab, BQ; -mosab, A a, d, e. 
Sebna, B j, 1, m. 
Sepeapup, B e. 
Sesamain, B o. 
Sesbenup, B m. 
Seim, B b ; Sem, B b, c. 
peipeab, BJ; -pet), BJ,P, q. 
Seminiu, B e. 
pen, B d, w 4. 
-pen, B a. 
penaib, A g-. 
pencuppa, A d. 
penopacba, A a. 
-peo, A a. 

Seppep, B m ; -pocep, B d, 1. 
Sepaip, B p ; Sexaip, B r ; -ocap, B r. 
pepcab, Ab, e; -bmab, Bq; -camab, 

B d ; -cac, B j. 
peipeab, A g; pepeb, A a. 
PSOile (g.), A a. 
-pibe, A f ; B a, b, c ; -bein, A b, d, 

e, f ; -ben, Ae; sa; -sen,Bb. 
pil, Ab ; B a, b, f, 1, x 4 ; (po)pilpab, 

B c. 

Simon, B 1. 
pin, A a, e, g, h ; B c, d, e, f, g, h, i, 

j, k, 1, p, q; (pr. n.) B p. 
Sipiac, B a. 
Siplam, B m. 
Sipna, B k. 
Slaine, B w4. 
Slainge, sf; Slansa, B d. 
plan, B p, q. 

Slanoll, B k ; -oill (g.), k. 
plac, B v 1. 
pleas, B x 5. 


x 5. 
, B p, q. 

Sobaipce, B i. 

Sogapanep, B k. 

[p]oipcela, Br; pop-, Ab.; B s. 

Solman, A b ; si. 

Soppaippep, B h. 

Spaibcinn (g.), Bt; -bnbeps, B r. 

Spu, B e. 

puap, B x6. 

Suppapbup, B h. 

puil, B u 4 ; x 4(?). 

Sulbuf&e, B p. 

ca, B d. 

cabaipc, B o. 

cacup, A f. 

(buan)caball, B x 2. 

caepca, B p. 

pocaibbeb, B s. 

Caillcen, B i. 

cam, A b ; -mla6c, A b. 

cairn (g.), B w 3 ; -mlecc, B w 4 ; 

-mlecca, B e, v 4. 
Cam, B p. 
caims, B d, e, 
cam, B h, v 5, w 2. 
can, A b ; B f, h, i, j, k, 1, p, q. 
canaipbe, B a. 
Cana-bo-Cuailsne, B p, q. 
came, A b ; si; cansabap, B h, i. 
cap, B r. 
Capa, B d. 
capba, B-W 1, x 2. 
cac, B b. 
ceacc, B w 2 ; cecc, B d, e, u 3, v 5, 

w 1, x 1, 2, 4. 
Ceaccmap, B s. 
ceapbo, B q. 
ceampall, B 1. 
Cebbanbac, B p. 
cempoill (g.), A b, c. 




, Ah; B r. 
ceopa, B b. 
cepcompas, A g:. 
cepna, B f. 
ceppbail, B u 4. 
Gibep, B q; -ip, A f; B q. 
ciccam, A f. 
Giseapnbac, B p. 
Ci^epnmaip, B i ; -rnup, B i. 
cinbpcna, A e; (bo)cinbpcam, A e, f ; 
bop[oc]mbpcaiTi, A f. 

Cip, B W 1. 

Cipap, B b. 

Cicup, B r. 

cocup, A c ; cocuipeb, A h. 

cosail, A b ; B f, r, w 3. 

eoibecc, B w 3, 5 ; -icecc, B v 4. 

coipimcecc, A b. 

coipec, B a. 

Golcunenp, B n, o. 

comaibm, B e, i, r. 

Cornap, B s. 

cornup, A a. 

Goniup Concolep.Bj. 

Copn, B d. 

copac, Ah; B i ; coppac, A d. 

Cpae, A b. 

cpebe, A c. 

cpenpep (g. p.), B f. 

cpep (ord.), A a, f, g, h ; B d, e, f, h, 

r, s; -pmab (in.mab, MS.), B d. 
cpi (card.), A a, b, c, d, gr ; B b, h, i, 

k, m, o, p, q, r, t, u 3, v 5. 

cpica, A c, d, g ; B d, e, f, g, i, k, o, 
x 1 ; -cab, B d ; -cac, AC; Be, 
h, i, k, 1, m, n, o, q ; -cec, A b. 

cpiaic (g.), B w3. 

cpiup, B b. 

Cpoiarmp, B s. 

cpom, B x 2. 

Cubal, B b ; -Icam, B a. 

Cuaca-be-Oananb, B gr, i, x 1, 2, 3; 
Cuacaib-, B gr. 

Cuacal, B s. 

puc (po cue), sa; cuccapcaip, BC. 

cus, B a; pus (p[oc]us), sa; cu- 
gab, B o, s ; pusapbap, B 1. 

Cupbeac, B o. 

Ctiip, B f, w 3. 

Cuplac, B t. 
Cuprneac, B o. 
cup, B a ; (po)cuipim, B b. 
Cuccmep, B i. 

u (o, prep.), B v 1. 

uab, B b, c ; uaibib, AC; B b c. 

uaini (sb.), B a. 

Uaipceap, B m ; -cep, B m. 

Ueppepianup, B r. 

B n. 

, A e : U^upb, B p, q ; -uipr, 
A e. 

uile, B a. 

Ula&, A e ; B n, o ; -b, B, p, q, r, s. 
up, B v 2. 



No. 830. 


2 B 


No. 830. 



IN the post-Patrician portion of the regnal list given by Marianus, 
the following errors occur : 

(1) Muridach Munderg was king of Ulster, not king of Ireland. 
Moreover, he was contemporary of St. Patrick, so that he is here 
placed one hundred years too late. 

(2) The Baitan who succeeded Baitan and Eochaid was not the 
son of Murchad, but of Nainnid. He was first cousin of St. Columba ; 
Nainnid and Fedlimid, St. Columba's father, having been sons of 
Fergus, son of Conall Gulban (eponymous head of the Cenel-Conaill), 
son of Mall of the Nine Hostages. 

(3) Baitan was succeeded (not by Ainmire, who was his pre- 
decessor, but) by Aed, the son of Ainmire. 

(4) " Colman the Little, son of Diarmait and Aed, son of Anmire, 
13 years." This is an unaccountable double error. Colman was 
king (not of Ireland, but) of the Southern Ui-Neill, and was slain by 
the Aed in question at the battle of Ballaghanea, Co. Cavan, in the 
second year of the reign of the latter. The joint-kings were Colman' s 
eldest brother, Aed Slane and Colman Bimid, son of Baitan, son of 
Muircertach, king of Ireland. 

(5) " Suibni, son of Colman the Great, six years. 

Aed Slane, son of Diarmait, four years." 

Here again we find the slayer and the slain made joint monarchs. 

These two items seem to prove that Marianus was unacquainted 
with Adamnan's Life of St. Columba. Therein we have a prophecy 
"concerning the son of King Dermait, who was named Aid Slane in 



the Scotic tongue." Notwithstanding the prophetic warning of the 
saint, Aed assassinated his nephew, Suibne, with the result that, in 
the words of the biographer, thereafter he enjoyed the sovereignty 
but four years and three months.* He began to reign A.D. 598 and 
was slain by the son of his victim, A.D. 604. 

(6) Aed Allan was succeeded (A.D. 612) by Mailcoba, not by 
Oengus, son of Colman the Great. 

(7) Maelcoba, on the assassination of his brother, Suibne, became 
king of TJisnech, that is, of the western branch of the Southern 
Ui-Neill. He was killed A.D. 615 by Suibne Menn, king of Ireland. 

(8) This Suibne was son of Fiachna, not of Fachtna. 

(9) Finally, Fogartach was grandson, not son, of Cernach Sotal 
(the Proud). 

In illustration of the post-Patrician list, I subjoin two pieces from 
the Hook of Ballymote. The first is in prose. It gives the name, 
descent, regnal years and manner of death of each king from 
Loeghaire (si. A.D. 462) to Turlough O'Conor (ob. A.D. 1156). It was 
composed during the reign of Roderic, son of Turlough, namely, be- 
tween 1156 and 1198. Its chief linguistic interest consists in eight 
quatrains. Of these, six are found in Tigernach. They are also 
given in the Chronicon Scotorum and the Annals of the Four Masters. 

The present text, though far from faultless, is one of many similar 
evidences of the unfitness of MacFirbis and the O'Clerys to deal with 
documents written in the ancient language. 

The first quatrain (a) is composed in the metre called Rannaidacht 
mor, that is, in heptasyllabic lines, each line ending with a monosyllabic 
word (Lecture II., p. 108). 

Line 2 Mac Firbisf gives as pop caob Caipi glaipi i cfp, which 
is hypermetrical and meaningless. 

In line 3, he reads abpe^aib, which is equally void of sense. 
The true form is abpagait) = atJ-po-a-gait), which he invoked, a = 
infixed pron., pi. 3. 

The second quatrain (b) is in the Debide metre, which has been 
already dealt with. 

In the first line, the Four Masters (according to O'Donovan's 

* Note A. f Chronicon Scotorum, Kolls' edition, p. 2G. 


text),* read peappacip (" was fought," according to the editor). 
Here we have a word of three syllables, though the metre requires 
a monosyllable. 

The third verse (b) is metrically identical with the first. 

In the second line (judging from Hennessy and O'Donovan) the 
Chronicon] and the Annals^, read inrm luaibpea instead of iinaluait)- 
pea. Both editors accordingly translate, Around whom (many storms) 
shall move. But the verb is imluaibim, with the infixed pronoun a, 
having bean (woman) as antecedent. Hence the expression means : 
who shall excite (many storms}. 

The-next line runs in MacEirbis apan pep loipcpibep. Passing 
over the neuter article with the masc. pep, the line is one syllable 
short and does not end in a monosyllable. 

The fourth stanza (c) is in the same metre as the second. I have 
not found it elsewhere. The locative ibup has to be read i bup to 
produce the requisite monosyllable. 

The fifth (d) belongs to Rannaidacht mor gairit or short Ran- 
naidacht mor, so called because the initial line is (four syllables) 
shorter than the others. In the first line, in accordance with what 
has been laid down in Lecture II. (Rule 2, pp. 103-4), we have to 
read Ip a m-buac. The O'Clerys, according to the printed text, 
read the quatrain as two lines. Moreover, they give ppi bpua6, 
a reading which makes the line a syllable short. 

The third line MacEirbis read s|| otcpet) cepup cp6ic ("[Accounts] 
report, though abhorrent," according to the translator), which, besides 
being unmetrical, means nothing. The Four Masters (loc. cit.) are 
somewhat better : acpec pcela, cia pa pcie. Cia pa pcic (although 
depressing) O'Donovan renders by " who, in weariness"! The original 
is preserved intact in the Ballymote text given below. 

The sixth quatrain (d) is in Rannaidacht leg (small), which, it 
has been shewn (Lecture II., p. 108), differs from Rannaidacht mor 
in that each line terminates in a dissyllable. 

The first line Mac Eirbis^f reads Nfop bu aipmipc in aiple. 
The Four Masters** give "Ni ba haipmipc inb aiple ("It was not a 

* Four Masters, vol. i., pp. 150-1. f P. 42. + P. 172. 

Four Masters, vol. i., p. 220. || Chronicon Scotomm, p. 64. 

IT m sup., p. 68. ** P. 226. 


wise counsel," O'Donovan ; followed in substance by Hennessy). 
But the reading of the ook of Ballymote, enepc a capple, is mani- 
festly the original: Not weak (was) what befell: capple = bo-aip- 
po-le (lai), with the relative a (what). 

The seventh (e) quatrain is the Debide (a) explained above 
(p. 107-8). The variants in the Chronicon and Four Masters are 
not of importance. 

The eighth (i) is likewise in Debide. In the first quarter, the 
Termination is formed by bpip ; po and t>u (t>o) (the latter of which 
was inserted to make up the requisite number of syllables) not being 
taken into account. 

It has to be added, that, in seven of the foregoing instances, the 
editors have given text and translation as if neither the one nor the 
other presented any difficulty. 

The second piece is a poem appended to the prose tract, to certify 
the subjects already dealt with. It is composed in Irregular Debide. 
The original portion closes (s 5) with the death of Maelsechlainn 
(A.D. 1122). Of the additional verses, one (w 6) professes to have 
been composed in 1143. (As the preceding quatrain apparently refers 
to the same year, 6242 of the text is to be amended into 6342 = Mun- 
dane Period of 5199.) The date of another (s 6) is denoted by mention 
of the invasion of (King) Henry. The eulogy of Tigernan O'Rourke 
(x 2) is noteworthy, in contrast with the dark colours in which the 
prince of Breifny is depicted in the Irish Annals. 

Of the author, Gilla-Modubda (Devotee of my [$.] Dubad), nothing 
seems to be known beyond what is told at the close of the prose tract. 
From one of the quatrains (r 1) it may be inferred that he belonged 
to Meath. (The verses in praise of Devenish and Ardbraccan (x. 5, 6) 
are amongst the additions.) 

Concerning the saint whose name he bore, native authorities, as 
far as I know, mention neither the family nor the church. In the 
List of Priests of the early Irish Church (Booh of Leinster, p. 366 c), 
Dubad is found. Erom the Martyrology of Tallaght (ib. p. 358 g) we 
learn that his feast fell on April 15 : xvii. Kal. [J/im], Dubta.* Erom 

* Syncopated genitive (=Dubata) of Dubat, a variant of Dubad. O'Clery 
(Mart, of Donegal, Ap. 15) gives Dubhda as the nominative; not knowing that in 
calendars the names of the saints commemorated were in the genitive. 


the present text it may perhaps be concluded that St. Dubad was 
venerated in Meath. 

The chief chronological value of the Ballymote Successions is the 
undesigned corroboration supplied thereby to A.D. 432, as the date of 
St. Patrick's coming to Ireland as missionary. Laeghaire, we are 
informed (a), reigned thirty years after that event. These regnal 
years belong to a portion of the Annals of Ulster that is accurately 
dated. The following afford confirmation of the Ballymote number : 

A.D. 454. The Assembly of Tara was held by Laeghaire. 
A.D. 461. Laeghaire lived seven years and seven months and seven 
days after the Assembly of Tara. 

A.D. 462. Death of Laeghaire, etc. 

Against A.D. 432 as the initial year of the Patrician mission, two 
arguments brought forward by Dr. Todd have been adopted by Mr. 
Stokes in his edition of the Tripartite. 

The first is from a tract in the Book of Lecan, as follows: 
in. bliatma ap ;cl. o came pacpaic i rt-Gpinn co cac Oca three 
years above forty since Patrick came into Ireland to the battle of 
Ocha. ' The battle of Ocha, according to the Annals of Ulster, was 
fought A.D. 483, and therefore, counting forty-three years back, 
A.D. 439 or 440 would be the date of Patrick's coming ' (p. cxxv.). 

Here Dr. Todd and Mr. Stokes, who copied him, failed to discover 
that the chronology of the Ulster Annals is correct in this place . The 
year, accordingly, is A.D. 482. But an error far more serious has to 
be laid to their charge. Both accepted the passage from which the 
calculation is taken as reliable. Mr. Stokes, who worked at second- 
hand, goes farther. He declares (p. cxxiv.) the whole tract to be "more 
historical in character " than another in the same MS., which makes 
Lugaid, who became king of Ireland A.D. 482, the reigning monarch 
when St. Patrick arrived. Now, the "more historical" passage says 
that during that time (the forty-three years in question) there was but 
one king over Leinster, namely, Bressal Belaeh (aen pig pop Laignib, 
it)on, toper-pal belac). 

But, unfortunately for the compiler and those who put their trust 
in him, King Bressal was some time dead before "A.D. 439 or 440." 


The authority of the Annals of Ulster will not be impugned in the 
present instance. 

A.D. 435. MOTS Bressail, regis Death of Bressal, King of Leinster. 

A.D. 436. Tel, hie morsBresail. Or, here [is to be placed] the death 

of Bresal. 

( Vel, hoc anno Bressal (Or, this year Eresal died, accord- 
mortuus est, secun- to others.) 
dum alios.) 

Amongst "the others" are the Annals of Innisf alien, which give 
the obit at A.D. 436* (not A.D. 437, which is O'Conor's marginal date). 

The next is from the poem of Gilla Coemain. He "counts 162 
years from the advent of St. Patrick to the death of Gregoiy the 
Great, which took place on March 12, A.D. 604. Therefore, the 
advent of St. Patrick, according to Gilla Coemain, must be dated 
A.D. 442 ".f But, in the first place, Gilla Coemain, as has been shewn 
in Lecture I. (p. 23), does not place Gregory's death " on March 12, 
A.D. 604." Secondly, Gilla Coemain, according to the figures adopted 
in the Rolls' translation, counts 522 years from the Nativity "till 
Patrick came." That is, he places the saint's arrival fifty-nine years 
later than A.D. 463, the year "probably in or about which," accord- 
ing to Mr. Stokes' Patrician Chronology, his death took place ! 

Examination of the original, if I mistake not, will lead to a 
different result. The figures for the period from the Nativity to the 
coming of St. Patrick as given by Mr. Stokes are the following :J 

(a) 47 

(00 45 

(ft) 32 

(A) 5 

(c) 157 

(i) 34 

(d) 32 

( 49 

() 37 

(*) 27 

(/) 57 

[362 + 160 = 522.] 

* P. 352, infra. t Tripartite Life, p. cxxv. "\.Ibid. t pp. 535-7. 



The b line reads : 

o fein ille. 

Two [and] thirty [years] from that 

Another reading is preserved in the Bodleian copy : 
Q oo picec o r[h]em [il]le. 

This gives I 22. 
The i line runs : 

Two [and] twenty [years] from that 

'S a cecaip [cpicac], 'oepb 


And four [years and thirty], certain 
to you. 

Cpicac is the Bodleian lection. Here the Concord proves that 
the word missing from the Book of Leinster was coicac (c - c) fifty. 

This leaves * 54. 

We have thus : (522 - 10) + 20 = 532. Gilla Coemain conse- 
quently fixes the advent of St. Patrick as missionary at A.D. 532, 
when, according to Mr. Stokes, the saint was about sixty-nine years 
dead ! One calculation may pair off with the other. 

With respect to the subject-matter, seeing that the obituary years 
are not severally reckoned from a general epoch, either in the prose 
tract or in the poem of Gilla Modubda, the question presents itself : 
How were the dates adjusted ? This leads us to consider the chro- 
nology adopted in native A.D. historical documents. 

Not finding the A.D. number prefixed to each year, O'Conor (Rer. 
Hib. Script., ii. xx.) concluded that the Christian era was not em- 
ployed in the native Annals. Tigernach, he adds, very rarely adjusts 
native events thereto, deeming the year sufficiently specified by the 
addition of the week-day number to Kal. Ian. This is an application 
of what O'Flaherty says (ib., p. 34 from Qgygia, p. 39) : 

\_Hiberni veteres] cujusque mini quo quidquam memoriae prodiderunt, 
Kalendas Ian. hebdomadis ferid in quam incidirent, nulld alia adhibitd 
cerd, signabant, hoc modo : El. Ian. feria 4, Connus Centimachus Rex, 
20 Octobr., feria 3, occidit. . . . Aetatem Lunae etiam nonnunquam 
addebant et illius anni numerum decennovenalis cycli. 

Elsewhere (p. 145), 0' Flaherty gives the year asA.D. 212, D.L.ED. 
The entry professes to be taken from Tigernach. But the reading 


in the Trinity College Fragment of Tigernach (dealt with farther 
on, p. 354 sg.) is : 

[Q.m,] imc;c;c;cun. Kl. Gn. ui. [A.M.] 4137 [A.D. 186]. Kalends 

p., I. pcuni. Conn Cebcacac occip- of Jan. on 6th feria, moon 18[13]. 

fup er-c cepcia penia hi Guaic Conn of the Hundred Battles was slain 

Qmbnoip, no i n-lnpur Domncmn, on Tuesday in Tuath-Ambrois, or in 

uc alii aiuno. Irros-Domnann, as others say. 

This date agrees very closely with the B-Tract of Lecture III., 
which equates (t) the year with the seventh of Commodus (A.D. 186). 
The ferial is accurate. The error in the lunar notation will be pointed 
out hereafter. Tuesday probably signifies the first Tuesday of January. 

"With reference to 0' Conor, his competence to discuss domestic 
chronology can be estimated from the statement he makes, that 
Tigernach was acquainted with the Dominical Letters. For, if so, it 
remains unaccountable why that annalist never once employed them, 
but gave the ferial numbers. The truth is, in the known range 
of native Annals, Dominical Letters, whether of verbal or alphabetical 
sequence, are nowhere to be found. 

ISTow, to test the vaunted value of consecutive A.D. dating, here is 
the recently issued volume I. of the Annals of Ulster. It has every 
year marked with the A.D. numeration as found in the two MSS. 
And what is the result? Why, through more than five hundred 
years, every date is wrong ! Nor is this all. The origin of the error 
has baffled every inquirer from O'Flaherty to Hennessy. 

Seeing then that notation, whether A.M or A.D., was employed 
only at wide intervals, how, the question consequently arises, was the 
sequence of the intervening years determined? Certainly, looking 
through the pages of 0' Conor's Tigernach and Annals of Innisf alien 
and contemplating the barren results of his " supreme labour and 
incredible diligence " (p. xxi.), one would be led to conclude that to 
co-ordinate and date the blank Kl. and undated entries were to essay 
the impossible. Such was the judgment of Mr. Hennessy, and his 
decision seems to have been accepted as final. 

" The loose method," he writes, " followed by the older annalists 
of simply indicating the succession of years by the repetition of the 
sign Kl., or K., for Kalends, to which they sometimes added the 
ferial, or day of the week on which the 1st of January occurred, 


together with their habitual practice of omitting to paginate their 
MSS., has led to innumerable errors in the chronology of Irish history. 
These errors might in some measure be corrected by the help of the 
ferial, if we possessed the original MSS. But these criteria have been 
so corrupted in the course of successive transcriptions of the earlier 
chroniclers by ignorant scribes, who did not understand their value, 
that they are comparatively useless in determining the correct 
chronology, unless when combined with other criteria. Even in the 
copies of TigJiernach at present available, the order of the feriae is 
so confused and irregular that any attempt to bring it into harmony 
with the succession of lials., or years, would prove a fruitless 

Naturally, therefore, he adopts the facile system introduced by 
O'Conor. " The marginal dates represent the actual (sic] enumeration 
of the Kals., or years, contained in the chronicle."! Nay, such value 
does he attach thereto, that in one place (p. 337) he puts 1131 on the 
margin, because " the actual (sic] reckoning of the Kals. gives " that 
year, despite the fact of the ferial number and the epact and the AJ>. 
reckoning being, all three, supplied in the text ! No doubt, the moon's 
age is wrong; but the error (xui. for xiii.), which is easily rectified, 
does not affect the date (A.D. 1135). 

Now, one would fain believe that our countrymen, whom St. 
Columbanus, in his Letter to Pope Gregory, extols as most sage cyclic 
computists, were not without method in their chronology likewise. 
Such, it is a relief to find, was the case. 

The Irish A.D. Annals in the present recension were dated in detail 
by the ferial and Decemnovennal lunar incidence of Jan. 1. Hence the 
formula (for instance) : Kal. Jan. vi. ferid, ix. lund (or with variations 
of collocation or regimen to the same effect). The native equivalent 
was: Kal. Gnaip pop aine ~\ nomab uacat> (epcai) puippi the 
Kalend [1st] of January [fell] upon Friday and the ninth day [of the 
moon fell] thereon. Uacat) is a neuter 0-stem (gen. uacaib), singu- 
larity (of number) and was used idiomatically, with or without epcon 
(of the moon), to signify the lunar day. When the year was blank, 
the signature, as a rule, became indifferently KaL Jan., Kal., Jl., or 
simply K. 

* Chronicon Scotorum, Rolls' Ed., p. xlvi.-vii. f lb., p. xlvii. 



The ferial numbers were feria i. [Dominical Letter A] = Sunday ; 
feria ii. [Dominical Letter G] = Monday ; and so on, to feria vii. 
[Dominical Letter B~] = Saturday. 

Ferial Number, . . i., ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii. 

Dominical Letter, . . A, G, F, E, D, C, B. 
Week-day, . . . S., M., T. 5 W., Th., F., Sat. 

In 365-day years, each year would commence on the week-day 
next after that on which the preceding year began. The ferial inci- 
dence of Jan. 1 would accordingly be identical every eighth year : 
forming a hebdomadal cycle. The seven- day sequence is, however, 
interrupted every fourth year by the addition of the Bissextile. The 
cycle thus becomes one of 28 (7 x 4). Commencing, for convenience 
sake, with A.D. 1, this cycle is as follows. (The Dominical Letters 
are annexed.) 



































































































(1) Accordingly, to find the ferial number of an A.D. year, divide 
the given year by 28 : the Roman numeral opposite the remainder is 



the ferial required. If nothing remains, the Koman numeral corre- 
sponding to 28 is the ferial. 

(2) The chief use of this Cycle is in connexion with determining 
the ferial of a given day of the month. For this purpose, to the 
annual numher of the day add the ferial, as in Table I. (plus 1, when 
the day falls after Feb. 24 in a leap-year). Divide by 7. The 
remainder will be the requisite ferial. The computation of the day 
is easily made by the following Table. 






1 Jan. in Kal. 


in Non. 5, 

in Id. 13 

2 Feb. ,, 


,i 36, 

ii ii 44 

3 Mar. 


,, 66, 

,, 74 

4 Apr. ,, 


>, 95, 

,, 103 

5 Mai. ,, 



ii , 135 

6 Jun. ,, ,, 


ii i 156, 

ii ii 164 

7 Jul. 



ii ii 196 

8 Aug. 



,, ,, 225 

9 Sep. ,, ,, 



ii i, 256 

10 Oct, 



ii ii 288 

11 Nov. 



ii ii 317 

12 Dec. 



ii ii 347; 

Jan. ,, ,, 


* Thus arranged (without #, b, c ; 1,2, etc.) in the Tract De arguments lunae, 
amongst the Dubia et spuria appended to the works of Bede. It is contained in 
Chap, xxii., De temporum ratione, which is devoted to the illustration of Rules 1 I., 
2 II. The basis of the pseudo- Anatolian Cycle is a computation according to these 
Rules (Jan. in Kl. una dies, luna i., etc.], including the last day of each month 
(In prid. Kl. Febr. xxxi. dies, luna prima, etc.}. As the "holy man Anatolius' 7 
(De temp. rat. xxxv.) imposed upon Bede, calling the method (c. xxii.} a vetus 
argumentum majorum auctoritate contraditum, it may be inferred, was in reference 
to the forgery. 

In the Lebar Brec Calendar of Oengus, the following items are given at the 
respective places on the margin : 

a 2, 4 (MS. [Ixxjxxi.), 5, 6, 8 (MS. ccxui.), 9 (MS. ccxluii.). 

b 1, 2 (MS. xxiii.), 5, 6, 7, 8, 12. 

c 1, 2, 5, 6, 12. 
The omission of the rest was owing to the scribe. 


When the given day falls on the Kalends, Nones, or Ides, sub- 
tract 1 ; when it falls before them, subtract the number whereby it 
is designated (e.g. in. Kal., in. Non., in. Id.). 

An example relative to each column will illustrate the application 
of this Table. According to the Annals of Ulster, Armagh was burned 
A.D. 1020, on the 3rd of the Kalends of June, the 2nd feria. Jun. in 
Kal 152. Deduct 3 and add 7* (6 by Table I. and 1 for the bissex- 
tile). Divide by 7. The remainder is 2 = Monday. 

Artri, Archbishop of Armagh, died A.D. 1020, on the 3rd of the 
Nones of June, the 6th feria ('.). Jun. in Non. 156. Deduct 3 and 
add 7 (as in the previous date). Divide by 7. The remainder is 6 = 

A.D. 878, the moon was eclipsed on the Ides of October, the 4th 
feria (*&.). Oct. in Id. 288. Deduct 1 and add 4 (as in Table I.). 
Divide by 7. The remainder is 4 = Wednesday. 

The quadruple recurrence of each ferial, combined with the lia- 
bility of alphabetical numeration to mistranscription,! detracts from 
the chronographic value of Table I. 

Not so, however, with the Epacts. Forming a cycle of nineteen 
and differing considerably one from the other, they constitute a 
criterion sufficiently comprehensive and not very liable to be ren- 
dered worthless by scribal corruption. 

The following table exhibits the Alexandrine (A.) and Roman (R,.) 
Epacts, together with the Golden Numbers and such technical terms 
as occur in the (greatly over-rated) Paschal Epistle of Cummian, J the 
work De mirabilibus Sacrae Scripturae (both of the seventh century) 
and the native Annals. 

"With reference to the Epact, the common lunar year of 354 days 
is eleven days shorter than the common solar year of 365. Hence, if 
both years commence concurrently, the twelfth day of the second 
lunar year will coincide with the first of the second solar year. The 
eleven added days are called Epacts (eTra/orai ^/xepat). The Alexan- 
drines, according to the computists, began the Lunar (Paschal) year 
on March 23. The Epacts they reckoned by anticipation from March 

* Or nothing, as the divisor is 7. 

t Cf. : Facilis certe librarii in tanto earumdera feriarum recursu lapsus fuerit. 
Bucherius, De Doct. Temp., p. 119. | Note B a. Note E. 


22, which day was in consequence designated Sedes Epactarum in the 
Calendar. Their first Epact was 30,* the long lunar month, (= 0). 

In the Julian Calendar, the initial Epact was counted from Jan. 1 
next preceding. This is 9.f With 30 (= 0) and 9 as the respective 
bases, the Epacts are found by adding 11 for each year and sub- 
tracting 30 (the full lunar month), when the sum exceeds that number. 
The exception occurs in the nineteenth year. There, on account of 
the Saltus Lunae or Moon's Leap.\ 12 (instead of 11) is added; thus 
giving 30 (=0) [(18 +12) -30] or 9 [(27 + 12) - 30], as the Epact 
of the twentieth year, that is, the first of the second Cycle. Common 
years (C.) contain twelve lunar months ; Embolismal (E.), in addition, 
have a full month of Epactal days thrown in (fjifjv /x,/3oAi/xos). In 
Table III., the R. Embolisms are marked in accordance with the 
Julian Calendar. The 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th are mentioned on 
the margin of the Lebar Brec Calendar of Oengus. 

The division into Ogdoad and Hendecad is explained in the Epistle 
to Bonifacius and Bonus, the second prefixed to the Dionysian Cycles. 
This exposition of Dionysius forms the basis of the Chapter (xlvi.} De 
Ogdoade et Hendecade in Bede's work De temporum ratione. It has to 
be added that, seventy years before Dionysius wrote, the terms were 
employed (in total disregard of the meaning) to divide the years of a 
Cycle of 84 into alternate eights and elevens. A document con- 
taining them may accordingly date from before A.D. 526. 

* I.e., moon 18 of Mar. 22 of a supposed previous (nineteenth) year (new m. 
Mar. 5, Table IV. xix.) + 11 + the Saltus. This Bede (ubi sup.} calls de octavo, 
decima in nullam facere saltum. 

t That is, the year began, ex hypothesi, on Dec. 24 of the previous (nineteenth) 
year, according to the Calendar. 

The Egyptian Decemnovennal Cycle commenced on the preceding August 28. 
Whence Jan. 1 next following = m. 9 (R.E.) ; Mar. 22 = m. 30, i.e. (A.E.). 

J See Bede, De temp. rat. xlii. (De Saltu Lunae). 

In the Carthaginian Paschal Table of A.D. 455 (Krusch, ubi sup. p. 184). 
For instance, 449 is marked as the first of the Ogdoad. It is the fifth of the 
Hendecad (G. N. xni.). 457 is given as the first of the Hendecad. It is the 
second of the Ogdoad (G. N. n.). The compiler of the Table apparently copied the 
arrangement of the Cycles of Theophilus or St. Cyril. This was likewise erroneous. 
According to the original, or Metonic, Cycle, 449 would be the seventh of the 
Ogdoad ; 457, the seventh of the Hendecad. 




















1st Embolism. 







Ogdoad < 














2nd Embolism. 



















3rd Embolism. 



















4th Embolism. 













5th Embolism. 





















6th Embolism. 



















7th Embolism. 

(1) As the Golden Number 11. corresponded to A.D. 1, to find the 
G. 1ST., divide the A.D. year + 1 by 19. The remainder is the Gr. N. 
If nothing remains, the Gr. N. is 19. 

(2) To find the age of the moon on a given day of the month, to 
the diurnal annual number of the day (found by Table II.) add the 
R. Epact (as in Table III.) and divide by 59 (i.e. a, full month mensis 

* Thus named from being rubricated in the Calendar. A fine example is the 
(so called) Missal of Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Royal Irish Academy, in which 
the illumination is executed in gold. 


plcnus of 30 + a hollow month mensis cavus of 29 days).* The re- 
mainder, if under 30, is the requisite lunation; if over 30, subtract 
that number and the remainder is the lunation. 

For instance, in the year of St. Patrick's death (A.D. 493), ac- 
cording to Lebar firec, the Epact was 27 and the 16th of the Kalends 
of April fell on Wednesday, moon 13. f Apr. inKal. 91 (Table II.). 
Subtract 16, add the Epact 27 and divide by 59. 43 remain. De- 
ducting 30, we obtain the lunation 13. 

This Rule, however, suffers exceptions, owing to the Embolisms. 
Thus, the Annals of Ulster state the moon was eclipsed, A.D. 878, on 
the Ides of October, Wednesday, moon 14 ; the sun, on the. 4th of the 
Kalends of Nov., Wednesday, moon 28. j The feiial criteria, Tables 
I. and II. shew, are accurate. Applying the Lunar Rule, we have : 
Oct. in Id. 288. Deduct 1, add 23 (found by Table III., Kule 1) and 
divide by 59. The remainder is 15. Similarly: Nov. in Kal. 305. 
Deduct 4, add 23 and divide by 59. The remainder is 29. The com- 
putistic error arises from the embolism al day of the Golden Number v. 
This is inserted at Oct. 1, making the new moon fall on Oct. 2. 

I have accordingly compiled the following Table, which sets forth 
the novi-lunar incidence of the Decemnovennal Cycle. The solar day 
of the new moon being ascertained thereby, the lunation of the given 
day can be readily computed. For instance, A.D. 878 has the Golden 
Number v. (Table III., Kule 1). Reference to Table IV. will shew 
that a new moon of v. fell on Oct. 2. The 14th of that moon con- 
sequently fell on Oct. 15 ; the 28th, on Oct. 29. This proves the 
accuracy of the Ulster computations. 

* As a rule, the odd months (Jan., March, &c.) were full; the even (Feb,, 
April, &c.), holloiv. 

t See the text, p. 388, infra. % The text is given, p. 379, infra. 






















































































































xx vi. 







































































































































































Being cyclic, the ferial and epact, it is obvious, could be of no 
utility, except in connexion with a fixed date, whether initial or 
other.* A typical example will prove this. 

* In cyclo nullus annus natura> sed positione, primus est. Bucherius> De Doct. 
Temp. p. 146. 


In a MS. of Priscian preserved at Leyden, the following, written 
perhaps by the scribe of the work, appears (folio 7i) : 

Dubthach hos versus scripsit tempore parvo ; 

Indulge, lector, quae male scripta vides. 
Tertio Idus Apriles tribus digitis ; 

Tertio anno decennovenalis cicli tribus instrumentis ; 
Tertio die ante Pascha penna, membrano ; 

Tertia decima luna incipiente atramento ; 
Tertia bora post meridiem Trinitate auxiliatricc. 

In Table IV., the Golden Number in., denoting the third year .of 
the Cycle of Nineteen, is placed opposite March 31. The Paschal 
new moon was accordingly on that day (tbe 14th of the Mar. 1 moon 
occurring before the Paschal Term, Mar. 21), and the 14th lunation 
fell on April 13. Hence the earliest Easter of in. was F, that is, 
April 14. " The third day" (Ap. 11) is thus reckoned exclusive of 
Sunday. It was, in fact, Holy Thursday. 

But, how futile was all the precision ! Within the probable period 
of the transcription of the MS., the Easter of nr. P occurred three 
times at intervals of 95 years, A.D. 743, 838, 933. 

We have next to shew the value of the ferial and epact when 
employed with a definite year. In the Carlsruhe Codex of Bede, well 
known as one of the MSS. on which the Grammatica Celtica was 
based, a second hand placed on the margin (folio I7a) of the Computus 
Annalis, or Calendar, opposite . . . d. b. v. Kl. \_Sep-~] ' 

bdf TTIuipchaco, maic TTlaile- Death of Murchad, son of Maelduin 
btiin, hi Clucmi-Tnaccu-Noir-, d [kingof Cenel-Eogain],inClonmacnoise, 
imba Chiapavn, oc. anno. from out the bed of [St.] Ciaran, in the 

tenth year [of the Cycle of Nineteen]. 

The tenth is obviously reckoned from a dated first year. Hence, 
as the native Annals state that Maelduin was deposed* A.D. 823, it is 
easy to suggest that 832 is the year intended. But, as the Carlsruhe 
MS. does not give the date of deposition, the conjecture is untenable. 

On the second preceding folio, the same hand made a marginal 

entry : 

\_A.D, ,] DCCCXVII. Aed, rex Hilerniae, moritur.^ 

* Strange to say, his death is not given. 

| The Annals of Ulster give the obit of Aed at A.D. 819. 

2 C2 


817 (Table III., Eule 1) is the initial year of the Cycle of Nineteen 
(Golden Number i.). The tenth therefrom is 826 (Golden Number x. ; 
Dominical Letter G). D (without a point (.) before or after) and B 
are the respective lunar and ferial letters of August 28. The mean- 
ing, accordingly, is that Murchad died on Tuesday, August 28, moon 
21 (new moon, August 8, Table IV.), A.D. 826. 

To illustrate the use of ferial and epact in application to native 
annalistic dating, take, for example, the initial Solar Cycle of the 
Annals of Innisfallen, from where the ferial notation of Jan. 1 com- 
mences in 0' Conor's edition.* 0' Conor tacitly admits his inability to 
restore the chronology from the textual data. 

The opening year, " Septuagint" (Victorian) A.M. 5630, Hebrew, 
4481 [= iii. /., x. 1., A.D. 429] and the second [#./., xxi. /.], A.D. 430, 
have been already given. f Erom the latter the text gives four Kl. up 
to Kl. i. /., which O'Conor counts A.D. 434. But the true date, 
the ferial shews, is A.D. 433. The explanation is : a duplicate entry 
of St. Patrick's advent was given under A.D. 432. Its heading, JE7., 
should accordingly not be reckoned separately. This is placed 
beyond doubt by the remainder of that Decemnovennal Cycle and the 
whole of the next. The reconstruction, it will be observed, tallies 
exactly with the scanty portions of the ferial and epact preserved 
in the transcription. 

Kl. [Jan.] i. f., [xxiv. 1., A.D. ccccxxxiii.] Conversio Scotorum 
in fidem Christianam. 

Kl. [Jan. ii. f., v. 1., A.D. ccccxxxiv.] Prima preda Saxonum 
ab Hibernia. 

Kl. [Jan.] iii. f., [xvi. 1., A.D. ccccxxxv.] Orosius et Cirillus 
in doctrina floruerunt. Nix magna. 

[Bis.] Kl. [Jan. iv. f., xxvii. 1., A.D. ccccxxxvi.] Mors Bressail 
Bricc [of Bressal the Speckled]. 

[Initium Kl. [Jan. vi. f.,] ix. 1. [A.D. ccccxxxvii.] Initium Circul- 
ma S ni - [Beginning of the great Cycle (of St.Cyril).] 

Kl. [Jan. vii. f.,] xx. 1. [A.D. ccccxxxviii.] 

* E. H. S. ii. Anna!. Innisf., 1-3. f Lecture III., p. 241, supra. 



Kl. [Jan.] i. f. [i. 1., A.D. ccccxxxix.] Secundinus et Aux- 

iliarius et Iserninus mittuntur in auxilium Patricii : 

nee tamen tenuerunt apostolatum, nisi Patricius solus. 
[Bis.] Kl. [Jan.]ii. f., xii. 1. [A.D. ccccxl.] Quies Augustini sapientis. 

Mors Mane, meic Neill [son of Niall] . . . et [quies 

Xisti] xliii. epis[copi Romanae Ecclesiae]. 
Kl. [Jan. iv. f., xxiii. 1., A.D. ccccxli.] Probatio sancti 

Patricii in fide Catholica. 

Kl. [Jan. v. f.,] iv. L [A.D. ccccxlii.] Stella crinita apparuit. 
KL [Jan. vi. f., xv. 1., A.D. ccccxliii.] Patricius in Christi 

doctrina floruit. 
[Bis.] Kl. [Jan. vii. f., xxvi. 1., A.D. ccccxliv.] 

Kl. [Jan. ii. f., vii. 1., A.D. ccccxlv.] 

incipit], qui regnavit an. xxvi. 

mac Fiachrach [son of Fiachra]. 
Kl. [Jan. iii. f., xviii. 1., A.D. ccccxlvi.] 
Kl. [Jan. iv. f., xxix. L, A.D. ccccxlvii.] 

eter Munechu ocus Laigniu [Battle of Magh-Femin, 

between the Momonians and Lagenians], in quo cecidit 

Mac Carthinn, meic Coelbath, qui jecit genus Laig. 
[Bis.] Kl. [Jan. v. f., x. L, A.D. ccccxlviii.] Quies Secundini sancti. 
Kl. [Jan. vii. f., xxi. L, A.D. ccccxlix.j 
Kl. [Jan. i. f., ii. 1., A.D. ccccl.] 
Kl. [Jan. ii. f., xiii. 1., A.D. ccccli.J Calcedones Senodus con- 

[Bis.] Kl. [Jan. iii. f., xxiv. 1., A.D. cccclii.] 

Kl. [Jan. v. f., v. 1., A.D. ccccliii.] Marciani mors, qui regnavit 

imperator an. vii. Leo regnavit et corpus Johannis 

[Baptistae] repertum est. 
[Kl. Jan. vi. f., xvi. 1., A.D. ccccliv.] 
Kl. [Jan. vii. f.,] xxvi[i]. 1. [A.D. cccclv.] Pascha in viii. 

Kal. Maii. 

[Initium Kl. [Jan. i. f., ix. 1., A.D. cccclvi.] Fairdbe [?] Laing [? 
xixfalis.] Laigen. Destruction ? of the Lagenians]. Hie alii 

dicunt nativitatem sanctae Brigitae. 

Eclipsis solis in nona 

Tethosius [regnare 
Nathi [lege Dathi], 

Cath Maige Femin 


The blanks observable in the luni-solar notation are evidently 
owing to scribal remissness. 

Equally striking are the results obtained in connexion with the 
Tigernach Fragment in Trinity College.* The MS. begins with the 
Hebrew A.M. 4033, and ends with 4522 = 490 years. But for almost 
three-fourths it is a skeleton. The entries that (preceded, as a rule, by 
the dated year and, with one exception, by the ferial and epact) occur 
at intervals, breaking the array of vacant El., amount only to 125. 
On the other hand, " the actual reckoning of the Kals." gives but 360, 
instead of 365, blank years. How are the lacunae to be localized 
and supplied? Dr. Todd, who worked on the Fragment (0' Curry, 
MS. Materials, p. 581), can only say, "it is possible there may be 
some error in the transcription of the Kl" 

As the basis for the solution of this and kindred questions, I 
tabulate the luni-solar criteria of the initial cyclic years as given in 
the MS. (The opening entry is acephalous, but the omission can be 
supplied with certainty by comparison with what follows in the text.) 

* It consists of three vellum folios bound up with the Annals of Ulster (H. 1.8). 





1. [Kl. En. 

ii. f., 








2. ,, 

iiii. f., 





3. ,, ,, 

vii. f., 





4- ,, ,, 

iii. f., 





5- ,, 

vi. f., 







i. f., 





7- [ 

iiii. f., 





8. ,, 

vii. f., 





9- y, 

iii. f., 






10. ,, 

vi. f., 






i. f., 






iiii. f., 





13. ,, 

vii. f., 






14. ,, ,, 

ii. f., 











16- ,, 

i. f., 





17- ,, 

iiii. f., 







vi. f., 





19. , 

ii. f., 






v. f., 






i. f., 







iii. f., 






vi. f., 





24. ,, ,, 

ii. f., 






v. f., 






26. ,, ,, 

vii- f., 





[Ends at [iiii. f., 1. xiii. = (textual) G. N. 15, A.M.] 4522 (A.D. 570).] 


Next, we obtain the amount of the epacts omitted, as follows : 

8 in the 1st,* 8th and 9th cycles respectively. [24] 

9 in the 10th cycle. [ 9] 
11 in the 2nd cycle. [11] 

13 in the 13th and 26th cycles respectively. [26] 

14 in the 3rd, 5th, 6th,15th, 16th and 20th cycles respectively. [84] 

15 in the llth, 17th and 21st cycles respectively. [45] 

16 in the 14th, 18th, 19th, 23rd and 24th cycles respectively. [80] 

17 in the 4th, 7th, 12th and 22nd cycles respectively. [68] 

18 in the 25th cycle. [18] 

In all, 365. 

To shew with what certainty the omissions can be supplied, I 
append the respective numbers and places of those occurring in the 
two opening cycles : 

1st Cycle, 5 epacts are omitted between 1. x[x.] and 1. xxv[i]. 

,, 3 ,, ,, ,, 1. ii. 1. xvi. 

2nd 2 ,, ,, 1. xx. 1. xxiii. 

,, ,, 2 ,, ,, ,, 1. xxiii. 1. xxvi. 

,, ,, 2 ,, ,, ,, 1. xxvi. 1. xxix. 

2 1. xxix. 1. ii. 

2 ,. ,, ,,1. xiii. 1. xvi. 

1 ,, ,, 1. xvi. 1. ix. [of 3rd cycle]. 

Thirdly, the five missing Kl., or years, can accordingly be localized. 
Three are wanting, along with the ferials and epacts, in the 4th cycle, 
between 1. xxiv. and I. ix. They are, consequently [A.M.] 4106-7-8 
[A.D. 154-5-6]. The year of 1. xxiv. is iuiciiii\_i~\. Then follows 
the entry; after which is imm?, vel TLIICX. Kl. En. vi.f., 1. ix. The 
true lection, therefore, is [A.M.] 4109 [A.D. 157] (cycle 5, supra}. 

1 The first epact of this cycle IB not included, as it was contained on the 
previous (missing) folio. 


The text (a) and restoration (b) relative to the fourth Kl. are as 
follows : 

() (*) 

imclxvi. imclxvi. [A.D. 214] Kl. En. vii. f., l.ix. 

Kl. En. vii. f., l.xx. miclxvii. [A.D. 215] Kl. En. i. f., l.xx. 

That the absence of the Kl. in the first line of (a) does not denote 
the omission of a year, is proved by Table V., No. 8, and by the 
fact that [A.M.] 4173 has the epact xxvi. 

The fifth Kl. was omitted, together with the ferial and epact, in 
the 15th cycle ; 1. xv. is dated [A.M.] 4305 [A.D. 353] ; I. vii., [A.M.] 
4307 [A.D. 355]. The year passed over was 430tf [A.D. 354], L xxvi. 

It remains to examine the accuracy of the ferial and lunar 
incidence presented by the Table. The first, as can be verified by 
Table L, Rule 1, is in every instance correct. 

By Rule 1, Table III., we shall find that A.D. 81 has the Golden 
Number vi. = Epact 4 (not i. = Epact 9). The same holds good of 
the other 25 years in Table V. Similarly, 570, the concluding year, 
has the Epact 9 (Golden Number i.) ; not Epact 13 (Golden Number 
xv. of the preceding cycle), as given above. In a word, every lunar 
reckoning in the Fragment is five years wrong! Moreover, the 
uniformity leaves no room to doubt that in each instance the altera- 
tion was effected designedly. 

Anomalies still greater are exhibited in the textual collocation of 
the entries relative to the dates. As a typical instance, I select the 
period from the birth to the captivity of St. Patrick, The purport 
of the following arrangement is explained by the headings. With 
regard to the contents, the years in ft, except those printed in italics, 
have foreign items. Of the four here reproduced (taken from St. 
Jerome's continuation of the Eusebian Chronicle), the first and last 
shew that the number of years marked is correct. The displacement 
of the second and third can scarcely have originated with a compiler 
acquainted with the source. The correct dates are given within 
brackets. (It is unnecessary to observe that they do not agree with 
the respective MS. ferials.) In y, the years, with three exceptions, 
are left blank. Eour have been omitted. 

s % 


^4 O 

'9 :d 3 'S , 'E 5 -a 

P o 


< CO 


S o 
a o 


N S 


r^^ ^ 

M rti ^ S 

7^1 !"- s 

fi o ^ g -g 

I II I 2 DO 2 

I Jfl 

a j 

to "O 

3 a 





'> 00 

co "* *& 

00 CO 00 



^ r n i 

M 2 a 



H M 

1. xxvi 

Pi ^ 

*0 M> 


^ ^ 
^ ^ 


u p 

p. CD 


P- CD r- 

P O O 

p- P. 5 
o p_ ^ 

O n 

S* O ?i 

P- O i- 





5 CD W 
' P . 


- ,0 H. 

5 5 

P a 

E- F 


I a 

_ o ;r; 




aO JO 

CD P- 


O O U 10 



- Of . 



s |g 

~ 4 


bO f> o 


03 ** 

ts ^ 

&o H s a 

c ' rt o> 
'.. - 45 

M ^ 'C (5S 

SH ,2 







M d -H S * 
^ o 2 Dd 




Jg . rd CO 2 

*S IH ^ > 


s : s * !'| 







iw gj ^ ^ (S I 

2 ,2 2 '3 

^| g'in"! 

. rt >H *S , , 


^S^-sS "d 1 






4f^ i 

S H r^iZJ 


- S f g> - | r 

, , P^ s t>- 





p c^^ ", "" ^ 

- 2-1 1 S a | 


w ^ i^j I I nc! " " 
*. 05 . S . 2 


<Tl ^ rH Q3 cS 

r-; a c s 2 s 

.2 S 

" 3 B 

rj o 
i 1.75 ^ 





This Table proves, assuming a, fi and y to be his work, that 
Tigernach carried out two ' emendations ' of the Vulgar Era : one (a), 
making the chronology (in round numbers) three solar cycles in 
arrear ; the other (/?), one solar cycle in advance. The Table like- 
wise shews that he reproduced (/?, y) the number and ferials of the 
years from the birth to the captivity of St. Patrick; thereby un- 
wittingly preserving wherewithal (8) to detect the alterations. In 
view of the foregoing, Tigernach can scarcely be regarded as the most 
trustworthy of the native annalists. 

Reverting now to the opening part of the Annals of Innisfallen 
given above, two dissimilar elements are discernible. In the first 
place, the years are marked in unbroken continuity by the luni-solar 
incidence of Jan. 1 (A). Secondly, the entries annexed constitute a 
sequence that is not similarly integral (B). Given the initial year, 
specified by date or otherwise, A becomes perfect in meaning. Apart 
from the fragmentary character, B, by itself (witness the failure of 
0' Conor to settle the Innisfallen Chronology) is devoid of material 
significance. The original was consequently A. But the contents and 
the cyclic form (to pass over the absence of consecutive dating) prove 
that the primary purpose was not chronographic. The ferial and epact 
were, in fact, the requisite criteria from which by computistic methods 
the incidence of Easter and of the other moveable feasts of the current 
year was determined. We have thus revealed the fundamental datum 
in reference to the native A.D. Annals. 

The Paschal Cycle was the basis of the Irish 

The relation of A to the other Paschal Computations and the 
conclusions resulting therefrom relative to the native Annals demand 
separate treatment. 

The dating employed in connexion with the Paschal Tables used 
in Ireland next claims attention. Of the methods whereby this was 
effected, reckoning from an epoch is the only one that falls within the 
scope of the present inquiry. The Mundane Eras found in the Cycles 
and Tables of 84 are not to be met with, as far as I know, in Irish 
documents, annalistic or other. Whether the Passion year of 84 
(A.D. 29) existed in the Table introduced by St. Patrick, the data 
accessible to me are not sufficient to decide. The reckonings of the 



kind in the Book of Armagh, for instance, are altogether unreliable. 
(The initial year can, nevertheless, be determined with certainty.*) 

The celebration of Easter on the sixteenth of the moon mentioned 
in the Catalogue] as followed by some of the Third Order of Irish 
Saints, it may be concluded, was derived from the Great Cycle of Vic- 
torius of Aquitaine. According to this, it was brought into use in 
Ireland during the last decade of the sixth century. 

That it was known here before that time, we learn from St. Co- 
lumbanus. "Writing to Pope Gregory, he says that by his masters, 
most sage computists of cycles, Yictorius, so far from being received, 
was deemed worthy rather of derision than of authority.]; This is 
conclusive as regards the community of Bangor up to the saint's depar- 
ture (about A.D. 590) for the Continent. -But it is not at variance 
with what is stated in the Catalogue. 

In the Prologue, the Mundane Reckonings profess to be taken 
from the Hieronymo-Eusebian Chronicle and the Chronicle of Prosper. 
They are as follows : 

A . From Creation to Deluge, 2242. 

B. ,, Deluge to Abraham, ..... 942. 

C. ,, Abraham to (a) Yalens VI. and Yalentinian II. 

COSS. [A.D. 378], .... 2395. 
[D. ,, Creation to Passion, .... 5229. ]|| 

* The Table of St. Cyril comes next in time. The opening year (A.D. 437) is 
marked in the Annals of Innisf alien (p. 352, supra). But, even though employed 
in Ireland (which is very improbable), as the years were those of Diocletian, it 
could not well form the basis of a Chronicle. t Note C. 

% Scias namque nostris magistris et Hibernicis antiquis, philosophis et sapien- 
tissimis componendi calculi compulariis, Victoriurn non fuisse receptum, sed magis 
risu vel venia dignum quam auctoritate. Note D a. 

|| The passage (Note D b) containing this item, for the reasons given hereafter 
(infra, p. 366-7), may be considered spurious ; but the calculation is verified by the 
criteria of the initial year of the Victorian Paschal Cycle : 




Kal. Jan. 

lunae in 
Kal. Jan. 

Paschse dies. 




Coss. duobus Geminis. 



f eria v 


v Kal. Apr. 



Ruffino et Rubellio. 


"We have thus : 


C - a = 2017 : Victorian Abrahamic Period (a). 
A + B + a = 5201 : ,, Mundane ,, (ft). 

D - ft = A.D. 28 : ,, Passion Year (y). 

(a) Applying a to the Eusebian Chronicle, we obtain the Rule em- 
ployed in the Third Lecture : to find the B.C., subtract the Abrahamic 
year from 2015 + 2. The result will be found to coincide with 
that obtainable by the Olympiad Reckoning (B.C. 776)* and the 
Reckoning from the Foundation of Rome (B.C. 753)f. 

(ft) Similarly, deducting ft from 5630, the initial Mundane year 
of the Annals of Innisfallen, we have A.D. 429. This, taken in con- 
nexion with two entries in these Annals Victorius scripsit Ciclurn 
Paschae. Finis Cicli Victorii , shews that the opening portion was 
based upon the Cycle of the Aquitanian. 

The ft Reckoning occurs twice in the Annals of Boyle. .{ 

(1) Ab Adam usque ad Cormac fluxerunt anni vicx. [- ft = A.D. 

In the Innisfallen Annals, the year in which Cormac (Mac Culen- 
nain, bishop-king of Cashel) was slain is marked m. /., xxiv. I. These 
are the criteria of A.D. 908. But a native quatrain there quoted 
gives 909. The entry, it is thus seen, belongs to the latter year, 
t. /., v. ?., A.D. 909. 

(2) Annus ab Incarnatione Domini MXLVI. (recte, -in.) : ab initio 
vero mundi VICCXLIV. (6244-1043 = /3). The vi. of the text was 
consequently a scribal error for Hi. 

Erom the Annals of Innisfallen, or some similar source, the /? 
Computation passed into the A -Text of Lecture III. (thence copied 
into the Lelar Brec\\ Tract), which assigns the advent of St. Patrick 
as missionary to A.M. 5633 [- ft = A.D. 432]. 

* Ideler : Handbuch der math. u. tech. Chronol., Berlin, 1825. I. 376. 

t Jb., II. 154. J O'Conor: Eer. Hib. Script., ii. Ann. BnelL, p. 12. 

O'Conor, nbi sup., p. 18. || See Lect. III. p. 238, supra. 



(y) With reference to y, therefrom, in the first place, is derived 
the Rule employed in the First Lecture (supra, p. 11): to equate 
the Yictorian Passion Year with the A.D., add 27 to the former. 

Secondly, Victorius, according to the Prologue,* intended to com- 
mence with A.M. 1, and give the Paschal data of each year, according to 
the Solar Cycle of 28 and (a modification of) the lunar portion of the 
Cycle of 84:. But, as an immense work of the kind demanded ample 
leisure, one Great Cycle (A.D. 28-559) was executed to meet the 
present need.f The Easter solar and lunar criteria of A.M. 1 and 
A.M. 5658 (A.D. 457) are set forth, to prove that both were respectively 
found by the same methods. In accordance therewith, in reference to 
the solar incidence (with which alone we are at present concerned), 
the former year has the Dominical Letters AG; the latter, F, We 
can thus reconstruct the original Solar Cycle of Victorius. (To 
facilitate reference, the Vulgar Cycle is annexed.) 











17. Bis. 















5. Bis. 









21. Bis. 















9. Bis. 









25. Bis. 















13. Bis. 



28. Bis. 
















Note D c. 

t Note C d. 


To test the Victorian Solar Cycle : 

A.M. 5202 -f 28 leaves 22, B (A.D. 1). 
A.M. 5229 + 28 ,, 21, DC (A.D. 28). 

(1) Accordingly, the Yictorian Eule for finding the A.M. Dominical 
Letter can be thus formulated : Divide the given year by 28 : the 
tabular letter opposite the remainder in the Victorian Column, 
Table VIII., is the Dominical. If nothing remains, the letter cor- 
responding to 28 is the Dominical. 

(2) Similarly, the Victorian Rule for finding the A.D. Dominical 
Letter is : To the given A.D. year add 21 and proceed as in (1).* 

(3) Finally, to find the Dominical Letter of a Victorian Cyclic, 
i. e. Passion, year : To the given year add 20 and proceed as in (1). 

Connected with the foregoing and other calculations of the Pro- 
logue is a reckoningf made in Ireland in the middle of the seventh 
century. To the identity of his Latin name with that of the great 
bishop of Hippo we owe the publication, if not the preservation, of 
the work, De mirabilibus Sacrae Scripturae, of the Irish Augustinus.J 
To explain the miracle recorded in Joshua x. 12-13, of the sun and 
moon standing still, the writer lays down that the natural course was 
not thereby disturbed, as both the luminaries rested simultaneously. 
As proof, he gives in brief digest the cyclic recurrence from the 
Creation to the year of his writing : to shew that the sun and moon 
are always in agreement at the end of every term of 532 years. 

In the A.M. period, the initial and final cyclic years are identified, 
internal evidence proves, by reference to the Chronicle of Eusebius. 
Hence, the last year of Cycle I., the first of Cycle V., and the first 
and last years of Cycles II., III., IV. are not specified by any events. 

In the A.D. period, the tenth Cycle ended, we are informed, in the 
ninety-second year after the Passion, in the consulship of Aviola and 
Pansa (A.D. 119, according to y). The eleventh began in the follow- 
ing year, in the consulship of Paternus and Torquatus (A.D. 120, in 
accordance with y). Dr. Reeves quotes the Chronicle of Cassiodorus 
to justify the assigning of these consuls to the years in question, 

* The Vulgar Eule is : Add 9 and proceed as in the Victorian (but in the Vulgar 
Column). | Note E. 

J See the Paper of Dr. Reeves, Proceedings, R.I. A., vol. vii., p. 514. The 
bibliography is given (p. 515) with characteristic fulness and accuracy. 



instead of to A.D. 122, 123, respectively. But the writer went no 
farther a-field than the (partly erroneous) consular column of the 
Victorian Cycle, where they are so placed.* 

The final year of the eleventh Cycle (A.D. 651, according to y) is 
identified by the death of Mainchine (of Mendrohid, King's County), 
amongst other sages. In the third year of the twelfth Cycle the work 
was written. 

A difficulty affecting all these dates arises from the fact that the 
obits of Mainchine and two other abbots are given in the Annals of 
Ulster at A.D. 652. f The discrepancy is explained by two calculations 
set forth in the Prologue of Yictorius.J 

(a] The date of the Passover is fixed as follows. (The lunar 
notation it is unnecessary to deal with in this place.) In A.M. 3689 
[DC Bis], March 24 fell on Thursday. A.M. 3690 began on the fol- 
lowing day, Friday, March 25 ; which was the Passover. This is 
introductory to a reckoning of more importance. 

(b] In A.M. 5228 [A.D. 28 DC Bis.], March 25 fell on Thursday. 
Adding the intercalary day, A.M. 5229 [A.D. 29 B] commenced on 
Friday, March 25. In this way, Holy Thursday fell in A.D. 28, on 
March 25 ; Good Friday and Easter Sunday, in A.D. 29, on March 25 
and 27, respectively. This is based upon a Mundane Period of 5200. 
The Passion and Resurrection were thereby assigned to the traditional 
date, namely, A.D. 29. 

But, in the first place, the Julian year, which was that followed 
by Yictorius, began with Jan. 1, not March 25. Moreover, the 
diurnal progression from C to B, introduced in (a) and (i) as taking 
effect in March, did not come into operation until the following New 
Year's Day. In other words, you cannot have two intercalary days 
within one year. 

Aviola i 





xv Kal. Maii 



Pansa ) 

Saltus lunce. 

Paterno \ 






Kal. Aprilis 



Torquato ) 

t Note F. 

% Note D b. 


Finally, applying Table VIII., llule 1, to (a\ we obtain 3689 -f 
28 = 21 DC = "Wednesday (not Thursday), March 24. The following 
day was consequently Thursday (not Friday), March 25. In reference 
to (), we get 5228 -=- 28 = 20 E = Tuesday (not Thursday), March 25 : 
5229 ^ 28 = 21 DC = Friday, March 26 (not 25) ; Sunday, March 28 
(not 27). Now, 5229, according to Table VII., is the Passion Year 
of Victorius, A.D. 28 (not 29). 

The two calculations in question are consequently interpolations.* 
They were obviously suggested by what is stated relative to the dates 
of the Passover and Passion in the previous passage of the Prologue. 

The text of the foregoing is that of Petavius.f On the other hand, 
Bucherius, J who does not deal with (a\ reads vm. vn. v., instead of 
77/7. vm. vi. , Kalendas Apriles in (5). But this, if the original, proves 
that the interpolator either was unable to fit the added day into the 
computation, or passed it over, in order to bring his Easter incidence 
(March 28) into conformity with the Victorian, as given on the follow- 
ing folio. 

If the pseudo-Victorian Computation imposed upon the author of 
the De mirabililus sacrae Scripturae, the fraud, it has to be borne in 
mind, was by comparison the work of a practised hand. The 
pseudo-Anatolius assigned but two Bissextiles to a Cycle of nineteen 

* JafiVs proofs, which, according to Mommsen (Zeitz. Ostertafel v. J. 447 : Abh. 
der. K. A. der W. zu Berlin, 1862, p. 564), demonstrate that the whole Prologue is 
a forgery, I have not seen. Mommsen himself rejects one of Jaffe's main sugges- 
tions, and, more significant still, would allow that the Prologue is partly genuine. 
The fact is, any argument involving the conclusion that a Cycle of nineteen Epacts 
was issued to supersede a Cycle of thirty Epacts without a line of explanation 
prefixed carries its own refutation. 

t De Doctrina Temporum, Vol. n. p. 505. J De Doctrina Temporum, p. 9. 

After the ahove was written, I found a copy of Bucherius in the National 
Library. This, I had the satisfaction to discover, has a special value in reference 
to the present question. On the margin of the Prologue are placed MS. readings 
which, as appears by comparison with the Petavian text, were taken from the 
Codex Sirmondi employed by Petavius and Bucherius. (These variants fully con- 
firm the laxity of the latter in reproducing his exemplar.) 

Two of them, now that the MS. is lost (Krusch, ubi sup., pp. 84, 210-1), are of 
importance. VII. (Kalendas Apriles) and V. (Ealendas Apriles} were made VIII. and 
vi. by the addition of /., alia manu, overhead. The bissextile was thereby rightly 
taken into account, March 25 counted twice and Easter assigned to March 27. This 
proves that the interpolator, whether ignorantly or designedly, left out an integral 
item of his own reckoning. Sed quis in scriptis spuriis exactitudinem praestabit ? 



years ! Yet, a forgery of the kind, one of the clumsiest upon record, 
passed current for more than twelve hundred years, with Columbanus, 
Cummian and Bede ; Bucherius, Petavius and John Albert Fabricius ! 

These two passages of the Prologue and the entry in the Annals 
of Ulster prove that the calculation of the De mirabilibus was based 
upon A.M. 5201 = A.D. 1. The A.D. dates are accordingly 120, 121; 
652 (obit of Mainchine), 653, 655.* 

The Pseudo-Yictorian Beckoning is also found in the Annals of 
Boyle : 

In hoc anno beat us Gregorius quievit : scilicet, in Dcvto anno 
Dominicae Incarnationis, ut Beda dicit in Historia sua . . . Anni ab 
initio mundi VDCCCV. (A.M. 5805 - 605 = 5200). f 

It is likewise employed in the Carlsruhe Codex of Bede : 

[A.D.] Dccc. [=] vi. m. ab initio mundi. (fol. 15 a). 

[ ,, ] Dcccxxxvi. [=] vi. m. xxxvi. (ib.']. 

[ ,, ] Dcccxxxvii. ==] vi. m. xxxvii. ('#.). 

[ ,, ] Dcccxlviii. [=] vi. m. xlviii. (fol. 15b). 

The earliest authenticated mention, to my knowledge, of the 
Cycles of Dionysius in native documents is contained in the Paschal 
Letter of Cummian, written in, or soon after, A.D. 632. J With them, 
as we have seen in Lecture I. (p. 10), came the consecutive reckoning 
by the years of the Incarnation. The protracted and embittered 
struggle connected with the introduction of the Alexandrine Paschal 
system is one that might be retold with advantage. Here it will 
suffice to say that in Ireland, as elsewhere, the principle of the 
Dionysian Cycles and the A.D. Era gradually predominated. 

* Appended (Note G) will be found the passage in which the reckoning is dealt 
with by Petavius in the Doctrina Tempornm. They are amongst the proofs of the 
author's imperfect acquaintance with Paschal Cycles and the Chronology connected 
therewith. t O'Conor, ubi sup. Ann. Suell., p. 5. 

J The delegates deputed by the Synod of Magh-Lene to visit Rome attended the 
celebration of Easter in St. Peter's on a day (March 24) which differed by a month 
from the Irish date (April 21). (This was the 82nd year of the Cycle of 84, 
Golden No. xxvu., F; Victorian G.N. xv. ; Dionysian, v., A.D. 631.) They 
reached Ireland the following year. The ill-disguised tone of defiance leaves little 
room to doubt that the Epistle was composed immediately after their return. 


Finally, it has to be observed that the Mundane Period = 3952, 
employed in connexion with other reckonings in Tigernach and 
elsewhere, is given as his own (nostra supputatio) by Eede in the 

The data set forth in the preceding Lecture and in the present 
enable us to formulate the following Canons relative to the Chronology 
of the Annals and other native documents. 


I. A Passion reckoning reducible to A.D. by the addition of 28 
can date from before A.D. 500. 

II. (a} An A.M. reckoning reducible to A.D. by subtracting 5199 and 
(5) a Passion reckoning reducible to A.D. by the addition of 32 can 
date from before A.D. 500. 

III. An A.M. reckoning reducible to A.D. by subtracting (a) 5201 
[or (b) 5200], f and a Passion reckoning reducible to A.D. by adding 
(c) 27 [or (d) 28, employed with (3)],f can date from A.D. 598. 

IV. An A.D. reckoning can date from A.D. 632-3. 

V. An A.M. reckoning reducible to A. D. by subtracting 3952 
cannot date from before A.D. 725, the year in which the Chronicle 
of Bede was composed. 

(Other reckonings are to be met with in the Annals. But these, 
whether A.M. or A.D., are the result of a so-called emendation, and 
consequently of comparatively recent date.) 

When two or more are employed, the most recent calculation, it is 
scarcely necessary to observe, determines the time of the document in 
which they are contained. 

In accordance with III. (), the Annals of Innisf alien are the most 
ancient body of Chronicles we possess. 

IV. fixes the earliest date of the (TigernacTi) quatrain, J which 
gives A.D. 493 as the year of St. Patrick's death. In like manner, it 
specifies the (Lebar Brec] notation of the Decemnovennal criteria 
appertaining to the year in question. 

Having thus traced the origin and chronographic data of the Annals, it 
remains to observe that a broad distinction has to be drawn between the 

* Ad A.M. 3981, A.D. 29. f That is, on the assumption that the pseudo- 

Victorian Calculation was not of Irish origin. % Table VI., p. 359, supra. 

P. 388, infra. 


annual register of events and historical tracts, such as those appended 
to the present and former Lectures. The latter, whether in prose or 
verse, were intended for committal to memory. They could not 
therefore be burthened by strings of dates. Accordingly, they start 
from some well-known event, the place of which they fix by the 
A.M. or A.D., placed sometimes at the commencement and sometimes at 
the end. He must be a poor computist who could not thereby easily 
calculate the time of every item. 

Similarly, Lives of the Saints, being composed for devotional 
reading, contain no precise annual notation. But, as was to be 
expected, much historical reference is found. Herein Adamnan's Life 
of St. Columba contrasts favourably with Bede's Life of St. Cuthbert. 
Such allusions were easy of verification by those for whose edification 
the works were composed. 

In the same way, marginal entries like that in the Marianus 
Codex (supra, p. 15) and colophons of MSS., containing allusions to 
local persons and events, as a rule present no difficulty in determining 
the precise years. 

Finally, with respect to inscriptions on reliquaries and kindred 
objects, in which the time is fixed by mention of kings or abbots, 
the intention was to place upon record the names of those concerned 
in the donation or manufacture. The dates could be ascertained by 
reference to the respective regal series or monastic registers. 

The foregoing, taken in connexion with the fact that in some 
instances the entries themselves contain either the day of the week, 
or the age of the moon, or both,* will enable us to estimate the 
irreparable injury that would have resulted to our early chronology 
from the Annals of the Four Masters, had the original materials not 
been preserved. The lack of knowledge betrayed by the contrast 
between the A.D. date which they prefix and the internal evidence of 
the text would be incredible in the absence of irrefragable proof. 

First, with regard to the ferial number. 

* One example of the kind is found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Cod. 
Domit.), A.D. 809. The sun, it is said, was eclipsed on Monday, July 16th, the 
29th of the moon. This is correct. New Year's Day (Tahle I., Rule 1) was Monday 
and the July moon hegan (Tahle IV.) on June 18 (Golden Number xn.). 


(1) A.D. 714. Faelcu, they say, was appointed abbot of lona 
" on the 4th Kalend of September, Saturday precisely." In that year, 
August 29 fell on Wednesday. The date was 716. 

(2) A.D. 777. The battle of Kildare was fought on the "6th of 
the Kalends of September, on Tuesday." Here the reckoning is five 
years wrong. In 777, August 27 was "Wednesday. Correct, accord- 
ingly, to 782. 

(3) A.D. 778. Armagh and Mayo were burned on " the night of 
Saturday precisely, on the 4th None of August." This year, August 
2 was on Sunday. The burning happened in 783. 

(4) A.D. 860. Mael-Sechlaim, King of Ireland, died " the thirtieth 
of November, on Tuesday precisely." November 30 fell on Saturday 
in 860. The obit took place in 862. The reading in the Annals of 
Ulster is, accordingly, to be changed from m. feria into ii. feria, 
namely Monday. 

(5) A.D. 917. Mall, King of Ireland, was slain in the battle of 
Dublin "on the 17th of October." Then quatrains are quoted in 
which Wednesday is given as the day of the battle. It is further 
stated that in the same year Easter fell on April 25, and Low 
Sunday fell in Summer. October 17 in 917 was, however, Friday. 
The Easter incidence shews that the year was 919. The true reading 
is given in the Annals of Ulster, 17th of the Kalends of October. 
September 15 fell on Wednesday in 919. 

(6) A.D. 924. The battle of Cluain na Cruimther [nieadow of the 
priests'] was fought " the 28th of December, Thursday precisely." 
December 28 was on Tuesday in 924. The year was 926. 

(7) A.D. 1013. The battle of Clontarf was fought " on the 
Friday before Easter precisely." Here are the criteria that lay to 
hand in the Annals of Ulster \Kl. Jan. vi. /., I. xxvi., A.D. mxiiii. 
Hie est annus octavus circuli decin[n~\ovinalis et hie est ccccc. et Ixxxii. 
annus ab adventu Sancti Patricii ad babtizandos Seotos. peil ISF 1 ^ ^ 
jiia n-lnic ocur rmncaifc i Sainria& ipin blicfoain pi [the feast of 
Gregory (March 12 fell) before the Beginning (first Sunday) of Lent 
and little Easter (Low Sunday), in Summer this year] quod non 
auditum est ab antiquis temporibus. 

Nay more, the space dated A.D. 1013 is left vacant in the Ulster MS., 
so certain was it that the battle took place on Good Friday, April 
23, 1014. But, as if to remove any palliation, the "advent of St. 


Patrick " is given at 432 by the Four Masters themselves. It never 
occurred to them, perhaps, to add 582 thereto. The year, it is 
scarcely necessary to observe, was the same as 919 in the incidence 
of the moveable feasts. 

Next, with reference to the age of the moon. This notation 
they have omitted in all instances except two. How far they 
could avail of such assistance, they leave no doubt. At A.D. 917 
[correctly, 919], having said that Easter was on April 25 and Low 
Sunday in Summer, they add: "t)ia c6icc mblia&na pepccac 
ap cpi 66t> cecmons pin that day 365 years that happens" Let us 
apply this rule, which says that the Paschal incidence is regulated by 
the solar year. Going back, we arrive at A.D. 552. In that year, 
Easter fell on March 31. Going forward, we come to A.D. 1282. 
In this year, Easter was March 29. Applying it to the true year 
(919), we get 554 and 1284. The respective Easters fell upon April 

9 and April 5. 

Non ragionam di lor, ma guarda e passa. 

The first lunar notation they reproduce is at A.D. 1086. It is 
contained in a quatrain fixing the day of Turlough O'Brien's obit. 

Qioce TYlaipc hi pjiib Ib lul, The night of Tuesday, on the day be- 

fore the Ides of July, 

"Rid p6il lacoib co nglan pun, Before the feast of James of pure mind, 

lap nb6 picec acbac, After two-and-twenty (years ?) died 

Qn caijib pt cenn Goijinoealbac. The strong arch-king Toirdelbach. 

This passed muster with O'Conor and O'Donovan, perhaps be- 
cause in the preceding prose the regnal years are given as 22. It 
escaped themselves and the Masters that the third line is a syllable 
short, and that the eve of the feast of St. James fell on the 1 3th, not 
the 14th, of July. But fortunately the original, which O'Clery 
and his followers had under their hands, is still extant in the Annals 
of Ulster. The two faulty lines run thus : 

1 peil lacoib co n-slan pum, On the feast of James of pure mind, 
1 nornab* picec abbac, pi. On the 29th, died, etc. 

In A.D. 1086, New Year's Day fell on Thursday, and the Golden 
Number was iv. Consequently, July 14 fell upon Tuesday, and it 

*MS. ic. 


was the 29th of the moon, which began (Table IY.) June 16 and 
ended July 15. 

The other lunar notation will be considered farther on. 

The result is that for more than five centuries (A.D. 494-1019) 
every item in these so-called Annals is erroneously dated ! Neverthe- 
less, the mischief still wrought by them is strikingly illustrated by 
the fact that the dates of the battle of Ballyshannon* and of the death 
of King Niall, together with ten others equally erroneous, are quoted 
on one page (539) of the Bolls' edition of the Tripartite from the 
Annals of the Four Masters. 

Apart however from the falsification of the text, allowance has 
to be made for O'Clery and his assistants, in view of the work of the 
same kind produced by those who professed to deal with the subject 
since their time. 

O'Flaherty plumes himself on having fixed the date of the Mile- 
sian Occupation. First, he quotes the verse of O'Flynn given above, f 
to prove that the 7th of the moon fell on Thursday, May 1. This, he 
adds, agrees with 3698 of the Julian Period, which was the 12th of 
the Decemnovennal Cycle. J It requires no great computistic skill to 
test this. The Epact of XTI. is 10. The Lunar Rule (Table III. 2 : 
(121-1 + 10)^59) accordingly leaves 12 (not 7) as the lunation of 
May 1. But, what is more important, the original reading is 17 (not 
7) ; which shews that the year intended by the native versifier was 
the 7th (not the 12th) of the Decemnovennal Cycle (Epact 15). On 
this foundation the Chronology of the Ogygia is constructed ! 

The following, from his edition of the Annals of Innisf alien, will 
sufficiently set forth 0' Conor's acquaintance with the Epacts : 

A.D. 1058 [1041, O'C.], aileuath, lunae. 
A.D. 1172, aile huath, prima lunae. 
A.D. 1001 [983, O'C.], aile huath, lunae. 
A.D. 1096 [1079, O'C.], eale auth, ultima lunae. 
A.D. 1115 [1098, O'C.], aileuath, ultima lunae. 

The reading is aile uatkad, and the expression means the 2nd of 
the moon (Epact 2). These five years (Table III., Rule 1) have the 
Golden Number xiv. 

* See p. 374-5, infra. t Lect. III., Note C k, p. 265, supra. I Note F. 


A text in Tigernach displays another notable result of what he 
calls his " incredible diligence." 

A.D. 1066. /. *. Retla mongac ingnad Kl. I. i. Stella crinita mirabiliter 

adbal do faiscin isin aer diamairt iar ingens apparuit in aere die martis parvi 

mincaisc hie pt. Kl. mai co iiixx. fuire. Paschae (i.e. die Martis post Dominican* 

(R. H. S. ii. p. 306.} in Albis) a Kalendis Maiis ad xxiii. lunae. 

In a note he quotes from the Anglo-Saxon chronicle : " Hoc anno 
apparuit cometa xiv. Kal. Mali. 

Here we have error upon error. Hie pt (which, of course, means 
nothing) should be hi sept, as even the Four Masters could have taught 
him. Their reading is : hi pecc Calainn TTlai on the 7th of the 
Kalends of May. Co does not signify ad, but cum, in this place. 
May 1 fell on Monday, not on Tuesday, and Low Sunday on April 23. 
not April 29, in 1066. The text requires but one other emendation : 
iii.xx. should be vi.xx. (Perhaps it is a misprint.) 

The meaning now presents no difficulty : Jan, 1 \_fell on Sunday'] 
1st of the moon. A hairy star, a wondrous marvel, was seen in the sky, 
the Tuesday after Little Easter \_Low Sunday], on the 7th of the Kalends 
of May [_Ap. 25], 23rd of the moon [lit., with the 23rd thereon^. 

The Golden Number being in., the Paschal moon (Table IV.) 
began on March 31. One may thus, without " incredible diligence, " 
calculate that the 26th lunation fell on the 25th of the solar month 
next ensuing. 

With regard to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, there is nothing that 
can be tortured into the comet appearing on April 18. It states 
that Easter in 1066 was " xvi. Kal. Mali" (April 16). Then it 
describes the comet : saying, amongst other things, that the star first 
appeared on the Eve of Letania Major, that is, viii. Kal. Mail (April 
24). Litania Major was St. Mark's Day. 

Another instance of 0' Conor's knowledge will be mentioned here- 

A date of which the -day of the week and the day of the month am 
given is so easily determined, that it is strange how O'Donovan failed 
to notice the error in the account of the battle of Bally shannon, Co. 
Kildare, quoted by him (A.D. 733, F. M., i. 332, note 0) from the' 
Annals of Ulster, " at the year 737." Therein we have xiii. Septem- 
bris, die vi. ferie. He ought to have known that these Annals employ 


the Roman method of reckoning the days of the month. Besides, he 
had the true reading, " on the 14th day of the Kallends of Septem- 
ber [Aug. 19]," in the entry of the Annals of Clonmacnoise which he 
there gives. 

No doubt, it may be said that Sep. 13 fell on Friday in 737. But, 
" the reader," according to O'Donovan (Yol. I., p. xlviii.), " is to bear 
in mind that the Annals of Ulster are antedated by one year up to 
1014, and that ... he should add one year to the respective dates." 
Now, in 738, Sep. 13 fell on Wednesday. 

The Ulster reading in the new edition (Vol. I., p. 194) is : xiiii. 
Septimlris die, vi.ferid ; that of O'Conor's Tigernach (R.H.S., ii. 242) : 
xvii. El. Sept. die .i. Mairt [namely, Tuesday}. The mutual correc- 
tions give: xiiii. Kal. Sep., Hi. ferid. Aug. 19 fell on Tuesday in 
878. Nevertheless, the editor of the Annals of Ulster (p. 195) gives 
" the 14th day of September, the sixth day of the week." He found 
nothing that required emendation. The Four Masters have placed the 
battle under 733 ! 

With reference to the Epact, O'Donovan makes no correction of 
the statement of the Four Masters, that the Paschal incidence is tho 
same every 365th year. 

Elsewhere (A.D. 493, F. M., p. 157, note a), he quotes from Lelar 
Bree that St. Patrick died " in the 120th year of his age, that is, the 
27th [recte, 26th] of the solar cycle," etc. But the original (p. 220 a) 
of the explanatory clause is: i Tn-bliat>ain un. ?. pop Kalaint> 
6naip in the year of the 27th (lunar day} on January 1. Here, there 
is no mention of the Solar Cycle. A.D. 493, as stated correctly in the 
text, had the Epact 27 (= 19th year of the Decemnovennal Cycle). 

(The passage will be found given in full below (p. 388), amongst 
the corrections of the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick.) 

In a quatrain quoted by the Four Masters, A.D. 1099 is described : 

1m [in] bTia&am coiccibe uaca[i]5, 

l[n] cpep blia&am paip lap [puip' ap] puc, pi. 

This O'Conor (Rer. Hib. Script, iii. 675) renders: "In the year 
of terrible wars, count the third year, after fear seized," etc.* 
That is, coiccibe = wars ; uacafr = terrible ! 

* In anno bellorum terribilium, tertlum annum numera, postquam terror corripuit, 


O'Donovan is perhaps more original : 

" From the year in which cook-houses were few, 
The third was that in which, etc." 

That is coiceit>e = cookhouses (coquinae}-, uaca& = few ! 

Let hoth divide the crown. 
The commonplace original means simply : 

The year of the fifth epacr, 

The third year [after a bissextile was] thereon, in sequence, etc. 

A.D. 1099 had the Epact v. (Golden Number xvn.) and was the 
third year after the leap-year, 1096. For the second line, compare the 
notation in the Annals of Innisfallen : in. bl. puip [pop] bif* 1 in 
in. bl. [;t;c.] ap c. ap m. ab Incapnacione 3rd year after the 
bissextile, and the 1123rd year from the Incarnation. 

Dr. Reeves is justly severe upon O'Conor's editorial shortcomings. 
Yet, in his edition of Adamnan (Additional Notes D 0), he adopts 
O'Conor's Innisfallen dates. In the following, no excuse can be 
pleaded for reckoning "in opposition," to use the words of Dr. 
Reeves, "to the author's own notation": 

Reeves. Text. 

A.D. 781, . . 795. 

,, 840, . . 854. 

,, 866, . . 880. 

877, . . 891. 

Reeves. Text. 

A.D. 911, . . 927. 

968, . . 986. 

1009, . . 1026. 

,, 1094, . . 1111. 

In his Lectures on the MS. Materials of Irish History (p. 425), 
O'Curry writes : " The number of the Epact for the year 1096 was 
23, so that a cycle of the Epact terminated that year. And he 
generously gives the reason : " For," he says (p. 430), " if we add 
the annual increase of eleven days to twenty -three, it would make it 
thirty -four, thus passing into a new cycle of the Epact for the next 
year 1097, whose Epact would accordingly be four." 

Eut Table III., Rule 1 ((1096 + 1)4 19), gives the Golden Num- 
ber xrv. = Epact 2 for 1096. Consequently, the Epact for 1097 was 13. 

After this, it is superfluous to deal seriously with the following 
(il. p. 61) : " Tigernach appears to have been familiar with some of 
the modes of correcting the Calendar. He mentions the Lunar Cycle, 


and uses the Dominical Letter with the Kalends of the several years ; 
but he makes no direct mention of the Solar Cycle or Golden Number." 

How Tigernach " corrected" the Calendar has been already shewn. 
The remaining statements, except perhaps that respecting the Golden 
Number, are taken from 0' Conor; "no direct mention" being the 
equivalent of non semel memoratum /* 

In the Letter describing the Tigernach Fragment (0' Curry, MS. 
Mat., p. 518-9), Dr. Todd gives the " Lunar Epact " of A.D. 34 as 15. 
That is, apparently, he subtracted 19 from 34. But the Epact is 
24 = Golden Number XVT. (Table III., Eule 1). 

At A.M. 4079 (A.D. 127) he reads luna Hi. Reference to the 
Table (V.) of the initial cyclic years (3rd cycle) will shew that the 
reading should be luna vii., which is the MS. lection. The true 
Epact is 2 = Golden Number xiv. (Table III., Rule 1). 

The death of Tuathal Teachtmar he gives at A.M. 4104. The 
Tigernach Epact being xxiiii., the year (Table V., 4th cycle) is 4105 
(A.D. 153). The correct Epact is 20. 

" The reign of Eeidhlimid is given in the following year." Here, 
however, occurs the hiatus of three J57., i.e. 4106-7-8, which has 
been mentioned above. The death is dated "4109 or 4110." 

An error that seems unaccountable remains to be mentioned. Two 
of the commonplaces of Irish are that ria (re] signifies before and iar, 
after. In his Wars of the Gaidhill and Gaill (p. 15), Dr. Todd so 
renders the words. Twice, moreover (pp. Ixix., 22), he adduces reasons 
for concluding that iar (after) of the text is to be read re (before). Yet, 
dealing with the above-quoted Ulster criteria of 1014,f he gives (p. 
xxvi.) "the correct translation" of Feil Grigoir ria n-Init as " The 
feast of St. Gregory [12th March] fell after Shrovetide"! This, ap- 
parently, because, according to him ('.), " Shrove Tuesday . . . was 
the 9th March." 

The meaning of Init will be demonstrated farther on. 

In dealing with the Chronicon Scotorum, Hennessy, as we have 
seen, adopts 0' Conor's system of chronology. In the A.D. portion of 

* Cyclum Solarem a Tigernacho non semel memoratum invenio. Perspexit 
nempe . . . septem dies cujusvis hebdomadae exprimi in Calendario per septem 
literas #, b, c, d, e, f et g . . . Cyclum Lunarem pariter . . . saepius memorat. 
E. H. S. ii. xxi.-ii. t P- 371 (7), supra. 


the compendium, there are but two epacts retained : x. at 1132 and 
xvi. at 1135. In a note on the latter year, the editor is good enough 
to inform us that the third feria means Tuesday. It escaped him, 
however, that xvi. was an error for xiii. 

The Annals of Loch Ce were issued under the same editorship. 
The notation of the Yulgar Solar Cycle is given from 1194 to 1197, 
the former year being marked as the 19th of the Cycle. This precious 
result was obtained by adding 1 (instead of 9) and dividing by 28. 
The reckoning is consequently eight years slow. To test it, 1 1 94, the 
text correctly says, began on Saturday. But the 19th of the Yulgar 
Solar Cycle (reference to Table VIII. will shew) begins on Wednesday. 
1194 was, accordingly, the 27th of the Cycle. 

The solar notation recommences at 1231, and goes on to 1412. 
Here another rule is applied, with the opposite result. 1231 is given 
as the 19th year. The computist, namely, adds 20 and divides by 28, 
thus making the years eleven in advance. To put it to proof, the 
leap-years of the Vulgar Solar Cycle are the 1st, 5th and every fourth 
year thereout. Being bissextile, therefore, 1232, for instance, cannot 
be the 20th. It is, in fact, the 9th. 

The editorial rectification of the foregoing consists of bald in- 
cidental correction (at A.D. 1309*) of the 1194, 1231 errors and 
remarking that, though the soli-cyclic notation was blundered 
throughout, as the chronology was not affected thereby, correction 
was deemed unnecessary. 

With reference to the lunar notation, it commences in the same 
Annals at the initial year, A.D. 1014 ; the epact of which is rightly set 
down as xxvi. Whereupon, a note says : " But read 28th (although 
the Annals of Ulster have 26th)." The same epact belongs to 1204 
(Golden Number vin.). The editor, notwithstanding, gives the epact 
xviii. y noting that the MS. reads xxviii. \ A.D. 1215 (I. xxvii.} is said 
to have been the last of the Cycle of Nineteen and a contrary year : 
" meaning," the editor says, "opposed to the bissextile year." It 
signifies, however, that it was contrary to the other years of the 
cycle, in the addition of 12, instead of 11, to form the epact of the 
year following. 

* The statement (ib. i. 544) that 1309 belonged to the 48th [not 47th] Solar 
Cycle is manifestly a slip of the pen. 



Up to 1234 the epacts are correctly copied. But, in ignorance of 
the Saltus Lunae, the epact of 1235 is given as viii. instead of ix. 
The result is, that thenceforward to 1412, where the notation ceases, 
all the epacts are wrong. The following is the synopsis : 


1. viii. 
1. vii. 
1. vi. 
1. v. 
1. iv. 
1. iii. 


1. iv.* 

1. iii. 

1. ii. 

1. i. 

1. vii. (recte, xv.) 

In the foregoing, the editor saw nothing that demanded correction. 

In the Annals of Ulster, Yol. I., also edited by Hennessy, at A.D. 
645 (= 646) we have I. 8, alias 9. The double reckoning is continued 
up to A.D. 653 (= 654). Again, at 065 (= 666) we find I. 8, and the 
following year /. 20. Eut no correction is appended : nor, here or 
elsewhere, is the lunation availed of to rectify the dating. 

A.D. 877 (= 878), a lunar eclipse is said to have occurred on 
October 15, the 14th of the moon. In a note, we learn that the 
Oxford MS. reads 4th of the moon. The latter was accepted by 
O'Donovan (E. M., p. xlix.). Perhaps for that reason, it is left 
undecided here, although the entry states that the 28th of the moon 
happened that day fortnight. 

6clipp ip lunae Itnbup Occobpip , 
;niii. lunae, quapi cepcia uisilia 
mi. pepiae, polipque bippecoup 
mi. Kal. Nou., lunae ;r;cuin., 
quapfi un. hopa biei im. pepiae, 
lunae ;c;tuiii. : polip ;ru. tnebup 

An eclipse of the moon [took place] 
on the Ides [15th] of October, 14th of 
the moon, about the 3rd watch [12-3 
a.m.] of Wednesday ; and an eclipse of 
sun, on the 4th of the Calends of No- 
vember [Oct. 29] about the 7th hour 
[1 p.m.] of Wednesday, 28th of the 
moon : 15 solar days [inclusive] inter- 

(Dominical Letter, E ; Golden Number, v.] 

* 1341 is I. vii. It ought to be iv., in sequence to xxiii. of 1340. (The true 
epact is x.) 1342 is 1. xvii., in accordance with which the notation proceeds to the 
end. It should be xv., following 1340, and xviii. to accord with 1342. 


A.D. 1023, a lunar eclipse is stated in the same Annals to have 
happened on the 14th of the moon, Thursday, January 10. A 
solar eclipse, it is added, took place on the 27th of the same moon, 
Thursday, January 24th. But apparently because O'Donovan (loc. 
cit.) received " 27th," it is accepted as correct by Hennessy. 

Kal.lcm.iii.p.,l.u.,a.D.Tn.;c;c.iii. Jan. I.Tuesday, Epact v., A.D. 1123. 
epcpcn er-cai i ;rini. epcai enaip, An eclipse of the moon [took place] 
i mi. Ib Gncnp, t)ia-bapbain ; ep- on the 14th of the Jan. moon, on the 
open speine cmcem i 3cocun[i]. inb 4th of the Ides [10th] of Jan., Thurs- 
epcai cebnai, tMa-bapbain, cinn day ; an eclipse of the sun likewise 
coecciQ-er, i noi Kl. [took place] on the 27th \_recte, 28th] of 

the same moon, Thursday, at the end 
of a fortnight, on the 9th of the Kalends 
[of Feb., Jan. 24.] 

(Dominical Letter, F ; Golden Number, xvii.) 

The Lebar JBrec copy of the Calendar of Oengus is copiously 
glossed. Headers of the Academy edition will learn with surprise 
that the solar and lunar data given by the editor, Mr. Stokes, bear no 
proportion to the amount contained in the original. 

With regard to the solar year, the MS. exhibits the number, order, 
names and length of the Hebrew, Egyptian, Grecian (Macedonian) 
and Roman months ; also hexameters descriptive of the Zodiac, the 
initial days of the Signs ; the Solstices, Equinoxes, Dominical Letters, 
portions of Table II., etc. Of all these numerous items, the follow- 
ing almost make up the total published by the editor. 

(1) The Egyptian and Grecian vernal equinox is given at March 
20 ! (p. Ixiv.). Had Mr. Stokes mastered the data supplied by the 
MS., he would have been saved from this elementary error. In the 
MS. (p. 84), the gloss stands on the left margin, between March 20 
and March 21. To which it belongs, is shewn in a native quatrain 
(not copied by Mr. Stokes) at foot of p. 102 : 

hi p6il bembecc co m-bpi5, On the feast of Benedict with vigour, 

Duobecim Calcmb Qppil, The 12th of the Kalendsof April [Mar. 21], 

8m peil bopirne, nf 56, That [is] a feast that you compute, not 

Compfn icep aibce ip lo. Equally long, both night and day. 


In the Calendar of Oengus, St. Benedict is commemorated at 
March 21. Herewith agrees the Calendar in Bede's works : 

Xii. Kal. [Apr.] Benedict! abbatis. Aequinoctiura secundum 

(2) June 21. " Sol[s]titium secundum grecos et egiptios" (p. cvi.). 
la the MS., this is rightly placed opposite June 20. Compare the 
marginal entry on a line with Dec. 21 (not given by Mr. Stokes) : 
Solstitium secundum Grecos. See likewise the two quatrains that 
precede the native stanza just quoted : 

In la oc pfniub, puaipc in mob. The day a-lengthening, excellent the 

Ocup 00015 oc pepsab, And the night a-shortening, [method, 

O peil Cornaip caebnaip caip From the feast of Thomas . . . 

Co peil paelain amlabaip. To the feast of Faelan, the mute. 

oc pmiub, nf 56, The night a-lengthening, not false, 

Ocup pep 5 pop cec pfplo, And shortening upon each long day, 

O peil paelmn, pes anunb, From the feast of Faelan, look across, 

Co peil Comcup icepum. To the feast of Thomas again. 

In the Calendar of Oengus, the feasts of Faelan and Thomas are 
June 20 and Dec. 21, respectively. Compare the Bede Calendar : 

Xii. Kal. [Jul.] Solstitium secundum Orientem. 

Xii. Kal. [Jan.] Nativitas sancti Thomae. Solstitium hyemale. 

(This equinox and the solstices are to be carefully distinguished 
from the Horn an.) 

(3) Sol in Taurum intrat is given (p. cxx.) at July 19. But Sol 
in Taurum is found at April 17 (p. 86 of the MS.). 

Under which king, Bezonian P 

Read Sol in Leonem intrat, and place it at July 18. The emendation 
is rendered certain by the Zodiacal hexameter heading August (not 
given by Mr. Stokes) and by the Bede Calendar : 

Augustum mensem Leo fervidus igne perurit, 

Xv. Kal. [Mail] Sol in Taurum. 
Xv. Kal. [Aug.] Sol in Leonem. 

(4) At August 23, we have (p. cxxxii.) : " Finis anni Egiptiorum 
residuos u. dies epogomenas \_epigenomenas ?] vacant vel inter calares." 



(5) At August 28 (p. cxxxiii.) : " Hie incipit primus \_mensis~] 
anni secundum Egiptios nomine Toth, computantes suos menses ad cursum 

The suggested Greek emendation will excite a smile ; a change of 
one letter giving the true reading, eTrayo/xei/as (i^epas) added (days}. 
Besides, here you have but four of such days. The glossarist, how- 
ever, knew his subject better. In the MS., the second item is correctly 
placed opposite August 29. 

"With this may be compared the note (apparently taken from 
Bede, J)e temp. rat. xi.} in the central portion of a rota, or circular 
diagram, in the Reichenau MS. cxcn. (fol. 237),* setting forth the days 
of the Roman months that respectively corresponded with the first 
days of the Egyptian : Deliinc [x. Kal. Sep.~\ reverteris ad mi. Kl. 
Septimbris, talique ratione conplerentur [? complebuntur~\ dies ccclx. xii. 
mensium Aegyptiorum : u. dies residues epagamenas [eTrayo/tcvas], vel 
interlcalares, sive additos, vocaverunt. 

(6) But for droll emendation, No. 4 must probably yield the palm 
to No. 6. A left-hand marginal gloss (p. 89) states, amongst other 
things, that St. Kevin of Glendalough had two brothers. Their sister 
was Aibind. The latter part stands thus in the MS. : 

Aibind soror 
clui eorum 

B is the regular letter, signifying that when Jan. 1 falls on Sunday 
(or Saturday in a leap-year), June 5 is Monday. 156 is the annual 
number of June 5 (Table II. 6 b). To Mr. Stokes, however, clui is 
the diminutive -cula ! He reads sororcula in the text (p. xcviii.) and 
gives " MS. soror clui" underneath! 

With reference to the lunar year, the glossarist mentions the 
Decemnovennal Cycle, the Hendecad and five Embolisms ; also when 
the new moons began, and the length of the days and nights respec- 
tively at such times. He likewise gives criteria for determining 
Easter and other moveable feasts. 

* Report on Ryiner's Foedera. Ad. to Ap. A. and its Suppl., Plate 1. 


Of the glosses in question, Mr. Stokes copies but six ; five not free 
from error, and some with glaring misconception. 

(1) February 23. " Bisextus hie oritur in Saltu lune celerius 
a\_s~]cendit quam putatur in bisex vero tardius a[i\cendit quam putatur. 
bisex namque retardat saltus vero celerat" (p. liv.). Sudet qui legat is 
the motto of the editor of the Calendar. 

The note, naturally, belongs to February 24, and is to be amended : 
Bi[s~\sextus hie oritur. In Saltu , luna celerius accenditur quam 
[com]putatur ; in Bi[js]sex[to~] vero, tardius accenditur quam [com~]putatur. 
Bi[s~]sextus namque, etc. The meaning is this. In the (normal) Com- 
putation, the epact of the first year of the cycle would be viii. 
The Saltus, however, accelerates the December new moon of the 
last (19th) year (by making it fall on Nov. 25, instead of Nov. 26, 
Table IV.), so that the Jan. moon begins Dec. 24 and has the epact 
ix. on Jan. 1.* 

In the Bissextile year, on the contrary, if the March moon began, 
as according to the (normal) Reckoning it ought, on the completion of 
the February moon, it would, by reason of the added day, have 31 
instead of 30 days, and the Paschal incidence would be thereby 
disturbed. To obviate this, the March new moon is reckoned as 
retarded by a day, and the February moon counted 30 instead of 
29 days. 

(2) " Luna . . . accendit " (p. liv.). Read Luna . . . accenditur. 

(3) March 6. " Novisimus dies forsambi primesci inite the last 
day whereon is the first moon of Shrovetide " (p. Ixii.). 

To shew the meaning of Init, I transcribe from the Lebar Brec 
copy of the Calendar of Oengus some computistic data which Mr. 
Stokes has not reproduced. 

* Overlooking this technical Rule, Ideler (n. 196) fell into an error, the effect 
of which unaccountably escaped his notice. Reckoning consecutively by 30 and 29 
from Oct. 27, he assigned new moon to Nov. 26 and Dec. 25. The result is that 
the epact of the first year of the Cycle becomes 8, not 9 ! 

Of the authorities indicated (193), Clavius (Rom. Gal. restituti explicatio, 108) 
accurately places xix. at Nov. 25 and Dec. 24 ; Wolf (Elementa Matheseos, IV. 
127, Geneva, 1740) is partly right and partly wrong : Nov. 25 xix. ; Dec. 25 xix. 

2 E2 



\Lebar Brec, p. 90, marg. inf.] 
Qile uacab epci TTldpcai, in 

06mnac ip neppom, if e Domnac 

Gpep .??. in epci T 1TI > 1T1 t)6"mnac 

ip neppom, [if e] Inic copgaip. 

p*i. epci Qppil, in Dapbafn ip 
neppom, ip e t)apbafn caplaic. 

Ocuppcim. in epci pin, in t)6m- 
na6 ip neppom, ip e D6mnac Cdpc. 

P^pci. bino in 6pci pin, in t)6mnac 
ip neppom, ip e t)6mnac THincapc. 

Ocup ^nn. epci TTldi, in Dap- 
bafn ip neppom, ip e t)apbafn Ppep- 

Cecpumab uacab epci Itiin, in 
0<3mnac ip neppom, ip e t)6mnac 

neppom, ip 


It5in, in D6mnac ip 
e Oomnac lmc[e] 

p^un.mab epci luil, in Domnac 
ip neppom, ip e t)6"mnac Samcdpc 
in pin. 


The second day of the moon of March, 
the Sunday that is next, [that is] the 
Sunday of the Beginning [of Lent]. 

The twenty-third of that moon, the 
Sunday that is next, [that is] the Begin- 
ning of the [stricter] Fast. 

The eleventh of the moon of April, 
the Thursday that is next, that is the 
Thursday of the Capitilavium* [Holy 

And the fourteenth of that moon, the 
Sunday that is next, that is the Sunday 
of Easter. 

Moreover, the twenty-first of that 
moon, the Sunday that in next, that is 
the Sunday of Little Easter [Low Sun- 

And the twenty-fourth of the moon 
of May, the Thursday that is next, that 
is the Thursday of Ascension. 

The fourth day of the moon of June, 
the Sunday that is next, that is the 
Sunday of Pentecost. 

The twenty-fifth of the moon of June, 
the Sunday that is next, that is the 
Sunday of the Beginning of the [stricter] 
Fast of Summer. 

The seventeenth of the moon of July, 
the Sunday that is next, that is the 
Sunday of Summer-Easter. 

* Capias .1. nomen bo 6enbl6 
cdpc .1. qnapi Capicolamium : 
cenb-bfunac .i.iappin nf beppcaip 
cdc anb -\ nestaip a cenb oc 
aipicill a copmaca ipm cdipc. 
Cormac's Glossary (Lebar Erec, p. 265 a). 

According to the authorities quoted by Ducange, the Capitilavium took place on 
Palm Sunday. For instance, St. Isidore : De Palmarum die. Vulgus ideo eum 
diem Capitilavium vocant, quia tune moris est lavandi capita infantium qui ungendi 
sunt, ne forte observatione quadragesimae sordidati ad unctionem accederent (De 
Offic. Divin. I. xxviii.). 

Caplat, namely, a name for the head- 
day of Easter: that is, as it were Capi~ 
tolavium head-washing. For the reason 
that everyone is tonsured then and his 
head is washed for reception of his unc- 
tion on Easter [Holy Saturday]. 


To illustrate the foregoing, let us take a typical instance, given in 
one of the glosses we are dealing with, Golden No. viu., Dominical 
Letter C = (the latest) Easter, April 25. 

(The moon, it has to be premised, is regularly designated from the 
month in which it ends. But here, in consequence of the Embolism 
of the eighth Decemnovennal year being inserted at March 7, it is 
named from the month in which it begins.) 



G.N. Moon. Month. D.L. Festival. 

[VIIT] [1] [March 6] B 

2 [ .7] C 

[9] ,, H C Beginning [First Sunday] of Lent. 

23 [ 28] C 

[30] April 4 C Beginning of [stricter] Lent [Mid- Lent Sunday], 

[viu] 11 [ 15] G 

H [ 18] C [Latest Paschal Term.] 

[18] . 22 G Thursday of Capitilavium [Holy Thursday]. 

21 [ ,, 25] C Easter Sunday. 

[28] May 2 C Little Easter [Low Sunday], 

[vm] 24 [ 27] G 

[viu] [1] June 3 G Ascension Thursday. 

4 [ 6] C 

[11] ,, 13 C Pentecost Sunday. 

[Beginning of Summer Lent.] 

25 [ 27] C 

[YIII] [3] July 4 C Beginning of [stricter] Summer Lent 

17 [ ,, 18] C 

[24] ,,25 C Summer Easter Sunday. 

The text and Table prove that Lent consisted of three-week 
moieties ; Init (= initium) and Init Chorgais signifying by synecdoche 
the first and last half respectively. A similar distinction is found in 
the Calendar inserted amongst the works of Bede 

xvi. B viii. Id. [Feb.] 

D vi. ,, ,, Initii principmm. 

D Id. [Mart.] Finis Initii, post dies triginta quinque. 


Here Lent is computed by xvi D= (the earliest) Easter, March 22. 
The division differs from the Irish, in making the proportion 5:1; 
thereby limiting the more austere portion to Holy "Week. The Stricter 
Fast and the Summer Lent (both of which are well established) do not 
call for discussion in this place. 

The gloss in question is consequently to be translated : 

[March 6.] Last day on which is the new moon of the Beginning 
[of Lent]. 

In other words, the Golden Number vin. stands opposite March 6 
in the Calendar. (Ppim er-ci, like prima lunae and first of the 
moon, is an elliptical expression for ppiTn uacpt) epci -first day 
of the moon.) 

(4) The corresponding day is thus given in this edition : "April 6, 
Novisimus dies forsambi primesci chase the latest day whereon is the 
first moon of Easter" (p. Ixxiii.). This gives 31 days to the April 
moon ! Besides, no Paschal new moon falls on April 6. Herewith 
the Lelar Brec glossarist apparently disagrees. In the MS., on 
account of the space occupied by the preceding gloss, the sentence 
stands opposite the 6th ; but it is obviously misplaced. It means : 
April 5 is the last day on which is the first of an Easter moon. The 
Golden Number vnr. is placed (Table IV.) opposite that day in the 

Connected herewith is a gloss on May 5 which is noteworthy : 
" laithe mis greni na cetfresgalala the day of the solar month of the 
first Resurrection" (p. Ixxxiv.). Here is what the bookish theorick 
leads to, Easter Sunday on the 5th of May ! There is not an Irish - 
speaking child who could not have taught the editor that priepgabal 
means the Ascension, and epr-eipge the Resurrection. The Calendar 
of Oengus, it is very remarkable, gives the one on the 27th of March ; 
the other, on the 5th of May. 

(5) March 21. " Die* Epactarwn" (p. Ixiv.). On the left margin, 
this item is written under March 21. But on the right, it correctly 
stands opposite March 22.. Compare p. 347, supra and : 

Xi. Kal. [Apr.] Sedes epactarum \_Cal. Bed.~\. 

(6) April 25. " Escop mor mac caille, etc. . . . Ni thic sen co cenn 
n. lliadan xxx. ar cccc. Great bishop Mac Caille, etc. . . . He comes- 
not till the end of 435 years " (p. Ixxvi). This is perhaps the crown- 
ing achievement of Mr. Stokes, taking a bishop for the Great Paschal 


Cycle ! Reference to the facsimile and some elementary acquaintance 
with the subject will produce the true reading : uiii. Kl. [Maii~]. 
Novis[s]imus dies Pasc[h~]a\_e~]. "Ni chic p 6n co cenn .u. [recte, .11.] 
bliat>an. ;c;c;c. ari cccc[c.] [April] 25, last day of Easter [on 
which Easter falls]. That comes not until the end of 532 years. Mr. 
Stokes failed because the glossarist placed novisimus dies pasca under 
uiii. Kl. (April 25), and the remainder under uii. El. (April 26). 
The first clause Mr. Stokes omitted ; the second he referred to Mac- 
Caille, although it precedes the gloss relative to that bishop. 

The emendations are certain ; the same calculation being em- 
ployed elsewhere : //. Id. \_Mar. ~\ Novissimus dies forsamhi Init. Ml 
chic p6n co cent> ;c;c;c. bliabcm n. ap ccccc., lap nocat> choiri 
[Ma/rcK] 14. Last day on which is the Beginning [of Lent]. That 
comes not until the end of 532 years, according to the normal notation. 
This refers to the same Decemnovennal year as the previous gloss. 
When Easter, as has been set forth in Table IX., falls on April 25, 
the first Sunday of Lent is March 14. The glossarist rightly added 
" according to the normal notation:" that is, 28 x 19 = 532. For 
the same Paschal incidence occurs in years that are not a Great Cycle 
apart : as, for instance, 672, 919 and 1014. 

Here again a modicum of knowledge is requisite to reconstruct 
the gloss. For the first sentence stands a line-space above ii. Id., 
with forsamli Init a-top of novissimus dies. The second is written 
underneath ii. Id., and is partly interlinear. It is scarce necessary 
to add that the gloss has not been transcribed by the editor of the 

In the Tripartite Life (p. 531), following O'Conor, Mr. Stokes 
says that " the new moon fell in December, 1071, on the 25th Decem- 
ber, and that therefore there were seven days thence to January 1, 
1072." But that would make the epact of 1072 vin., instead of vii. 
New moon, a glance at Table IV. will shew, does not occur on Christ- 
inas Day in the Cycle of Nineteen. The year in question (Golden 
No. vin.) has new moon on December 26, thus giving vii. as the epact 
of 1072. 

The luni-solar criteria of the year (A.D. 493) and day of St. 


Patrick's death are transcribed, translated and annotated as follows 
(ib. pp. 552-3) : 

Roforbanastar, tra, Patraic arith Now, Patrick completed his victori- 

mbuada isin fichatmad bliadain for cet ous course in the 120th year of his age, 
a aisse .i. im bliadain uii. xx. for* Ka- that is, in the 27th year,* the Calends 
laind Enair for aine ocus cet bliadain of January (falling) on a Friday and 
for bisexa : hit xui. immorro Kalne the first year after the bis[s]extile : the 
Apreil nabliadne sin for cetain ocusxiii. 16th, moreover, of the Calends of April 
furri. [March 17] of that year was on a 

Wednesday, and the 13th (of the lunar 
month) was thereon. f 

* This seems superfluous. * " Of the Solar Cycle," Petrie. 

t Bead in (the) ? t Petrie says that, according to Sir 

W. R. Hamilton, all these astronomical 
definitions agree with the year 493, 
except 27 for the Solar Cycle, which, to 
agree with the Calends of January on 
Friday, should be 26. 

In the foregoing, for " in the 27th year, the Calends of January," 
read : " in the year of the 27th [lunation] on the Calends of Jan. 
[which fell] on Friday." So far, therefore, from being superfluous, 
for (upon) is integral to the idiom. 

Again, from cet to Tii is to be read : cet bliadain for bisexa hi the 
first year after a bissextile [year was] it [lit., she; bliadain (year) 
being feminine]. In other words, instead of the article, as Mr, Stokes 
suggests, hi is a personal pronoun. It occurs a little before in the 
same text (Tripartite, p. 550) : a hi tra bliadain, etc. Now this 
was the year, etc. 

The Dominical Letter was C ; Golden Number, xix. (Epact 27). 
New moon (Table IY.) fell on the 5th; the 13th of the moon, on 
the 17th of March. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that Mr. Stokes gives the following- 
calculations without any attempt at correction, or reduction to the 
A.D. year (ib. p. 499) : " Viginti tres cicli decennovenales ab Incarnatione 
Domini usque ad adventum Patricii in Hiberniam, et ipsi efficiunt nu- 
mero quadringentos triginta octo. Et ab adventu Patricii usque ad ciclum 
decennovenalem in quo sumus viginti duo cicli sunt : id est, quadringenti- 
viginti unus sunt, duo anni in Ogdoade usque in hunc annum in quo 
Sumus." That is, 23 x 19 = 438 and (22 x 19) + 2 = 421 ! Mru* 



calculandi preceptor ! But it may be safely concluded that " Harleiaii 
3859, fol. 176 b," from which the passage professes to be taken, has 
ccccxxxvii. (437) instead of ccccxxxviii. (438), and either ccccxx. (420) 
in place of ccccxxi. (421), or Hi (3) for n (2). For 45 Cycles of 
Nineteen = A.D. 855. This was the first year of the Ogdoad (Golden 
No. i.). Consequently, if two years of the Ogdoad had elapsed, the 
computation was made in 857 ; if three, in 858. 

The foregoing corrigenda, which are not exhaustive, will suffice to 
shew that the attempts hitherto made to deal with native dating have 
been irrespective of the principles upon which it was based. 

As regards the present essay, the treatment, I am fully conscious, 
owing in part to the deplorable lack of reliable material, is not as 
ample as the importance of the subject demands. Under the circum- 
stances, nothing more is claimed than to have indicated the direction 
and method of research and some of the main conclusions resulting 
thereby. No difficulty has been consciously evaded ; whilst, to enable 
the student to judge for himself, the original authorities have been 
cited or referred to throughout. For the rest, ex primis ista peragro 
loca : I have had no pioneer in the domain of Irish Chronology. 



De Prophetia beati viri de Jilio Dermiti regis, qui Aldus Slane 

lingua nominatus est Scoticd. 

Alio in tempore, cum vir beatus in Scotia per aliquot demoraretur dies, ad 
supradictum Aidum ad se venientem sic prophetice locutus ait : Praecavere debes, 
jftli, ne tibi a Deo totius Hiberniae regni praerogativam inonarchiae praedestinatam, 
parricidali faciente peccato, amltlas. Nam si quandoque ilhid commiseris, non toto 
patris regno, sed eius aliqua parte in gente tua brevi frueris tempore. Quae verba 
sancti sic sunt expleta secundum eius vaticinationem. Nam post Suibneum, filium 
Columbani, dolo ab eo interfectum non plus, ut fertur, quam quatuor annis et 
tribus mensibus regni concessa potitus est parte. Lib. i. cap. 14. 



Postremo ad cyclorum computationem diversorum, quid unaquaeque lingua de 
cursu solis et lunae sentiret, conversus totus, licet diverse alium in die, alium in 
luna, alium in mense, alium in bissexto, alium in epacta, alium in augmento lunari 


(quod vos Saltwn dicitis), inveni cycles contra hunc, quern vos tenetis, esse con- 
trarios : primum[-o], ilium quern Sanctus Patricius, papa noster, tulit et facit,* in 
quo luna a xiv. usque in xxi.t regulariter et aequinoctium a xii. Kal. Ap. [!] obser- 
vatur; secundo, Anatolium (quern vos extollitis quidem), [qui dicit] ad veram 
Paschae rationem numquam pervenire eos qui cyclum Ixxxiv. annorum obser- 
vant ;J tertio, Theophilum; quarto, Dionysium; quinto, Cyrillum; sexto, Morinum ; 
septimo, Augustinum ; octavo, Victorium ; nono, Pachomium monachura, Aegypti 
coenobiorum fundatorem, cui ab angelo ratio Paschae dictata est ; decimo, ccc. x. et 
viii. episcoporum decennovennalem cyclum (qui Graece Enneacededterida\ dicitur), 
in quo Kalendas Januarii ["?] lunaeque eiusdem diei [?] et initia primi mensis 
ipsiusque xiv. lunae recto iure ac si quodam clarissimo tramite, ignorantiae relictis 
tenebris, studiosis quibusque cunctis temporibus sunt adnotatae, quibus paschalis 
solemnitas probabiliter inveniri potest. 

Hunc [bos ?] inveni valde buic, cuius auctorem, locum, tempus, incertum habe- 
raus, esse contrarium [-os ?] in Kalendis, in Bissexto, in Epacta, in xiv. luna, in 
primo mense, in Aequinoctio. 


Deinde [ob dissensionem in Synodo Campi-Lene] visum est senioribus nostris, 
iuxta mandatum ut, si diversitas oborta fuerit inter causam et causam, et variaret 
iudicium inter lepram et non lepram, irent ad locum quern elegit Dominus : ut, si 
causae fuerint maiores, iuxta decretum synodicurn ad caput urbium sint referendae, 
misimus quos novimus sapientes et bumiles esse, velut natos ad matrem. Et pros- 
perum iter in voluntate Dei babentes et ad Eomam urbem aliqui ex eis venientes, 
tertio anno ad nos usque pervenerunt. Et sic omnia viderunt sicut audierunt ; sed 
et valde certiova, utpote visa quam audita, invenerunt. Et in uno hospitio cum 
Graeco et Hebraeo, Scytha et Egyptiaco in ecclesia Sancti Petri simul in Pascba, 
in quo mense disiuncti sumus, fuerunt. Et ante sancta sic testati sunt nobis, 

* Fecit. t Sic ; lege xx. 

J Alii xxv., alii xxx., nonnulli Ixxxiiii. annorum circulum computantes, num- 
quam ad veram Paschae computandi rationem pervenerunt. Liber \spurius~\ Anatolii 
de Ratione Paschali. 

Lege ivveaKaiSeKaerripis. Cf. : 

Hinc cyclus Graece even Kal 5ea OepiSa dictis[-us] 

Quod denis currat mensibus atque novem ; 
Qui nostro sermone decemnovennalis habetur, 
Per quern paschalis annua Luna redit. 

Ephemeris (inter Bedae Opera). 

Sed Alexandrinae urbis archiepiscopi beatus Athanasius, qui etiam ipse Nicaeno 
CoJicilio, tune sancti Alexandri pontificis diaconus et in omnibus adiutor, inter - 
fuit, et deinceps venerabilis Theophilus et Cyrillus ab hac Synodi veneranda 
constitutione minime desciverunt. Imo potius eumdem decemnovennalem ciclum, 
qui Enneacaidecaeterida [!] Graeco vocabulo nuncupatur, sollicite retinentes 
Paschalem cursum nullis diversitatibus violasse monstrantur. 

Epistola (I.) Dionysii de ratione Paschae (ad Peironium). 


dicentes : Per totum orbem terrarum hoc Pascha, ut scimus, celebratur. Et nos in 
reliquiis sanctorum martyrum et scripturis quas attulerunt probavimus inesse 
virtutem Dei. Vidimus oculis nostris puellam caecam omnino ad has reliquias 
oculos aperientem et paralyticum ambulantem et multa demonia eiecta. 



Primus Ordo [A.D. 432-544]. 

Unum Pascha quarta decima lima post equinoctium vernale celehrahant. . . . Hie 
Ordo Sanctorum per quaterna duravit regna : hoc est, pro tempore Laeogarii et 
Ail[ill]a Muilt et Lugada, filio[-ii] Laeogarii et Tuathail. 

Secundus Ordo [A.D. 544-598]. 

Unum Pascha quarta decima luna post equinoctium [celehrahant] . . . Hie 
Ordo per quaterna adhuc regna duravit : hoc est, ah extremis Tuathail et per totum 
Diarmata regis regnum et duorum Muradaig nepotum et Aedo, filii Oinmerech. 

Tertius Ordo [A.D. 598-665]. 

Diversam solemnitatem Paschalem [habebant]. Alii enim Resurrectionem 
decima quarta luna, alii* decima sexta,* cum duris intentionibus celebrabant. 
Hi per quaterna regna vixerunt : hoc est, Aeda Allain [recte, Aeda Slaine], qui tribus 
annis pro cogitatione malaf tantum regnavit et Domnail et filiorum Mailcoba et 
[filiorum] Aeda Slaine permixta tempora et usque ad mortalitatem illam magnam 


Ussher: Brit. Eccl. Antiq., Wks. vi. 477-9. 



Recensitis igitur fidelibus historiis veterum, heati scilicet Eusebii Caesariensis 
Palestinae civitatis episcopi, viri imprimis eruditissimi atque doctissimi, Chronicis 
Prologoque ac perinde his quae a sanctae memoriae Hieronymo his de Chronicis 
sunt adjecta presbytero, per quern in Latinum quoque probantur translata ser- 
monem : bisque etiam quae a sancto et venerabili viro Prospero usque ad consulaturn 
Valentiniani Augusti vm et Anthemii constat fuisse suppleta, reperi a mundi 
principle usque ad Diluvium IICCXLII annos : item a Diluvio usque ad Nativitatem 
Abrahae annos DCCCCXLII. . . . 

Porro ah Abraham usque in sextum Valentis Consulatum et Valentiniani secun- 
dum, ncccxcv ac deinde ah Ausonio Olybrioque Coss., qui sequuntur, ad vui Valen- 
tiani Augusti consulatum et Anthimi [-emii] vni et LXX. Et simul omnes a mundi 

*-* The text is : vel decima sexta ; with a variant : alii decima tertia celebrabant. 
The xiii. is a manifest scribal error for xvi. 

t This refers to the slaying of his nephew, Suibne, mentioned in Note A. 


origine usque ad Constantinum et Euf um Coss. praesentes VDCLVIII anni referuntur. 
Quibus ob veritatem certius indagandam bissextos etiam copulavi, quo manifestius 
appareret utrum sibi vel bissextorum ratio tarn Kal. Jan. quam vui Kal. Apr., qui 
[quo] mundo[-us] traditur instituttis, continuata disputations [disposi-] concinneret. 

Quibus undique per versis[-us] congruentibus, restabat inquiri si lunae dinu- 
meratio, quae die quarta existentis mundi, i.e. v Kal. Apr., plena, hoc est xiv, 
jubente Creatore, in inchoatione noctis exorta est, pari lege transactis praesenti- 
busque temporibus consonaret quam tot a saeculis computatam et Kal. Jan. in 
feria, 1. xx, et vui Kal. Apr., n feria, xiv luna, Constantino et Rufo Coss., 
perseveranti oral ion e [ratione] pervenisse computatum est juxta Aegyptiacam 
disciplinam, qua evidentissime deprehensum est quod xix annorum porrecta cur- 
riculis in semetipsa super iisdem vestigiis se revolvens annum quern xx inchoat 
hunc eadem metiatur et primum. 

Cum itaque nihil resedisset ambigui, diebus, lunis atque bissextis inde a con- 
stitutions mundana in nostram usque progeniem mirabili decursione concordibus, 
necessarium fuit, propter quam maxime huic inquisitionni secundum venerationis 
tuae mandatum mea desudabat intentio, ut instituta Paschalia perscrutarer, vel 
illius temporis quo praeceptione divina per Moysen a filiis Israel agnus est immo- 
latus in JEgypto, vel illius praecipue quo pro redemptione nostra- atque salute ille 
verus Agnus, cuius figura praecesserat, Pascha nostrum immolatits est Ckristus. 

[Loca inter polata.~\ 

[Rursusque omnibus annis, temporibus, diebus ac luna maxime, quae juxta 
Hebraeos menses facit, rite' decursis a mundi principio, secundum praedictae 
Historiae [Eusebii] fidem, usque in diem quo filii Israel Paschale mysterium 
coelesti initiavere mandate et ab Aegyptiaca clade agni occisione salvati sunt, 
bissextorum pariter necessitate decursa, quantum fida supputatio investigavit, anni 
IIIDCLXXXIX, v feria, ix Kal. Apr., luna xin incipiente jam vespere, docentur 
impleti. Cujus sequenti die, tertio millesimo scilicet anno ac sexcentesimo nona- 
gesimo, precedente [procedente] mense primo, vi feria, vui Kal. Apr., luna xiv, 
noctis initio Hebraeos claruit agni sacrificium peregisse. Pascha quippe, sicut 
omnimoda traditione cognoscitur, anni principio, non in fine, celebratur. 

Passuin autem Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum peractis vccxxvm annis ab 
ortu mundi eadem Chronicorum relatione monstratur. Quod gestum inchoante 
xxvui [xxix] anno non potest dubitari : siquidem vui Kal. Apr., primo mense, 
luna xiv vespere praecedente, sicut ab initio creaturae quarta die f acta est, coepisse 
doceatur ; adjunctisque bissextis ad summam vccxxvm annorum, sequenti xxix 
anno, v feria, docet se traditione praeventum. Primo vero azymorum die, Domi- 
nus noster Jesus Christus coenans cum discipulis suis, postquam sui Corporis et 
Sanguinis sacramenta patef ecit, ad montem Oliveti, sicut E van gelia sancta testantur, 
progressus ibique detentus est a Judaeis, tradente discipulo : deinceps vi feria sub- 
sequente, id est vm Kal. Apr., crucifixus est et sepultus : tertia die, hoc est vi Kal. 
Apr., Dominico, surrexit a mortuis.] 



Quapropter, omnibus fixo limite consonis, necessarium erat propter Paschalis 
observantiae rationem, dies et lunares annos a mundi ipsius describi principio, quo 
possit return cursus evidenter cognosci. Sed, quia immensum opus majoris otii est, 
ne diutius praecepta differrem, breviarium ejus interim explicavi. 


Quod tamen ex ipsius plenitudinis ordinatione descendat, ex tempore Do- 
minicae Passionis diebus Kal. Jan. et nominibus Consulum a duobus Geminis, 
Eufo scilicet et Eubellio, usque ad consulatum Constantini et Eufi diligenti anno- 
tatione collectis per cccc et xxx annos cum lunis atque temporibus, ac deinceps 
sine consulibus per annos centum et duos futures, ut DXXXII annis omnis summa 
constavet, patefacere curavi. Quae summa ita cunctarum quibus excepta est 
series regularum sua revolutione complectitur, ut eodem tramite et in id, unde orta 
est, revocetur et ad finem pristinum de novo circumacta perveniat. 


Ut enim hoc manifestis probationibus pateat, cyclorum etiam ab initio conditi 
orbis recursus in se breviter digeremus, quos semper post quingentos triginta duos 
annos, sole ut in principio et luna per omnia convenientibus, nullis subvenientibus 
impedimentis, in id, unde ceperant, redire ostendemus. Quinto namque cyclo a 
mundi principio, anno centesimo quarto decimo, generale totius mundi diluvium 
sub Noe venit, qui post diluvium quadringentesimo decimo octavo anno defecit : 
et inde alius incipiens, id est, sextus, in octavo aetatis Abrahae anno finitur. Et 
uono ejus anno, Septimus incipiens, trigesimo quinto anno egressionis filiorum 
Israel de Egypto, quinquennio ante mortem Moysi, concluditur. Post quern octavus. 
in quo est illud signum in sole et luna factum, trigesimo sexto anno egressionis 
Israel de Egypto incipiens, in trigesimum primum annum Asae, regis Juda, incidit. 
Cujus trigesimo secundo anno, nonus exordium capiens, in quo et aliud signum in 
sole, Ezechiae regis tempore, de quo paulo post dicemus, factum legitur, cen- 
tesimo octavo anno post templi restaurationem, quae sub Dario facta est, sui 
cursus spatium consummavit : donee decimus inde oriens, nonagesimo secundo 
anno post passionem Salvatoris, Alia et Sparsa \lege Aviola e ransa] consulibus, 
peractis cursibus consummatur. Post quern undecimus a consulatu Paterni et 
Torquati ad nostra usque tempora decurrens, extremo anno Hiberniensium 
moriente Manicliaeo inter ceteros sapientes, peragitur. Et duodecimus nunc 
tertium annum agens ad futurorum scientiam se praestans, a nobis qualem finem 
sit habiturus ignoratur. 

Quorum unusquisque uniformi statu, peractis quingentis triginta duobus annis, 
in semetipsum, id est, in sequentis initium, revolvitur : completis videlicet in uno- 
quoque solaribus octovicenis nonodecies, et in lunaribus decemnovenalibus vicies 
octies circulis. Post quos et in lunari supputatione per communes duodecim et 
embolismos septem, per ogdoadem et hendecadem et incrementum lunare (quod 
computatores Saltum nominant) et [in] solari per quadrantes et bissextos diligenter 


dinumeratos : rlemum duobus luminaribus totidem dies habentibus et per cursus sui 
omnes lineas concordi ratione convenientibus, veluti primus conditi orbis annus 

Bum ergo hi circulorum toteles recursus in se congrue et post illos cycles, 
quibus in sole et luna morae vel reditus signa[-um], quomodo sub Jesu vel Ezechia 
factum legitur, apparuisse describitur, sine ulla varietate redeunt ; manifeste intelli- 
gitur, quod non mora ilia aut reversio aliquid in lurainarium et temporum assueto 
<;ursu praepeditum vel insolitum reliquemnt ; sed quasi per diem omnem in occasus 
sui, ut supra dixi, limitem currunt, postquam illius solito longioris diei spatium 
peregerunt. Per quod videtur quod nibil ad sequentis noctis longitudinem tem- 
poris ilia dies longa contulerit, cujus princeps pariter in die cum sole diei praeposito 
luna requievit. Lib. ii. Cap. iv. 


bip. Kal. Ian. l. p., I. pm. Q.D- Bis. Kalends of January on Mon- 

bcli. [11]. day, 15tb of tbe moon, A.D. 652. 

Obicup Seseni, ab[b]anp lae, ib Obit of Segene, abbot of lona, that 

epc, piln piacnae -\ quiep Qibloso, is, son of Fiacbna, and repose of 

mic Camain, abbacip Cluana mac Aedlog, son of Cuman, abbot of Clon- 

Noip ~[ boprmcacio Tllancheni, macnoise and sleep of Manchene, abbot 

ctbbacip TTlenobpociG. of Mendrochit. 


Quam in sententiam [summam ab orbe condito ad Christum natum esse, ex 
mente Eusebii, annorum DCXCIX] illustris est locus apud Auctorem opens librorum 
De Mirabilibus Sacrae Scripturae, quod inter S. Augustini opera cusum est. Nam, 
Lib. ii. Cap. iv, anni mundi per Victorini Cycles putantur ; quos ad aetatem suani 
scriptor ille duodenos praeteriisse significat. Quippe ab rerum primordio ad Dilu- 
vium Cycles absolutos quatuor numerat, cum anno 114 de quinto : qui sunt anni 
2240 [2242], Hunc vero ultimum terminat anno post Diluvium 418. Sextus 
Cyclus desinit in annum octavum aetatis Abraami. Ita fient ab orbe condito ad 
Abraamum [annum octavum Abraami] anni 3192 ; a Diluvio, 1052 [950]. Sep- 
timus Cyclus desinit in annum ab exitu Israelitarum 35. Octavus, in annum 
Asa 31. Nonus, in annum ab instauratione Templi, 108. Decimus, in annum 92 
post Passionem Christi, Alia et Sparsa Coss., quibus successerunt Paternus et 
Torquatus, quorum consulatus anno primo Cycli undecimi dedit exordium. Hunc 
autem desinit Auctor ille in morte Manichaei Hibernensis, unius e sapientibus. 
Duodecimi porro Cycli anno tertio ista scribebat. 

Paternus et Torquatus Coss. a Cassiodoro et ante a Victorino Aquitano in Fastis 
manuscriptis ponuntur anno U. C. 876 ; quos Fasti Capitolini et Onuphrius vocant 
Paetinum et Apronianum. Congruunt iidem in annum Christi cxxm. At anno 
superiore in Fastis omnibus leguntur Coss. Aviola et Pansa. Sed in membranis 


Victorini Aulia et Parsa. Quare Auctor De mirabilibus vitiosum codicem Victorini 
nactus erat. 

Qui cum anno tertio duodecimi Cycli Victorini, vel Dionysii [!], scriberet, is 
erat annus mundi 5855, a Passione 627. Si igitur de annis mundi 5855 detrahas 
annos 627, reliquus est annus mundi 5228, quo passus est Christus. Inde porro 
detractis 30, restat annus 5198, vel 5199, quo natus est Christus ex veteri puta- 
tione, quam Martyrologium Romanum sequitur. Christum autem anno tricesimo 
passum esse, fuit multorum opinio. Lib. ix. Cap. ii., pp. 2, 3. 


jSTostri veteres in anteriora calculando Scotici appulsus tempus a majoribus eo 
ipso tempore, ut credibile est, consignatum, ita anni Romani rationibus et hebdoma- 
dum systemati aptarunt, ut memoriae proditum reliquerint Scotos ad Hiberniae 
littora applicuisse Kal. Maii, die Jovis et aetatis lunae septimo, nulla habita 
ratione Salomonis regni, aut aerae mundanae ; ut in Hibernico poemate de diversis 
Hiberniae expugnatodbus (quod incipit 6ip ceaS aep easna aibirm) ita cecinit 
Achaius Floinn, author perquam vetustus : 

Seaccma& Oeups Dia Dayibaine : 
Ro prnc pea6crnat> peane : 
<5abr-at) Icallaincipi : 
1 Calon TTlai a 

Septima Luna, Jovi Sacra Lux, Maiaeque Kalendae 
Appulsus annum Symbola certa notant. 

Anno quidem periodi Julianae 3698, qui est, juxta Scaligerum, Salomonis 
regnantis quintus et mundi 2934, Cyclo Solis 2, Lunae 12, litera feriali E, Kal. 
Maiae concurrebant cum Septimo Lunae die et qumta hebdomadis feria. Nee 
toto Salomonis regno, imo nee toto saeculo ab David patris ortu ad Salomonis 
obitum, ea connexio diei mensis, hebdomadis ac Lunaris aetatis accidere potuit, 
nisi solo hoc ipso anno ; uti cuivis calculos retro supputandi perito etiam hodie 

quasi digito monstrare integrum est. 

Pars II., pp. 83-4. 

( 396 ) 

lebcm bam IN Thoca. 

(P. 48 b) 

a laegaipe, mac Neill, cpigmea annip pegnum "hibepm[a]e 
pope abuencum pacpicn cenuie. 

apb-TTiaca punbaea epe. 

Secunbinup (ibon, Secnall) ec pene;c pacpiciup in pace 

puaip Laegaipe lapom bap 15 J)P ea ^ ai o" ^ap 1 ^ pop caeb 
Caippe, imTTlaig Lipe, ecep na ba cnoc, ibon, Gpiu ocup 
Cllba a n-anmann. Q paca bopac ppi laigmu nac lappao 
in bopoime poppo, iap n-a $abail boib pop cpeic occo. Co 
cape pom spein ocup epca ppiu na paigpeb poppo m ba& 
pipiu. "Romapbpac iapum gpian ocup epca annpin eipeom, 
ap popapais lac. Sicue poeca aic : 

debac Loegaipe, mac Neill, 
pop caeb Caippe, ^lap a cip, 
t)ili t)6 abpoegaib pac, 
Cucpao bal baip poppin pig. 

Ohlill TTIolc, mac n[-t)]aci, pice bliaban, co copcaip a 
cac Oca, la Lugaib, mac Laegaipe ocup la TTluipcepeac, mac 
6pca ocup la Pepup Ceppbel, mac Conaill Cpemeainbe ocup 
la piacpaig Lonn, mac Coelbab, pig t)al-Qpai&e. 

b Unbe bi^ic bee, mac t)e : 

TTlop cac Oca peppa i cfp, 
Immopulca caca ill : 
pop Oilill TTiolc, mac n[-t)]aci, 
TTIeabaip la t)al n-Qpai&i. 

Lugaib, mac Laegaipe, mic Neill, coic blia&na picec, 
cocopcaip a n-Gcab-phopca, iap n-a bein o popca ceinbcige 
bo mm i n-a cenn, iap n-biulcab bo poim pabpafc. 

TTluipceapcac, mac Gpca, ibon TTluipcepeac, mac TTIupebais, 

( 397 ) 





a Laegaire, son of Niall, held the kingdom of Ireland for thirty 
years after the advent of Patrick. 

Armagh was founded. 

Secundinus 1 (that is, Sechnall) and Old Patrick 2 slept in peace. * 

Laeghaire received death 3 afterwards at Grellach-Daphil, on the 3 
side of Caiss, in the Plain of Liphe, between the two hills, namely, 
Eriu and Alba [were] their names. He gave his guarantees to the 
Lagenians that he would not seek the Cattle -Tribute from them, after 
he had been made prisoner by them, when he was raiding amongst 
them. So that he gave sun and moon [as guarantees] to them that he 
would not seek [it] from them any longer. Afterwards sun and moon 
killed him for that, for he dishonoured them. As the poet saith : 

Died Loeghaire, son of Niall, 

On the side of Caiss, green the land, 

Elements of God, which he invoked as guarantee, 

Gave fate of death to the king. 

Ailill Molt, son of Dathi, [reigned] twenty years, until he fell in [482] 
the battle of Ocha, by Lugaidh, son of Laeghaire and by Muircertach, 
son of Ere and by Fergus "Wry-mouth, son of Conall Crimthainn and 
by Fiachrach the Spirited, son of Coelbad, king of Dal-Araidhe. 

b Wherefore said Bee Mac De : 

The great battle of Ocha was fought in the country, 
There were fought [therein] many battles : 
Upon Oilill Molt, son of Dathi, 
Defeat is inflicted by Dal-Araidhe. 

Lugaidh, son of Laegaire, son of Mall, [reigned] five [and] twenty [507] 
years, until he fell in Achad-Farcha, after being struck by a fiery bolt 
from heaven in his head, after his refusal [to believe] in Patrick. 

Muircertach, son of Ere, namely, Muircertach, son of Muiredach, [534] 

* The regnal A.D. dates are those of the final years. 


398 lebcra bain IN rrioca. 

[b] TTIIC 6050111, mic "Neill N 01-5101101 5, ceicpi bliabna pi6ec, 
cop'baibeao a celcoma pfna ai&ci Sariina, immulla6 Clecij 
op bomb. "Unbe biccum epc a pancco Caipnec : 

Ipom orhan op in bean, (loon, Sin, ingen 8)1156, po- 
Imaluai&pea ilap pin [mapb he.) 

Qp piup loipcpicep i sen, 
pop coeb CleciQ- baicpep pfn. 

c Ip t>ia 0161 pocec in pill pop an pann po ele : 

OIDI& TTIuipcepcaiS na TYIO&, 
^uin ip bacut) ip lopcut): 
65 abbacabap i bup 
a meic, t)oTnnall ip 

Cuacal TTlaelsapb, mac Copmaic cae[i]c, rnic Caipppe, 
nrnc "Neill "N 00-51011015, aen blia&am bes, co copcaip la 
TTIael-Tnop6a, mac Qipseban, hui mic Til ; qui ec ippe pcacim 
occippup epc. Unbe bicicup 6cc TTlaeil-moppa. 

t)iapmaib, mac pepsupa Ceppbeoil, mic Conaill Cpemcainb, 
mfc Neill Mae-5iallai5, blia&am ap picic, co copcaip la hQe5 
bub, mac Suibne, pi t)al-Qpai6e, ipRaic-bi5, imTHai5-Une. 

t)omnall ocup Popsup, ba mac TTluipcepcaig, mic TTlupe- 
6015, mic Gosain, mic Neill "Nae-5iallai5, cpi blia&na. t)'e5 

t)aeban, mac TTIuipcepcais ocup 606016, mac t)omnaill, 
mic TTluipcepcai5, mic TTIupe&aig, cpi blia6na, co copcaip 
la Cponan, mac Cisepnais, pi Ciannacc J^^bi-JeiThm. 

Qinmipe, mac Sebna, mic pepsupa Cenbpoba, mic 
Conaill 5 u ^ ar| j 1C Neill "N 06-51011015, cpi blia&na, co 
cop6aip la Pepgup, mac "Neilline. 

d baeban, mac "Ninbea&a, mic pepsupa Cenbpoba, 
blia6ain, co copcaip a n-imaips la ba Cumaine, ibon Cumaine, 
mac Colmain 1)15 ocup Cumaine Libpene, mac Hla6ain, mic 



son of Eogan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, [reigned] four [and] [fo] 
twenty years, until he was drowned in a vat of wine, November 
Night, on the summit of Cletech over the Boyne. Wherefore was 
said by Saint Cairnech : 

I have fear respecting the woman, (To wit, Sin, daughter 
"Who will excite many storms [of Sigh, who 

Against a man who shall be burned in fire, [killed him.) 
[Whom] on side of Cletech wine shall drown. 

c It is of his fate sang the poet also this other stave : 

The fate of Muircertach of the resources, 

[Was mortal] wounding and drowning and burning : 

[Natural] death died afterwards 

His sons, Domnall and Fergus. 


Tuathal Bald-rough, son of Cormac Blind[-eye], son of Coirpre, [544] 
son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, [reigned] one year [and] ten, until 
he fell by Mael-mordha, son of Airgedan, descendant of Mac I ; who 
himself was immediately slain. Whence is [proverbially] said : " The 
Feat of Mael-morra." 

Diarmaid, son of Fergus Wry-mouth, son of Conall Cremthann, son [565] 
of Niall of the Nine Hostages, [reigned] a year over twenty, until he 
fell by Aedh the Black, son of Suibhne, king of Dal-Araidhe, in the 
Little Bath, in Magh-Line. 

Domnall and Fergus, two sons of Muircertach, son of Muiredach, [567] 
son of Eogan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, [reigned] three 
years. Of [natural] death died they. 

Baedan, son of Muircertach and Eochadh, son of Domnall, son of [572] 
Muircertach, son of Muiredach, [reigned] three years, until they fell 
by Cronan, son of Tigernach, king of the Ciannachta of Glenn-Geimhin. 

Ainmire, son of Sedna, son of Fergus Long-head, son of Conall [575] 
Grulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, [reigned] three years, 
until he fell by Fergus, son of Neillin. 

d Baedan, son of Ninneadh, son of Fergus Long-head, [reigned] [j. 585] 
a year, until he fell in an encounter by two Cumaines, namely, 
Cumaine, son of Colman the Little and Cumaine Librene, son of 
Illadhan, son of Cerball. 

2 F 2 

400 lebcm bam IN itioea. 

[d] Cleg, mac dinmipec, mic Sebna, cpi bliabna picec, co 
copcaip la bpanbu, mac Gacac, i cac Ouin-bolg. Ocup ip 
t>o'n cac pin bocan m pili po: 

[Ip] a m-buac 

pepaip in conn ppipin m-bpuac: 
Gt>pec pc6la, cepu pcic, 
Qe, mac Qinmipec, to t)ic. 

Qeg Slaine (Qog Jupcan, comt>alca Conaill 
baecgal bile popmapb), mac thapmaba, mic 
Ceppbeoil, mic Conaill Cpemcamb, mic "Neill "N 00-51011015, 
ocup Colman Rimi&, mac baet)a[i]n bpigi6, mic TTluipcepcais, 
mic Ulupebais, mic Gosam, mic "Neill "Nae-siallais, pecc 
blia&na, co copcpacap la Conall n-Jnucbinb, mac Suibne. 
t)ia n-eabpa6 : 

enepc a capple 
t)o na hosaib a Chuipbe, 
Conall, pobf Qeg Slaine; 
Qe$ Slaine, pobi Suibne. 

e t)opocaip, t)ino, Colman "Rfme la Losan t)ilmana. "Uc 
biccum epc : 

P.49a Cebu pisi, cecbu pecc, 

Cebu nepc pop pi5pa6a ; 
Gnfg Colman "Rimi6 pf, 
"Rombi Loan "Oilmana. 

Qe6 Uaipi6nac, mac t)omnaill, mic TTluipcepcais, mic 
TTIupebais, occ m-bliaona, co n-epbailc. 

TTlaelcoba, Clepeac, mac Qe6a, mic Qinmipec, cpi blia6na, 
co copcaip i cac Slebe belsabam Co$a, la Suibne TTlenn. 

Suibne TTIeant), mac piacpac, mic pepaoaig, mic 6o5ain, 
. cpi bliaona t>e5, co copcaip la Consal Caec, mac Scannla[i]n. 

t)omnall, mac Qeba, mic Qinmfpec, cpica blia&an, ocup 


Aed, son of Ainmire, son of Sedna, [reigned] three years [and][d] 
twenty, until he fell by Brandub, son of Eochu, in the battle of 
Dun-Bolg. And it is of that battle sang the poet this [verse] : 

[It is] in Buach 

Strikes the wave against the brink : 
Tidings tell, though it is tribulation, 
That Aedh, son of Ainmire, has perished [lit. to perish]. 

Aed of Slaine (Aed Gustan, foster-brother of Conall Sweet- voice [604] 
and Baethgal Bile that killed him), son of Diarmaid, son of Eergus 
"Wry -mouth, son of Conall Cremthainn, son of Mall of the Mne 
Hostages and Colman Rimidh, son of Baedan Brighidh, son of Muir- 
certach, son of Muiredach, son of Eogan, son of Mall of the Mne 
Hostages, [reigned] seven years, until they fell by Conall Sweet-voice, 
6on of Suibne. Of which was said : 

It was not weak what happened 
To the youths from Tuirbe, 
Conall, slew he Aed of Slaine, 
Aedh of Slaine, slew he Suibne. 

e Howbeit, Colman Eimidh fell by Logan Dilmana. As hath 
been said : 

Katheless kingship, natheless right, 
Natheless sway over kings, 
Nought [is] Colman Rimidh, the king, 
Him slew Logan Dilmana. 

Aedh Uairidhnach, son of Domnall, son of Muircertach, son of [612] 
Muiredach, [reigned] eight years, until he died [a natural death]. 

Maelcoba, the Cleric, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, [reigned] three [615] 
years, until he fell in the battle of the Mountain of Belgadan-Togha 
by Suibne Menn. 

Suibne Menn, son of Eiachra, son of Feradhach, son of Eogan, [628] 
[reigned] three years [and] ten, until he fell by Congal Blind[-eye], 
son of Scannlan. 

Domnall, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, [reigned] thirty [! thir- [642] 
teen] years and of [natural] death died he. 

402 lebdR bam IN rnoca. 

[e] Ceallac ocup Conall, ba mac TTIaelcoba Clepic, nmc Qe&a, 
TTIIC Chnmfpec, cui^ blia&na be^ t>oib. "D'e^ abbac Cella6 
ipm bpu5-mic-inn-o[i]5. t>opocaip Conall Cael la thapmaib, 
mac Qe6a Slaine. 

blacmac ocup thapmaib, t>a mac Ge&a Slaine, mic 
t)iapmaba, t>'ec abbacabap, bo'n buibi Connaill. 

f Seacnapac, mac blacmic, mic Qeba Slaine, peer 
m-blia&na, co copcaip la t)u[b]t)uin, pi Copppi. 

Cenbpaelac, mac blacmic, mic Qe6a Slaine, ceicpi 
blia&na, co copcaip la pinacca plea6ac i cac Qilcealcpa. 

pmacca ple$ac, mac t)unca&a, mic deoa Slaine, pice 
blia6an, co copcaip la h-Qeg, mac n-t)lucai, i n-5pallai$ 

Loingpeac Lampooa, mac Qengupa, mic t)omnaill, mic 
Qe&a, occ m-blia6na, co copcaip la Cellac La6a-Cimi, mac 
"Ragallaig, hi cac Chopamb. 

Congal Cinomasaip, mac pepjupa panao, mic t)omnaill r 
mic Qe&a, nae m-blia&na, co copcaip t>o bfg aen uaipe. 

, mac TTlaelabuin, mic THaelipicpi, mic Qe6a 
Uaipi&naig, mic t)omnaill llcealsaig, mic TTIinpcepcaij, mic 
TTIupebaig, pecc m-blia&na beg, co copcaip la TTlupcab, mac 
bpofn, hi cac Qlmafne. 

pasapcac, mac "Neill, mic Cepnaig Socail, mic t)iapmat>a, 
mic Qe&a Slaine, blia&ain, co copcaip i cac Cinbbelga, la 
Cinaic, mac Ipgalaig. 

g Cinaec, mac Ipgalaij, mic Conain^, mic Conjaile, 
mic Qe6a Slaine, ceicpi bliaona, co copcaip i cac t)poma 
Cpocain (no Copcain), la plaicbepcac, mac Lom^pig. 

plaicbepcac, mac Loin^pig Lampooa, pecc m-blia6na, co 
n-epbailc a n-apb-TTIhaca bia puil. 

Qeb Qllan, mac pep^ail, mic TTlaelabuin, nae bliabna, 
co copcaip [i cac] Sepeg TTlaige, ecep ba Chebca, ibon, a 
Cenanbup, la t)omnall, mac TTlupca6a. 

t)omnall, mac TTlupca&a, mic t)iapmaba, mic Qipmebaig 
caic, mic Conaill 5 ucb1T1 b, mic Suibne, mic Colmain moip, 



Ceallach 1 and Conall 2 , two sons of Maelcoba, the Cleric, son of [e] 
Aedh, son of Ainmire, five years [and] ten [were reigned] by them. 1 1 gVRJ 
Of [natural] death died Cellach in Brugh-mic-in-oig. Conall the 2 [654] 
Slender fell by Diarmaid, son of Aedh of Slaine. 

Blathmac and Diarmaid, two sons of Aedh of Slaine, son of [665] 
Diarmaid, of [natural] death they died, of the Yellow Plague. 

f Seachnasach, son of Blathmacc, son of Aedh of Slaine, [reigned] [671] 
seven years, until he fell by Dubduin, king of Coirpre. 

Cendfaelach, son of Blathmac, son of Aedh of Slaine, [reigned] [675] 
four years, until he fell by Finachta the Festive in the battle of 

Finachta the Festive, son of Dunchadh, son of Aedh of Slaine, [695] 
[reigned] twenty years, until he fell by Aedh, son of Dluthach, in 

Loingsech Long-hand, son of Aengus, son of Domnall, son of [703] 
Aedh, [reigned] eight years, until he fell by Cellach of Loch Cirne, 
son of Ragallach, in the battle of Corann. 

Congal of Cennmagair, son of Fergus of Fanad, son of Domnall, [710] 
son of Aedh, [reigned] nine years, until he perished of a fit of one 

Feargal, son of Maelduin, son of Maelfithri, son of Aedh TJairidh- [722] 
nach, son of Domnall of the many wiles, son of Muircertach, son of 
Muiredach, [reigned] seven years [and] ten, until he fell by Murchadh, 
son of Bron, in the battle of Almain. 

Fogartach, son of Niall, son of Cernach the Proud, son of Diar- [724] 
maid, son of Aedh of Slaine, [reigned] a year, until he fell in the 
battle of Cenndelga, by Cinaeth, son of Irgalach. 

g Cinaeth, son of Irgalach, son of Conang, son of Congal, son of [728] 
Aedh of Slaine, [reigned] four years, until he fell in the battle of 
Druim-Crocain (or, -Corcain), by Flaithbertach, son of Loingsech. 

Flaithbertach, son of Loingsech Long-hand, [reigned] seven years, [734] 
until he died in Armagh of hemorrhage [lit., of his blood]. 



Aedh Allan, son of Fergal, son of Maelduin, [reigned] nine years, [743] 
until he fell [in the battle] of Seredh-Magh, between the two 
Tebhthas, namely, in Kells, by Domnall, son of Murchadh. 

Domnall, son of Murchadh, son of Airmedach Blind[-eye], son of [763] 
Conall Sweet-voice, son of Suibne, son of Colman the Great, son of 

404 iebcm baiu IN rfioca. 

[g] mic tMapmaba, mic pepgupa Ceppbeoil, pice blia&an, co 

"Niall ppappac, -mac pep^aili, pecc m-bliabna, co n-epbailc 
i ii-hl Colum Cille. Cpi ppappa le [a] gem, ibon, ppap aip^ib 
51! (ibon, pop [ph]ocdin m6ip), ocup ppap cpuicnecca (icon, 
pop [ph]ocain m-big), ocup ppap pola (ibon, pop glenb- 
laisen). Inbe oicicup "Niall ppappac. 

t)onncat), mac t)oTnnaill, mic TTlupca6a, pecc m-blia&na 
picec, co copcaip i cac t)pOTna-Ri5 la hQe6 "Ua "Neill. 

Qeo Oipnomoe, mac Neill Ppappaig, pecc m-bliaona 
pi6ec, co copcaip ic Gc-ba-phepca, la TTlael-Canais. 

Concobup, mac t)oncaba, ceicpi bliaona beg, co n-epbailc. 

li "Niall Cailli, mac Qe&a Opni&e, ceicpi bliabna 
cop'baibe6 a Callafnb. 

TTlael-SeclaiTin, mac TTIaelpuaTiaig, mic t)oncaoa, mic 
t)omnaill, mic TTlupca&a, pe blia6na beg, co n-epbailc. 

Qeb pinbliac, mac "Neill Cailli, pecc m-blia&na beg, co 
n-epbailc 15 t)puim-inapclamb. 

plann, mac TTIael-SeclainTi, mic THaelpuanaig, occ 
m-blia&na cpicac, co copcaip. 

Niall 5^ UT1 bub, mac Qe&a pinbleic, cpi blia6na, co copcaip 
i cac Qca-cliac la J5 a ^ a1 ^- 

t)oTica&, mac plainb, mic TTIael-Sheclainn, mic TTlael- 
puanaig, m'c t)onbcaba, mic t)omnaill, pice blia6an, co 

P. 49b Cor^alac, mac TTIaelmicig, mic planna5a[i]n, mic Cellaig, 
mic Congalais, mic Conain^ Cuippi^, mic Qmalsa&a, mic 
Conjalaig, mic Conain^, mic Conjail, mic Qeba Slaine, 
beic m-bliaona, co copcaip la 5 a ^ a1 ^ Qca-cliac 05 

t)omnall, mac TTIuipcepcaig, mic "Neill 5^ UT1DI:|1 ^> CU1 5 
blia6na picec, co n-epbailc a n-Qpb-maca. 

TTlael-SeclaiTiTi, mac t)omnaill, mic t)onncaoa, mic plainn, 
mic TTlael-Seclainn, mic TTlaelpuanais, cpi blia6na beg. 


Diarmaid, son of Fergus Wry-mouth, [reigned] twenty years, until [g] 
he died [a natural death]. [A.D.] 

Mall the Showery, son of Fergal, [reigned] seven years, until he [769] 
died in I[ona] of Colum-cille. Three showers [fell] at his birth : to wit, 
a shower of pure [lit., white] silver (namely, upon Great Fothan) and 
a shower of wheat (namely, upon Little Fothan) and a shower of blood 
(namely, upon Glenn-Laigen). Hence is said Niall the Showery. 

Donnchad, son of Domnall, son of Murchadh, [reigned] seven [797] 
years [and] twenty, until he fell in the battle of Druim-Bigh by 
Aedh Ua STeill. 

Aedh Oirdnide, son of Niall the Showery, [reigned] seven years [819] 
[and] twenty, until he fell at Ath-da-fherta by Mael-Canaigh. 

Concobur, son of Donnchad, [reigned] four years [and] ten, until [833] 
he died [a natural death]. 

b Mall Cailli, son of Aedh Oirdnide, [reigned] four years [and] [846] 
ten, until he was drowned in the Callan. 

Mael-Sechlainn, son of Maelruanaigh, son of Donchadh, son of [863] 
Domnall, [reigned] six years [and] ten, until he died [a natural 

Aedh Fair-gray, son of Mall Cailli, [reigned] seven years [and] [879] 
ten, until he died [a natural death] in Druim-inasclainn. 

Flann, son of Mael-Sechlamn, son of Maelruanaigh, [reigned] [916] 
eight years [and] thirty, until he fell [in battle]. 

Mall Black-knee, son of Aedh Fair-gray, [reigned] three years, [919] 
until he fell in the battle of Dublin by the Foreigners. 

Donnchad, son of Flann, son of Mael-Sechlainn, son of Mael- [944] 
ruanaigh, son of Donnchad, son of Domnall, [reigned] twenty years, 
until he died [a natural death]. 

Congalach, son of Maelmithigh, son of Flann agan, son of Cellach, [966] 
son of Conang Cuirrech, son of Amalgadh, son of Congalach, son of 
Conang, son of Congal, son of Aedh of Slaine, [reigned] ten years, 
until he fell by the Foreigners of Dublin at Tech-Giughrann. 

Domnall, son of Muircertach, son of Mall Black-knee, [reigned] [980] 
five years [and] twenty, until he died [a natural death] in Armagh. 

Mael-Sechlainn, son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, son of Flann, [1003] 
son of Mael-Sechlainn, son of Maelruanaigh, [reigned] three years 
[and] ten [recte, twenty, until he was dethroned by Brian Boruina]. 

406 Lebcm bain IN itioca 

i bpian bopoma, mac Ceinbeci5, mic Lopcain, rrnc La6cna, 
mic Cuipc, mic Qnluain, ba bliaftain be$, co copcaip 
ilLai^mb, la gallaib Qca-cliac i 5[-C]luain-capb. 

TTIael-Seclainn icepum ippigi 6penn nae m-blia6na, co 
n-epbailc i Cpo-imp Loca hQinbmbi, lap m-buai& aicpigi. 
Ronieababap cuig caca picec peime, it>on, pice cac pop 
5aeoelaib ocup a cui pop 5 a ^ a1 ^ : i&on, cac Goaip ocup 
cac Imoam, cac "Ruip, cac "Racin, cac Luacpa, cac Liplugec, 
cac TTlopcain, cac TTluiTicille, cac TTlulla, cac pmoi, cac 
popbpoma, cac peabca, cac pebba, cac Opoma-emna, cac 
"Raca-Capinan, cac TTlain, cac TTIaige-TTlaTibacc, cac t)oinnai$, 
cac t)uma, cac iTnlTlaig-cuTna, cac Cempa. t)a cac Qca- 
cliac. TTlop maban [lege inaibTn] Qca-buffte. Ip bibpm pocan 
in pen6ai& : 

Cu[i]5 caca ^all pobupbpip, 
t)ap lem, ni heccpa ainpip; 
Lipi, leip abbac a bu ; 
pice cac pop J5 ae bealu. 

j Ip e pin pf beoenac Gperrn. Qp, cia aprmc paipenb 
ecep pijaib 6penn bpeim, ni pagaib h6pmn amal oen pamb 
bia eipeorii, cen coiceb no a 60 'n-a ecmaip. Ocup apai 
bobepap ippeim pi^pai&i cfb pf co ppeppabpa, minibe ippeim 
pigpai&i na pig co ppeapabpa. TTlab bo Lee TTlogo, imoppo, 
bep, ni hebapcap pi Gpenn ppip co paib Lee TTlosa uili ocup 
Cemaip co n-a cuacaib ocup in b-apa coiceb bo Lee Cumb 

Complaicup pop Gpinn ppi pe ba blia&an. 

Coippbelbac, -mac Gai&5, rrnc bpiain bopoma, ba blia&am 
be^, pf co ppeppabpa. 

Coppbetbac, mac "Ruai&pi na pai6i buibi, mic Qe6a in ga 
bepnaig, mic ^0165 in eic 51!, mic Cacail, mic Concobuip-, 
mic ^0105, mic Cacail, mic Concobuip, mic Caiog moip, mic 


i Brian Boromha, son of Ceinnetech, son of Lorcan, son of Lachtna, [10H] 

son of Core, son of Anluan, [reigned] two years [and] ten, until he 
fell in Leinster by the Foreigners of Dublin, in Clontarf. 

Mael-Sechlainn again in the kingship of Ireland [for] nine years, [1022] 
until he died in Cro-inis of Loch Ainninn, after victory of Penance. 
There were won five battles [and] twenty by him upon the Gaidhil 
and five upon Foreigners : to wit, the battle of Edar and the battle of 
Imdan, the battle of Eos, the battle of Eathen, the battle of Luachair, 
the battle of Lis-lugech, the battle of Mortan, the battle of Muincille, 
the battle of Mulla, the battle of Findi, the battle of Fordruim, the 
battle of Feabait, the battle of Febaid, the battle of Druim-Emna, the 
battle of Eath-Cannan, the battle of Man, the battle of Magh-Man- 
dacht, the battle of Domnach, the battle of Dum, the battle in Magh- 
Cuma, the battle of Tara, the two battles of Dublin, the great rout of 
Yellow Ford. It is of those sang the historian : 

Five battles against Foreigners broke he them, 
Seems to me, it is not an achievement unknown : 
Liphe, by him perished its sway ; 
Twenty battles [broke he] over the Gaedhil. 

j It is he [that was] last king of Ireland. For, although some 
reckon others amongst the kings of Ireland, they did not possess 
Ireland as a whole after him, without a province or two being left 
out. And, nevertheless, there is mentioned in the roll of kings even 
a " king with opposition." [But this should not be] unless in the 
roll of " kings with opposition." JSTow, if [the king] be from the 
Half of Mogh, king of Ireland is not applied to him, until he has the 
whole Half of Mogh and Tara with its territories and the second 
Fifth of the Half of Conn. 

Joint sovereignty over Ireland for the space of two years. 

Toirrdelbach, son of Tadhg, son of Brian Boroma, [reigned] two [1086] 
years [and] ten, " a king with opposition." 

Toirrdelbach, son of Euaidhri of the Yellow Hound, son of Aedh[1156] 
of the Gapped Spear, son of Tadhg of the White Steed, son of Cathal, 
son of Concobur, son of Tadhg, son of Cathal, son of Concobur, son of 
Tadhg the Great, son of Muirges, son of Tomaltach, son of Murgail, 

408 tebcm bain IN rhoca. 

[jjlTiuipgeppa, TTIIC Comatcais, mic TTiuipgaili, mic Inbpeccaig, 
mic TTluinebais TTluillecain, o cac Sil TTluipebaig, pice bliaoan 
bo ippisi n-Gpenn -\ ceaqiaca blia&an ipyngi Connacc. 

Ruai6pi, inac Coyipbelbais Tnoip, mic Ruai&pi na pai6i 
buit>i, mic Qe6a in ga be]inaig. 

Ip t>o plaicupaib na pig pin ocup txia n-ai&egaib pocan 
in pili in tmanpa t)eip-cpeit)mi5, it>on, fylla ITIotmbc-a. Ocup 
Oall clainfnec eipi&e. Ocup mp'can 56, na claen-pencaip 


k 6pi 05, imp na naern, 

Commat) piagail pocaerii, 
"Rogabpac 56mt>ce ^apba, 
Jan peilgi, gan pocapba. 


Cyiica pi 'p a t>eic po t>eic, 
Ocup peipep gu paipbpec, 
"Re cpei&im, gan cpei&im cpuai&, 
TCojabpac 6pinn apmpuaift. 


Q pimac-, co n-5al ip cac, 
"Na n-6ei5pi cpo6a, copcpac, 
t)opeat> gaipe gaile, 
O Slaini 50 Laegaipe. 


O Laegaipe laecba n-gluint) 
Co TTlael epiangalac Seclainn, 
"Rogabpac banba na m-bnab 
Occ pi calma ceacpacac. 



son of Indrectach, son of Muiredach Broad-head, from whom are the[j] 
Sil-Muiredaigh, twenty years [were spent] by him in the kingship of 
Ireland and forty years in the kingship of Connacht. [A.D.] 

Ruaidhri, son of Toirrdelbach the Great, son of Ruaidhri of the [i 198} 
Yellow Hound, son of Aedh of the Gapped Spear [reigns at present]. 

It is of the reigns of those kings [who reigned] and of their 
deaths sang the poet, namely, Gilla Modubhda, this post-Faith poem. 
And blind [and] flat-faced [was] this person. And he sang not false 
or misleading history ever. 


Ireland pure, isle of Saints, 
Very distinguished preserver of rule, 
Rough gentiles occupied [it], 
"Without reverence, without much 


Thirty kings and ten by ten [130], 
And six, according to correct judgment, 
Before the Faith, without Faith austere, 
Possessed they bright-landed Ireland. 


The [lit. their] recital, with feat and battle, 
Of the good kings courageous, victorious, 
Causes the joy of valour, 
From Slaine \_supra, p. 150 d] to Loeghaire. 


From Laeghaire of heroic vigour 
To Mael-Sechlainn notably valorous, 
There possessed Banba of the spoils 
Eight noble kings [and] forty. 

r4 1j 


410 lebcm bain IN rrioca. 


p. 50a [k] Ceaepap, coic coic, oo 

t)ocuabap a n-bpocbilaib : 
"Nae pi t>ec ppi game n- 
puapabap 65 pe ha6ape. 


Cuipmeam peinrnp 506 pi 
a ainm 'p a 01616 agbeil; 
TTlap abbepait) buibm ap beipc 
TTIapait) iin' curnim coinneipc. 


Ceipc cpica blia6an bloit>e, 
a Icmpeimip Loegaipe ; 
puaip bap o'n spein gleicig 
Cpe bpecip cpein i[n] Cailjmt) 


TCocaic Oilill TTlolc o'n THuai6 
pi6e blia6an po bicbuai6 ; 
"RopTnugaig cpe glonn n-gaile 
Lu$ai6 lonn, mac Laegaipe. 


Iu$ai6, coic blia6na pa 
1 n-Qca6-[ph]apca puaip upcoib: 
^up'lopc papca cene6 cenn 
plaic na nenne6 'p na naemoell. 


TTlupcepcac, pa calma a cec, 
"Re ceicpi Tn-blia6an picec : 
G Cleieec cai6, a bil t)e, 
Robai6 pm, poloipc cene. 




[k] Four [and] five [by] five kings, 
They went into ill fates : 
Nine kings [and] ten pre-eminence in [lit. respecting] 
Found death on the pillow. 


Recount we the duration of each king generous, 

His name and his notable death ; 

As many tell our account, 

It lives in my memory equally strong. 


1 Just thirty blooming years, [A.D.] 

[Was] his full duration, Loegaire's ; [462 

Death received he from the brilliant piercing sun, [Patrick]. 
Through the powerful word of the Shaved-Head [St. 


Spent Oilill Molt from the Muaidh 
Twenty years in constant victory ; 
Him destroyed through fierceness of valour 
Lugaidh the vehement, son of Laeghaire. 



Lugaidh, five years by five [reigned he], 

Tn Achadh-Farcha received he [mortal] injury : 

So that a powerful bolt of fire burned 

The chief of the shrines and of the holy churches. 



Muircertach, courageous was his disposition, 
A space of four years [and] twenty [reigned he] 
In Cleitech pleasant, by dispensation of God, 
Wine drowned, fire burned [him]. 


412 lebaR bain IN Tiioea. 


[1] Cuacal TTlaelsapb, cpen a cpep, 

Cpi blia&na t>ec 50111 t>imep : 
TTlael-mopfta, pc-p^eo-fram t>'a 
plaic pogab Cemaip eonbbcun. 


t)iapniait), t>a t>eic ip blia&am, 
TTlac Cepbaill, co caempia^ail : 
de& t>ub t)apni pocoipc, pocpai&, 
"RoTTiapb, poloipc, poluabaf6. 


in bliabain, t>a bliabain, at)dop, 

t)o t>e t)oTTHTiall ip t)' popgup : 
TDapb pf na cipf cacai, 
t)a mac Tnine TTluipcepcai$. 


6ocai& ip baet>an bpige, 
t)a blra&am a m-blacpije; 
"Rupbi 5001 t)iat>acc in t>arti, 
"Rf po^ab c Ciannacc, Cponan. 


aininipe, mac Set>na paep, 
Cpi blia6na a placup lancaem : 
Jo t>epb, map t>o t>epbup t)ib, 
"Romapb pepgup, mac "Nellin. 


Qen btia&ain baet)an gan bet>, 
TTlac Nmbefta na naemcec : 
TCoppappaig poplont) co n-aib, 
a comlont) cpuai& t>a Cumafn. 




[1] Tuathal Bald-rough, strong his sway, [544] 

Three years [and] ten [reigned he] without contempt : 
Mael-mordha [mortally] wounded him with his spears, 
The chief that ruled fair-foundationed Tara. 


Diarmaid, two tens and a year [reigned he] [566] 

Son of Wry-mouth, with fair rule : 
Aedh the Black checked, embittered, 
Killed [and] burned [him] . . . 


in A year, two years, it hath been heard, 

[Were reigned] by good Domnall and by Fergus : 

Dead [by natural death were] the peaceable kings of the 

The two sons mild of Muircertach. [territories, 


Eochaidh and Baedan Brige, [672] 

Two years [were they] in flourishing kingship : 

Slew them without ruth . . 

The king that possessed Ciannachta, Cronan. 


Ainmire, noble son of Sedna, 
Three years [was] his sovranty full-fair : 
Certainly, as I have certified to ye, 
Slew [him] Fergus, son of Nellin. 



One year [reigned] Baedan without evil, 
Son of Mnnedh of the holy designs : 
Defeat overtook him with [good] reasons, 
In the severe combat of the two Cumaines. 

[tl. 585] 



414 lebdR bain IN Ttioca. 


[m] O'deb, mac Qimrifpec, pom&eab 
Cpi bliabna pipa picec: 
1 cac bealaig bufn-bols buain 
QbbaG a opt) pe haenuaip. 


Get) Slain e ip Caiman RfmtO, 
Gpi blia6na t)o'n t)ip t>ipi$: 
puaip Colman na cpec a gum 
'TTIon see, 15 Logan tMlmain. 


ii Loc Qeoa Slaine, ba paeb, 

La Conall n-Jucbinb n-glecaerh : 
ptngal moc nip'oenca oe, 
Qp Loc pejOa 


Qe6 "Uaipionac i n-a ci$, 
TTlac t)omnaill, mic TTluipcepcai$ 
"Ri na peccpac co piagail, 
Qobac iap pecc paepbliabnaib. 


Cpi blia6na, blia6am nama, 
"Rocaic TTIael-cpo&a-coba: 
Rocpaib gle pe Ua Cuino 'p 111 
Qp lap Slebe-cpuirh-Cojab. 


Cpi bliaona bee Suibni peng 
1 n-apbplacup na hGpenn : 
"Ropopba6 in gaec gan 501 
La Congal caec i m-bpenlaf. 






[m] To Aedh, son of Ainmire, were assigned 
Three [and] twenty righteous years : 
In the battle of the Pass of firm Dun-bolg 
Perished his dignity in one honr. 


Aedh of Slaine and Colman Eimidh, [604] 

Three years for the twain jnst : 

Colman of the forays got his [mortal] wound 

Near the [i.e. his] house from Logan Dilmana. 


The [mortal] injury of Aedh of Slaine, it was treacherous, 
By Conall Sweet- voice, the bright-fair [inflicted] : 
Early fratricide was not done thereby, 
On stately Lake Seimdige. 


Aedh Uairidhnach, in his house, [612] 

Son of Domnall, son of Muircertach, 

The king of just securities [and] of [lit., with] rule, 

Died he after seven noble years. 


Three years [and] a year only, [ 615 3 

Spent Maelcobha the courageous : [battle, 

Vanished [his] renown by the descendant of Conn in the 
On the centre of sombre Mount Togadh. 


Three years [and] ten [reigned] Suibne the Slender 
In arch-sovranty of Ireland : 
Consummated was the wise one without a dart 
By Congal Blind[-eye] in Brenlai. 




bain IN rlioca. 


[n] t)eic rn-bliaftna "Domnaill na n-6ac, 
5u n-^leo n-gaibcec i n[-ba$ ?]pac : 
a pecc iap peb cpuaift a cli, 
Co puaip 65 in n-aicpigi. 


^abpac meic Tilaelcoba cpuait) 
86 blia&na t>ec pa &e$buai6: 
Conall cael ip Cellac cap, 
ba cpoTKibaing caem a 


Cellac, b'eg, tnmbep olc ann, 
t)apuppappai5 puce abann : 
bap Cona[i]ll cecna na celg 
La t)iapmait> t>et>la, 


t)iapmait), mac Qe6a na n- 
'8 a bpacaip, blacmac bicnap, 
Occ m-blia6na op banba cu m-bloi6 r 
gu pupmapba t>o'n mopclaic. 


TTIac blacmic, Secnapac puaipc, 
blia6ain 'p a coic t>o caemcuaipc : 
t)ubouin t)un-Caipppi cuipea6, 

pun aip^ne in c-apb puipeac. 


[MS. illegible.] 

Cuit> Cmbpaelam, TTIIC Cpunnmael, 
Cpao Cinbpaelaib in pmacca 
t)o paemao la pinbacca. 





[n] Ten [were] the years of Domnall of the . . . 
With dangerous contention in [good] luck : 
Seven [years] on a hard way [was] his destiny [?] 
Until received he death in pilgrimage. 


The sons of Maelcoba severe took [the kingship] 
Six years [and] ten with prosperous sway : 
Conall the Slender and Cellach the Ringletted, 
A coincidence fair was their relationship. 


o Cellach, died he, wretched ill [was] therein, [658] 

When a sudden fit seized him : 

The death of Conall of the wiles [was inflicted] [654] 

By Diarmaid brave, bright-visaged. 


Diarmaid, son of Aedh of the retinues, [665] 

And his brother, Blathmac the ever noble, 

Eight years [reigned they] over Banba with renown, 

Until they were killed by the Mortality. 


The son of Blathmac, Sechnasach the excellent, [671] 

A year and five [were spent by him] in fair circuit : 
Dubduin the hostful of Dun-Cairpri [slew him], 
Designed destruction took [off] the arch ruler. 


[Four years, they were] [675] 

The portion of Cennfaelad, son of Crunnmael : 
The ruin of Cennfaelad of the sway 
"Was inflicted by Finnachta. 

418 lebcm bain IN rhoca. 


[o] pinbacca pleabac, in oil, 

Secc m-blia&na op copnaib council, 
5up'popba& pael na [moppleft ?] 
La hQe& ip la Congalac. 

O6c Tn-blia6na co nri-bpi5 n-^oppa 
moip, mic Qengupa, 
'n-a cpobaing 'p an ca ^> 

a cpoi6 Copamb, la Cellac. 


p Conjal Cinbrna^aip, maic main, 

Occ nri-blia6na op banba blaccaim 
5n cac, ^an cpa6 ap in maig, 

P. 50b Qcbac bo carh 


t)eic Tn-blia6na ^an bla& -meabla, 

pep gal plaicemna : 
> papabblab poirhe, 
1 cac abbul Qlmaine. 


Qen blfa&ain pha$apcac plaic, 
Jup'Triapb Cinaec caembaic: 
plaicbepcac ilaib pia6nac, 
Romapb Cinaec cpibliaonac. 


"Nae m-bliaona cpuaibi, coimpig, 
plaicbepcac, -mac laec Loinjpig : 
bap bo'n gapg paca pianiac, 
a n-Qpb-TTIaca moppiabnac. 




[o] Finnachta the Festive, of the liquor, 

Seven years [reigned he] over drinking-horns, 
Until was ended the generous of [the great feasts] 
By Aedh and by Congalach. 


Eight years with force of valour 

[Were those] of Loingsech the Great, son of Aengus, 

Until fell he destroyed in the battle, 

In the conflict of Corann, by Cellach. 


p Congal of Cennmagair, good the treasure, 

Eight years [reigned he] over Banba fair-famed : 
Without battle, without destruction, on the plain, 
Died he of illness of heavy disease. 


Ten years without deceptive fame 
Continued Ferghal the princely : 
Death of a king, as was died before [him], 
[Died he] in the mighty battle of Almain. 


One year [reigned] Fogartach, the chief, 

Until killed [him] Cinaeth of the fair complexion : 

Flaithbertach of many bands, 

Slew he the three-y eared [king] Cinaeth. 


Nine years strict, peaceable, 

[Eeigned] Flaithbertach, heroic son of Loingsech : 

Death [came to him] from the severe . . . 

In Armagh of the great hosts. 








420 lebaR bain in liioca. 


[p] ' e paca piamac b'a puil, 
t>ap plaicbepcaig, mic 
a pual bubpes ip a pf, 
t)e cainig a ciuglaici. 


Qet> Qllan, nae blia6na in rnep, 
Co bopcaip ap Til 05 8hepe6, 
Jup'coic i comlonn caca, 
La "Oomnall, mac TTlupca&a. 

. 1. 

q t)oTnnall, mac TTlupca&a, lapcain, 

t)a nae m-blia6na ip blia&ain, 
'N-a becai& ? gan beb, gan col, 
Co n-becai6 eg 'n-a aenup. 


Niall ppappac, mac pinb pepgail, 
Secc m-blia&na $an baecepnail : 
Qbbac gan Iocs pup lice, 
dp bocc &'l b'a ailicpe. 


t)onnca& $an boipci n-6aca, 
TTlac t)omnaill, mic TTIupca6a, 
lap cpi nae bliaonaib abbac, 
"Ri gu piagail ip cu popac. 


Qe6 Opmbi bu'n peim paic, 
Secc blia&na picec ba pipmaic: 
Ppic pac a [p]lecca pe luag 
Ic Qc-ba-pepca innpuap. 




[p] It is ... from his blood 

[Was] the death of Flaithbertach, son of Loingsech 
His urine flowed [continuously] and his . . 
Prom it came his last day. 


[ob. 765] 


Aed Allan, nine years [was] the [allotted] span, 
Until fell he on Magh-Seredh, 
Until fell he in conflict of battle, 
By Doninall, son of Murchadh. 



Domnall, son of Murchadh, afterwards, 
Twice nine years and a year [reigned he] 
Alive [as king] without injury, without crime, 
Until died he when he was alone. 



Niall the Showery, fair son of Fergal, 
Seven years [reigned he] without foolish deed : 
He died without fault upon [his] renown, 
After going to I[ona] on his pilgrimage. 


Donnchadh without obscurity of colour, 
Son of Domnall, son of Murchadh, 
After thrice nine years died he, 
A king of rule and of very good luck. 



Aedh Oirnidi of the prosperous course, 
Seven [and] twenty years was he truly good 
Found he the cause of his destruction justly 
At very bleak " Ford of two Graves." 


iebcm bain IN Trioca. 


[q] GipeTii ceicpi blia&an 
t)o Concobup ba caeifi 
Gt>bac, lap m-bopppa6 t>'a damn, 
TTlac t>o t)onnca6, mac t)omnaill. 


Cpi blia6na t>ej5 inmnaille 
"RopaemaO "Niall caem Caille: 
O'n ChallaiTiTi calma pupcpai6, 
puaip callamt) arnna apt)ai5. 


TTlael-SeclainTi, pe blia6na t>ec, 
TTIac TTlaelpiianaig na pi^pet) : 
Gbbac call a TTlme TTluaib 
plaic ap pine 'p ap pint) pluag. 


Qe6 pfnbliac, 
a p6 t>ec pe n-6ian 01616, 
t)ap pfg na pabuan gan pint) 
a n-t)pumri abpuaip mbapclaint). 


"Nae blia6na cpicac ba cpen 
plann pot)la ^an eceplen : 
TTlapb i Caillcm call t)O earn, 
6cep caipt>ib damn Colina[i]n. 

"Niall 5^ UT1 ^> u ^j mGC Qe6a in oil, 
Cpi blia6na t>o Neill nepcrnoip, 
1 n-Qc-cliac Iui6 po lamnaib, 
Liac a um t)o 




[q] A reckoning of four years [and] ten, 
For Concobar it was a fair division : 
Died, after exaltation for his family, 
The son of Donnchadh, son of Domnall. 




Three years [and] ten consecutively 
Was Mall Caille the fair received [as king] : 
By the powerful Callan was he destroyed, 
Received he the deprivation of his lofty soul. 



Mael-Sechlainn, six years [and] ten [reigned he], 
Son of Maelruanaigh of the royal ways : 
Died he yonder in Hide of the Muaidh, 
The chief of our sept and of our fair hosts. 



Aedh Fair- gray, warlike, noble, [879] 

Six [years and] ten [reigned he] before [his] swift death, 
The death of the king [happened] without a spear [-wound], 
In very bleak Druim-inasclainn. 


Mne years [and] thirty was powerful 
Flann Fodla without an interval : 
Died he in Telltown yonder of disease, 
Amongst friends of the Clann-Colmain. 



Mall Black-knee, son of Aedh of the liquor, 

Three years [were reigned] by Mall of great power, 

In Dublin he went under . . . [Green Foreigners. 

The evil of his [mortal] wounding [was inflicted] by 


424 lebciR bain IN itioca. 


[r] Stopba glop t)onnca&a burnt), 

a hocc picec b'u pip Cuinb: 
Ropbean bet> pe Cpuacain cam 
Qp n-es i[n] Chuacail Ceccmaip. 


Cpi bliabna t>c buibnec, bpeg, 
Conjalac, cenn mac THilet), 
bap pf inallaig, 
Re 5 a ^ ai ^> P e 


t)oninall "U "Neill nepc 
[Re] pe pecc bliafran picec : 
TTIapb pep paca na 
Q n-Qpt)-TTlaca 


TTIael-SeclairiTi, plemna na pleg, 
bill banba, bapp 5 ae ^ e ^ 
Re t>pian t>o piapaig a pace, 
Re ceicpi blia&an picec. 


PIUCO& paipgi, cuili cpicc, 
bpian bpeo op banba blaobpicc, 
5an ciamaip, ^an beo, gan bpac, 
t)a blia&am beg a begpac. 


Qca-cliac na clanb, 
Iaecpai6 Loclanb, 
Cian o bogapbpac gala, 
Romapbpac bpian bopoma. 




[r] Famous the fame of Donnchadh the Brown, [944] 

Eight [and] twenty [were reigned] by the true descendant 
Fatality attached to fair Cruachan, of Conn : 

On the death of the [second] Tuathal the Acceptable. 


Three years [and] ten, crowded, varied, [956] 

[Reigned] Congalach, head of the sons of Milesius : 
The death of the king, very noble, victorious, 
[Befell] by the Foreigners [and] by fierce Lagenians. 


s Domnall Ua Neill receives power [980] 

For the space of seven years [and] twenty : 
Died the man who founded [learned] responses, 
In Armagh of great wisdom. 


Mael-Sechlainn of the smooth spears, 
Prop of Banba, crown of the Gaidhil, 
Before Brian was obeyed his right, 
For the space of four [and] twenty years. 


Seething of the sea, of the nimble wave, 
["Was] Brian, flame o'er Banba various-famed, 
"Without sadness, without fatality, without [ill] doom, 
Two years [and] ten was his good felicity. 



The Danes of Ath-cliath of the clans, 
The plundering crew of Lochlann, 
Long since obtained they power, 
Slew they Brian of the Cattle-tribute, 

426 Lebcm bam IN rhoca. 


[s] TTlael-Seclainn c-[p]iap i n-a cig, 
Qbalcpac uallac "Uipnig, 
"Nae n-^aips bliabna beip bpiam bint) 
"Rob' aipbiapla ap Gpinn. 

e P i. 


Qpeip TTlael-Sheclainn pona, 
TTlic t)omnaill, mic t)onca&a, 
t)opcap paepbpig pe cac damn, 
No gop'^ab 6npi Gpinn. 


t Nip'gabpae clanna, ace clann "Neill, 

6pmn iap cpeit>eni ceimpeit), 
Qnocc ni celim cu cian, 
Qcc Oilill TTlolc ip mop bpian. 


t)iap t)0 pil Loegaipe luino; 
Qen bu pil Caipppi in comlumt) ; 
pep a TYliiTTiain, Cuacal cailc; 
Ip pep a Cpuacam Connacc. 


Se pi beg a hGogan oil ; 
Ip a beic a beg Conall; 
Nonbap pine bhpeg o'n rn-boin ; 
Secc plaice TTh&e in Tni&oil. 


Oilill TTlolc, mac t)aci, call, 
Q cepc Conbacc na comlanb ; 
P. 5ia bpian ^upun cucc cuimnec coip, 
Q hucc TTluimnec in miboil. 




[s] Mael-Sechlainn, west in his house, 

Adulterer [i. e. usurper] haughty of TJisnech, 
Nine vigorous years after pleasant Brian 
Was he arch-ruler over Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


After Mael-Sechlainn the prosperous, 
Son of Domnall, son of Donchadh, 
Parted noble power with each clan, 
Until Henry occupied Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


t Received not the clans, except the clan of Mall, 

Ireland [as a whole] after the smooth-progressing Faith, 
To-night conceal I not [it] for long, 
Save Oilill Molt and great Brian. 




[And] twain of the seed of Loeghaire the vigorous ; 
One of the seed of Cairpre of equable vigour ; 
A man from Munster, Tuathal of stubborness ; 
And a man from Cruachan of Comment. 

Six kings [and] ten [were] from [Cenel-]Eoga[i]n noble ; 
And ten from excellent [Cenel-]Cona[i]ll ; 
Mne of the territories of Bregha from the Boyne ; 
Seven princes of Meath the mead-quaffing. 


Oilill Molt, son of Dathi, beyond, 

Prom the centre of Connacht of the battles ; 

Brian of the model memorable, just, 

From the bosom of Munster the mead-quaffing. 

428 lebciR bain in rhoca. 


[t] laeaijie, -mac "Neill, 511 nenii, 

Ip a "mac, Lugaib laibip, 
Cuacal to Sil Caipppi, ua Chumb, 
"Rug puacap aipgni Umaitl. 


"Ri Openri a TTh&i arnac : 
t)iapmait) ? t)omnall, t>a t)onnca6, 
plant) a Cpemcaill 'p a ca6ail, 
ba mael-Seclainn, Concobup. 


Qe&, blacmac, Secnapac 
t)iapinait), posapca 
Cenpaelai6, pmacca cpa, 
Cmaec, Congalac Cnobba, 
"Na n-5mmpa6 cpeba6, capba, 


Cenel-Conaill cpuai6, 
Ro^abpac bcmba m-bpacpuai6: 
Qinnifpe, Qe&, baet>an bapp, 
TTIaelcoba, Cellac, Con all, 
t)omnall ? ba coimpec i cac, 
Congal, Loingpec, phlaicbepcac. 


t)a 'Dhomnall, cpi Neill, m ndp, 
Qe6 po ceicip, ip Colman, 
Suibne, 6ocai&, baeban baic, 
popgup, pepgal cabepcac, 
THuipcepcac, TnuipleoTnain luint), 
"Ri5pa[i]& 6osa[i]n op Gpinn. 





[t] Loeghaire, son of Niall, with bitterness, 
And his son, Lugaid the strong, 
Tuathal of the seed of Cairpre, descendant of Conn, 
Took forcible possession of Umall. 


The kings of Ireland from out Meath [were] 
Diarmaid, Domnall, two Donnchads, 
Flann from Cremchaill and his fame, 
Two Mael-Sechlainns, Concobur. 


u Aedh, Blathmach, Sechnasach slender, 
Diarmaid, Fogartach of Femenn, 
Cenfaeladh, Finachta eke, 
Cinaeth, Congalach of Cnodbha, 
Of actions prudent, useful, 
[These were] the different kings of diversified Banba. 


The kings of Cenel-Conaill the stern, 

That received Banba the ruddy- vestured [were] : 

Ainmire, Aedh, Baedan eminent, 

Maelcoba, Cellach, Conall, 

Domnall, who was aidful in battle, 

Congal, Loingsech, Flaithbertach. 

Two Domnalls, three jSTialls, noble thing, 

Aedh by four and Colman, 

Suibne, Eochadh, Baedan the weak, 

Fergus, Fergal the liberal, 

Muircertach, sea-lion of vigour, 

["Were] the kings of [Cenel-]Eoga[i]n o'er Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


tebcm bam IN rtioca. 


[u] 8e blia&na occTno$6a oil 

Ocup cuig cec, 5011 impoll, 
Jan bet), bo'n pi5pai& pe lmt>, 
Co hes TTlael-cpipsloin-cSheeioinb. 


t)a blia6mn lap pin, pecc t>eic, 
O eg TTiael-cSheclomb c-puaicni 
"Nip'b'opo oebint) t)ia Dine 
t)u'n Gpinn gan aipopi^e. 


v ' Co n-eppacc t)oTnnall t)aipe, 
TTlop bpian banba bla6ai6e; 
'8 a[n] plaicpi cuimnec na cpe6, 
TTIaicnf TTlunnnec TTluipcepcac. 


TTluipcepca6 Luminfs na long, 
t)oTnnall Oilig na n-apbglonn, 
pi6e ip cuig lomlaici lino 
a confi[p]laici op 6pinn. 


TTluipcepcac TTIuTnan, popmapb 
5alup anaicnfg, agapb; 
t)o 6ic t)oTnnaill bo cam cenn, 
Ppic bogpainb bail be$ Gpenn. 

e P i. 


TTIoppeipep, cecpaca cai6 
t)o clan[n]aib Neill co nepcbai$: 
"Rolampac 506 bine in bpeam, 
pi$e n-Gpenn. 



[u] Six noble years [and] eighty 

And five hundred, without error, [time, 

Without deception, [were reigned] by the kings in the[ A . D .] 
To the death of ever-sincere Mael-Sechlainn. [1022J 


Two years after that [and] seven tens, 
From the death of Mael-Sechlainn prosperous 
It was not a precipitate order for its fate 
[Were spent] by Ireland without an arch-king. 

Ireland, etc. 

v Until Domnall of Daire attained [the kingship], 
The great Brian of Banba famous ; 
And the princely-king of the forays memorable, 
The worthy Momonian, Muircertach. 


Muircertach of Limerick of the ships, 
Domnall of Oilech of the high achievements, 
Five [and] twenty [years] of fretful space 
[Was] their co-sovranty over Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


Muircertach of Munster, him killed 
Disease unprecedented, very severe ; 
From the death of Domnall of illness intense, [land. 

Anguish was found in [Ut., of] the assembly of good Ire- [1121] 

Ireland, etc. 


Seven and forty just [kings reigned] 

Of the septs of Mall with powerful victory : 

Experienced every fate the folk 

That assumed the kingship of Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 



432 lebcre bam IN itioca. 


[v] Seipep, nae picic, pip barn, 

CoThaiperii na pig pacmap, 
Uile pe pemmenn pi$e, 
Op Cpirm i n-aipbpi&e. 


"Mia pa^abpac pig ^u pac 
a cuise6 arhpa Ula6, 
Mi cleic pobennpea na pep, 
Q6c a pempi nac pfriicep. 


w baet>an, piaca pmt>, peitmi n-gle, 

Ocup 606016 laplaice, 
Luce langpib gan bunait) tn-bint) 
Qiprnft) Ulai6 op Cpinn. 


"No6op'sab pi, c-[p]iap na c-[p]a[i]p, 
t)o cuacaib dna Oipgiall, 
a n-slonba, pogluaip gan spefm, 
Q6c Colla hUaip, op Gpinn. 



O pe Chacaip moip 
U Copmic pe comaioein, 
Qp a cfp Tnaisneac $an 

Laisne6 tan 6penn. 


5e aipinio ITIuiTinnig mine 
peibliTni6 i n-aipbpige, 
Im'ouain ni labpaim a Ifnb, 
Uaip ni pasbamn a n-6pmn. 




[v] Six [and] nine score [186], true for me, 
[Is] the full tale of the fortunate kings, 
The whole period of the series of kings, 
Over Ireland in arch -kingship. 

Ireland, etc. 


If kings assumed the kingship with felicity 
From the distinguished province of the Ulidians, 
Not covertly . . . 
But their periods are not reckoned. 

Baedan, Fiacha the Fair, deed conspicuous, 

And Eochaidh larlaithe, 

[Are] the folk full-vigorous that, without clear proof, 

The Ulidians reckon over Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


There assumed not [kingship] a king, west or east, 
Of the noble tribes of Oirghialla, 
Their valour, went it without [taking] hold, 
Except Colla Uais, over Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


From the time of Cathar the Great, the conquering, 

Grandson of Cormac to be commemorated, 

From the country plainful, without blemish, 

A Leinsterman assumed not the whole of Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


Although reckon the Munstermen mild 
Feidlimidh in [the] arch-kingship, 
I mention not in my lay his space, 
For I find [it] not in [the royal series of] Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 

434 tebcm bain IN rtioca. 


[w] Se mill bliaoan, nf 

a t>o, cecpaca ap ba cec, 
O benani na n-bul, tmp lem, 


Ceacpaca ap dec, cpi blia&na, 
Ip mill, ge mop pfagla, 
O gem t)e buain, buibnig, bpe r 
Co t)uam cuipbig na cpenpep. 


Qca Coppbelbac, cuip cpen, 
TTlac Ruai6pi na penn pojep, 
lg nepc[a6] na cuili cenn, 
lj cecca& uili Gpenn. 


Cigepnan, ci^epna caic, 

Ruaipc, pi nopmap, nemclaic; 
Ollcu puaip co caippceac cenn, 
Oncu uap, aip^neac 6penn. 



1 n-aimpip amlaib, eacpaig, 
Imalecep pi cpecaig, 

TTlo t>uan t>o&elbup, t>ap leam, 
Jan bealgnup b'uaiplib 6penn. 


puapabap eg ap cac ale, 
plaice pobla 'n-a m-beo6acc : 
5cm gleo, gu m-bpi$ -m-blaibe, 
Qp beo pi na 


5 " [*..] 

[w] Six thousand years, not false, [6342] 

Two [and] forty above two [recte> three] hundred, 
From formation of the elements, seems to me, 
Until was seen the end of the kings of Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 

6 ' [A.D.] 

Forty above one hundred [and] three years, [H43] 

And a thousand, though great the calculation, 
From the Birth of God lasting, hostful, beauteous, 
To the modest poem of the stout heroes. 


JL [Now] is Toirrdelhach, tower strong, [1156] 

Son of Kuaidhri of the very sharp [spear-]points, 
Dominating the strong floods [of opposition], 
Possessing the whole of Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


Tigernan, blameless lord, [1172] 

O'Ruairc, king reputable, not weak, 
Evils received he excessively, severely, 
The leopard proud, plundering of Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


In a time unpropitious, late, 
"Which foraying kings are spending, 
My poem composed I, seems to me, 
Without injustice to the nobles of Ireland. 


Received they death in every shape, 
The chiefs of Fodla in their vigour : 
Without dispute, with glorious power, 
He is living, the King of the kings. 

436 iebcm bouu IN rfioca. 


[x] t)airh-inip, t)ebpao, ip cfp 

Gp 506 n-olc, ap 506 n-anpip ; 
Ip i poiiTi imp na penn 
Ocup oijinip 6penn. 


apt)-m-bpeaca[i]n, mo baili blaic, 
Qnt> pomai&ig Cpipc caemcai6 : 
Cat)up, na ceilit), i cell, 
Qpup eim$ na h6penn. 


t)o S'lta-Ynobubbd t>pon, 
Co t>apba t)ia 506 
paili6 bo'n saipgpi 
Qp n-aipeni aiptjpig Gpenn. 

6pi 05, imp na naem. 



[x] Daim-inis, [by] God's doom, is the territory 
[Opposed] to every ill, to every untruth : 
It is the foremost isle of the . . . 
And the perfect isle of Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


Ard-Brecain, my stead of fame, 
There is Christ pure, holy, gloried in : 
Dignity, conceal [it] not, [is] in [its] church, 
Abode of the hospitality of Ireland. 

Ireland, etc. 


To Gilla-Modubda the brilliant, 
May God grant every forgiveness : 
Thanks from the powerful King earned he, 
For recital of the arch-kings of Ireland. 

Ireland pure, isle of the Saints, etc. 


( 438 ) 


(Letters refer to the textual sections ; figures to the numbered quatrains in k to x.) 

a (art.), i, j, k, 1 1, m 4, n 5, o 3, p 5, 

r 2, 5, t 3, w 3, 5. 
a (poss. 3 s. m.), a, b, c, d, i, j, 1 5, 

in 3, 4, 5, n 2, o 2, 6, q 1, 2, 4, 

r 4, s 1, t 5. 
a (poss. pi.), a, k 3, n 6, v 2, 6 ; a n-, 


a (rel. acapple), d. 
a (prep.), 1 4, t 2, 3, 4, 6, v 6. 
a (i), a, b, d, gr, h, 1 4, m 2, o 6, p 4, 

r 1, 2, s 1. 
a m- (i m-), d. 
abann, o 1. 
Q6at>, b, 1 3. 
a6c, t 1, v6, w 2. 
at>alcpa6, s 5. 
abapc, k 5. 
abbac, e, i, m 5, n 2, q 2, 3, 5, r 1 ; 

-cabap, e. 
abbepaib, k 6. 
abbul, p 2. 
abclop, m 1. 
abpec, d. 
abpuaip, r 2. 
abpoesait), a. 
05, k 6. 
asapb, v 3, 
Qefc, e, e, h, 1 6, m 5, 6, n 2, o 5, 

p6, a 4, r 2, ul, 2; -&a (g.), e, 

f, gr, h,j,nl, o2,r4. 
Qeg, c, d; CU>5, d. 
aen, c, f, m 4, 5, p 3, t 2. 

a (g.), f, o 6. 
aib, m 4. 
aibci, b. 
aibesaib, j. 
Qilcealcpa, f. 
aili, b. 

Chilli mole, a. 
ailicpe, q 2. 
annpip, x 3. 
Qmbinbi, i. 
ampip, i. 
ainm, k 6. 
Qinmipe, c, m 3, u 2 ; -e6 (g.), d e, 

m 5. 
aipt>(iapla),s5; -(pis), x7; 

u 5, v 5, w 4. 
mpeam, q 5 ; -em, a: 7. 
n (g.), c. 

aipsne, o3; -m, t5; -nea6, x 2 ; 

-nig, r 6. 
aiprmt), w 1. 

Qlba, a. 

alien 5, r 6. 

Qllcm, g:; -am (g.), P. 6. 

aimaine (g.), f, p 2. 

ale, x 4. 

amac, t 6. 

amal, j. 

Qmalsa&a, b.. 

amlaib, x 3. 



ampa, v 6. 

ana, vr 2. 

anai6nf<5, v 3. 

ant) (a(i) andpers. pr. 3 s.), x 6 ; ann, 

o 1. 

anpip, x 6. 
Slonba, w 2. 
Gnluain, i. 
anma (g.), q 6. 
anmann, a. 
anocc, t 1. 
annpin, a. 
001616, k 6. 
dp, x 2. 

ap (poss. 1 pi.), b, r 1. 
ap (against), b, x 5. 
ap (pro), x 7. 
ap (upon), c, n 1, 3, p 1, 6, q 2, s 5, 

w5, 6. 

ap n- (prep.), s 5. 
ap(eip), s 6. 
ap (conj.), a, j. 
apa (ala), j. 
apai, j. 
apt), o 3. 
apbaig, q 6. 
(lpt>mbpeaca[i]n, x 6. 
apbplacup, n 4. 
apb(5lonn), v 2. 
Qpb-lTlaca, a, gr, h, p 4. 
apmic, j. 
apmpuait), k 2. 
apup, x 6. 
ap (vb.), x 4. 

ap (a and per. pr. 3 s.), w 3, x 4. 
ac, r 4 ; aca (g.), h, i, s 4. 
aca, x 1. 
acbac, a, p 1 ; -catmp, c. 

b' (bo), s 5, u 5. 

ba (vb.), n 1, 6, q 5, r 3. 

ba&, a. 

baeban, c, d, m 2, 4, u 2, 3, 

w 1. 
baecepnail, a 1. 

, d. 

baitea&, b; -eb, h. 
baicpep, b ; pobaib, 1 4 ; 

batmb, c. 
(nepc)bai(5, v 4. 
baili, x 6. 
banba, k 4, o 2, p 1, s 2, 3, u 1, 2, 


bapp, s 2, u 2. 
bap, a, 1 1, o 1, p 2, 4, 5, r 2, 6 ; 

baip (g.), a. 
be(vb.), j. 

, m 5. 

bean, b. 

popbean, r 5. 

bee, b. 

beb, m 4, q. 1, r 5, s 3, u 4. 

beil, k 6. 

beim, b. 

beipc, k 6. 

belsabain, e. 

beo, x 4. 

beo&acc, x 4. 

bobepap, j. 

bepnaig, j. 

bep (vb.), j. 

becaib, q 1. 

bi, d, e, m 2. 

bis, c, d, f, g. 

bile, d ; bill, s 2. 

bmb, s 5, w 1. 

bifcbuai&, 12; bicnap, o 2. 

blab, p 2 ; -bbpicc, s 3. 

blabai&e, v 1 ; blaibe, x 4. 

blaic, x 6. 

blacmac, e, o 2, u 1 ; -mic (g.), f, 

o 3. 
blaccain, p 1 ; -cpise, m 2. 



bliaoam (n.), c, f, 1 6, m 1, 4, n 3, 
p 3, a 1 ; (du.) i, j, m 1, 2, s 3, 
u 4 ; -bna (n. p.), b, c, d, e, f, g, 
h, i, 1 3, m 3, 5, 6, n 3, 4, 5, 6, 
02,6, pi, 2, 6, q 1,6, r 1,3, 6, 
s 5, u 4, w 6 ; -ban (g. du.), j ; 
(g.p.), a, d, g,i, 11,2,4, m 1, 2, 
n 2, o 3, 5, QL 1, 3, 4, 5, r 1, 2, s 2, 
3, u 5, w 5. 

bloib, o 2; -be, 1 1. 

bo (vb.), d. 

bom, t 3; -rib, b. 

bols, d, m 5. 

bopppab, a 5. 

bopoime, a; -oriia, i, j, s 4. 

bpab, k 4. 

bpac, s 3. 

bpacpuaio, u 2. 

bpacaip, o 2. 

bpeac, u 1. 

bpes, r 6, w 5; -506, u 1. 

bhpeis, t 3. 

bpenlaf, n 4. 

bpeo, s 3. 

bpecip, 1 1. 

bpian, i, s 2, 3, 4, 1 4, v 1 ; -am (g.), 
j, s5. 

, o 6, x 4 ; -e, m 2 ; paepbpig, 
s 6. 
, d. 

pobupbpip, i. 

bpom, f. 

bpua6, d. 

bpus, e. 

bu (vb.), i. 

buac, d. 

buaio, i, n 6. 

buain, m 5, w 6. 

buioi, e, i, j. 

buibne6, r 6; -m, k 6 ; -1115, w 6. 

bunaib, w 1. 

(l)bUf, C. 

cac, s 6, x 4. 

cabail, t 6. 

cabup, x 6. 

Caec, c, e, n 4. 

cael, e, n 6. 

caem, k 1, m 3, n 1, 6, q. 6 ; -memo, 

x 6 ; -mcumpc, o 3 ; -mbaic, 

p 2 ; -111565, q 5 ; -mpiascnl, 1 6. 
caio, 1 4, v 4; caic, x 2. 
Caille, q 6; -Hi, h. 
cam, p 1, r 5. 
bopcaip, p6; bopocaip, e; cop- 

caip, e, f, g-, h, i. 
caipbib, r 3. 
Caipppe, c ; -ppi, o 3, t 2, 5 ; Cop- 

ppi, f. 
Caipe, a. 
pocaic, 1 2, n3. 
Challam, q 6 ; Callanb, h. 
calma, k 4, 1 4, q 6. 
bocan, d ; pecan, i, j ; nip'can, j. 
Capman (g.), i. 
cac, a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, k 3, m 5, 

n 3, 06, pi, 2, q 4, r 4, s 4 ; 

coca, i, p 6 ; -caig, m 1. 
Chaoaip, w 3. 
cacpap, k 5. 

Cealla6, e, n 6 ; Cetlais (g.), h. 
ceacpaca, w 6. 
cebu, e ; cecbu, e. 
ceilib, x 6. 
ceimpeib, t 1. 
ceipc, 1 1. 

ceicpi, b, f, gr, h, 1 4, q 6, s 2. 
celim, t 1. 
cell, 1 3, x 6. 
Cellac, o 1, 6, u 2. 
cen, j. 

Cenanbup, gr. 

Cenbpaela6, f; Cenpaelaio, u 1. 
Cenbpoba, c, d. 



Cenel, u 2. 

cenn, b, r 6. 

Cepbaill, d, 16; Ceppbel, a; -eoil, 

c, d, g-. 

CepnaiS (g.), f. 
cepu, d. 

cec (sb.), 1 4, m 4. 
cec (card.), u 4, w 5, 6. 
cecaip, u 3. 
cecna (same), o 1. 
cia, j. 

ciamaip, s 4. 
cian, s 4, t 1. 
Ciarmacc, c, m 2. 
cib, j. 
Cimi, f. 

Cinaec, g-, p 3, u 1 ; -016, f. 
Cinbbelsa, f. 
Cmbecig, i. 
Cmbmagaip, f, p 1. 
claen, j. 
clairm, q 5, r 3, s 6, t 1 ; clanb, s 4 ; 

clanna, t 1 ; -nnaib, v 4. 
claipinec, j. 
Cleicec, 1 4 ; -ecig, b. 
clepec, e; -pic (g.), e. 
oil, n 5. 
abclop, m 1. 
cnoca, a. 
Cno&ba, u 1. 
co (prep.), a, b, c, d, e, f, gr, h, i, j, 

1 6, k 4, n 2, 5, p 6, u 4, 6, v 4, 6. 
co (conj.), a, x 7. 
co m- (co, prep.), o 6. 
CO Tl- (conj.), o 5, q. 1, v 1. 
co n- (prep.), j, m 4. 
Coelbab, a. 
coic (card.), b, e, h, i, k 5, 13, o 3 ; 

-ceb, j ; -iseb, j, 
coimpec, u 2 ; -^15, p. 4. , 
coip, t 4. 
pocoipc, 1 6. 

col, q 1. 

Colla hUaip, w 2. 

Colman, d, e, m 6, r 3, u 3 ; -am, d. 

Colum-cille, g:. 

comaipeam, v 5. 

comballca, d. 

compasup, n 6. 

com[p]laici, v 2 ; -lup, j. 

cornlanb, t 4 ; cornlonb, m 4 ; -nn, 
p6; -lumt) (g.),.t 2. 

commab, k, i. 

comnepc, k 6. 

comoil, o 5. 

Concnns (g.), g, h. 

Conall, e, n 1, 6, t 3, o 1, u 2 ; -aill r 
a, c, d, e, u 2. 

Concobap, gr, t 6 ; -aip, j, q 5. 

Conbacc, t 4 ; Conn-, j, t 2. 

(g.), k; -le (g.), &. 
, k 3, n 4, p 1, u 2 ; -U, f. 

Consalac, h, o 5, r 6, u 1 ; -015 (g.), 

Copmic (g.), c, w 3. 

Copam (g.), g-; Chopamb, f. o 6. 

copcpac, k 3. 

cpao, o 4, p 1. 

pocpaib, 1 6 ; pupc-, q. 6. 

cpec, m 6 ; -6015, x 3 ; cpeic, a. 

cpeibearh, k 2; -bem, t 1; -bim r 

k2; -bmig (ac.), J. 
Cpemcaill, t 6. 

Cpimcamb, d; -nbe, a; -am, c. 
Cpipc, t 6. 

cpobams, o 6 ; cpomb-, n 6. 
cpoba, k 3, n 3. 
Cpo-imp, i. 
Cponan, c, m 2. 
Cpocam (g.), g-. 
Cpuacam, r 5, t 2. 
cpuaib, k 2, m 4, n 5, 6, u 2 ; -bi, 

cpuicnecua, g-. 



Cpunnrnael, o 4. 

cu (co, prep.), c 2, a 3, t 1. 

bo cuabap, k 5. 

(oaem)cuaipc, o 3. 

cu6c, t 4. 

cuib, o 4. 

cms, u 4, v 2 ; -set), v 6. 

Cumb (g.), J, n 3, t 5. 

cuinme6, t 4, v 1 ; -mm, k 6. 

Cuipc, i. 

Cuipea6, o 3. 

Cuippig (g.), h. 

cumain, m 4, 

Cumame, d. 

b (be, bi), j, m4, 5. 

b (bo, prep.), q 2, 5, x 3, 7. 

ba (card.), a, c, d, e, gr, i, j, k 4, 1 6, 

m 1, 2, q 1, 4, s 3, t 6, u 2, 5, 

v 4, wo. 
bail, v 3. 
Oaim-imp, x 5. 
Oaipe, v 1. 

Oalapaioe, a,c; -bi, b. 
ball, j. 
bam, o 2, v 5. 
Oanrnaips, s 4. 
Dapil, a. 

bap (vb.), w 6, x 3. 
bap (prep.), i. 
bapba, x 7. 
bapm, 1 6. 

bac, n 5 ; baca (g.), q 3. 
Nati [reete] t)aci, a, b, t 4. 
De(g.), a, b, 14, w6. 
be (be and pr. suf. 3 s.), n 1, p 5. 
pombeafc, m 5. 
Oebpafc, x 5. 
bebmb (g.), u 5. 
becaib, q 1. 
bebena6, j. 

bebla, o 1. 

bes, m 1, o 3, t 3, v 3 ; -gbuaib, n 6 ; 

-5pac, s3; -spig, k 3. 
beic (card.), b., k 1, n 5, p 2, u 5. 
bobelbup, x 3. 
benam, w 5; benca, n 1. 
bepb, m 3 ; bo bepbup, m 3. 
(bpec)beps, l - 
bi (prep.), d, g. j. 
t)ia, x 7. 
biabacc, m 2. 
bian, r 2. 
Oiapmaib, c, e, o 1, 2, 1 6 ; -aba (g.), 

d, e, f, g, 1 6, u 1. 
biap, t 2. 

bib (bo and pr. Buf. 2 p.), m 3. 
bib (bi and pr. suf. 3 p.), i. 
, s 4. 

bil, 14, o 5 ; -li, a ; bpocbilaib, k 5. 

, x 7. 

, m 6 ; -mana, e. 
bimep, 1 5. 
bme, u 5, v 4. 
bino, e. 
bipig, m 6. 
bip, m 6. 

bit (sb.), v3; (vb.), d. 
biulcab, b. 
Dlucaig ( g .), f. 
&o (card.), j, w 5. 
bo (prep.), d, m 1, 6, p 4, q 5, r 4, 

bo (be, bi), b, d, e, j, k 5, o 2, 3, r 3, 

t2, 5. 

bo (bo and pr. suf. 3 s. m.), b, j. 
bo (vbl. pcle.), bobepap, j ; pobup- 

bpip, i; bocan, d; 

bocuabap, k 5 ; bobepbup, m 3; 

bobic, d; b'ec, e; b'eg, e; 

bubpes, p 5 ; bopaema&, o 4 ; 

bapuppappais, o 1 ; bapuil, p 5; 

bagaib, 1 5 ; bosapbpac, s 4; 



bopac, a; bopiapaig, s2; 

bopcap, s 5 ; t>o reap, s 6 ; 

bopeab, k 3. 
bo6c, q 2. 

t>oib (bo and pr. suf. 3 p.), a, e. 
boip6i, q 3. 
Domnaig (g.), i. 
Domnall, c, e, gr, h, m 1, q 1, s 1, 

t 6, u 2, 3, v 1, 2 ; -aill (g.), o, 

e, f, gr, h, n 2, q 5, s 6, v 3. 
Donoab, h, t 6 ; -nn6ab, g 1 , q 3 ; 

-caib, q 5. 
Don6aba, g-, h, s 6 ; Donne-, r 5 ; 

Dun6-, f. 

bpeam, v4; bpeirn, j. 
bpec(bep5), o 1. 
bubpeg, p 5. 
bpon, x 7. 

bpuim, h, r2; bpoma (g.), gr, i. 
bu (be), t 2 ; (bo), q 4, u 5. 
buabep, o 1. 

buan, j, r 2, x 3 ; -am, w 4, 6. 
bub, c, 1 6. 
Dubbuin, f, o 3. 
(nio)Dubba, x 7. 
bul (g. p.), w 5. 
Duma (g.), i. 
bun, o3; Duin (g.), m5; bumb (g.), 

r 5. 

e (pron.), P 6. 

Gacao (g.), d. 

eacpaig, x 3. 

hebapcap, j. 

ecmaip, j. 

e6c, c. 

heccpa, i. 

Cbaip (g.), i. 

es, c, e, k5, n5, q 1, r5, u4, 5, x4. 

(mop)esna (g.), s 1. 

ei6(g.), j. 

(g.), x 6. 

(ap)eip, s6; (bia)eip[p]eom, j. 

eipibe, j ; eipeom, a. 

enina (g.), i. 

enepc, d. 

enfs, e. 

6npi, s 6. 

6ocab, m 2, u 1 ; 6ocu, c. 

eogan, t3, u3; -am (g.), b, c, d, e. 

epbailc, gr, h, i. 

Gpca (g.), a, to. 

Gpenn, i,j, k2, n4, s6, 1 1,2, u3, 5, 

v2, 3, 4, 5, wl, 2, 3,4,5, x 1,2, 

3, 5, 6, 7. 
Gpi, k 1, w 1, x 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 ; 6pinn, 

s 6; Gpiu, a. 
epmnsalac, k 4. 
(baec)epnail, q 1. 
eppa6c, v 1. 
epca, a. 
epm, j. 

ecep, a, gr, j, r 3. 
eceplen, r 3. 

pa (ba), 1 4. 

pa, 13, n 6 ; po, k, 1 2, r 4. 
pael, o 5. 

bopaema&, o4; pop-, q 6. 
pagapcac, f, p 3, u 1. 
w 4. 

, n 6. 
pailio, x 7. 
paipenb, j. 
paipsi, s 3. 
panaib (g.), f. 
pap6a, 1 3 ; phopca, to. 
bapuppappaig, o 1 ; poppapp-. 


pac, q 4; paca, p 4, 5. 
Peapsal, f ; Pep 5-, p 2, u 3 ; pep- 

gail (g.), gr, q 2 ; -aili (g.), gr. 
pebba(g.), i; pebca (g.), i. 



pesao, w 5. 

peiblimib, w 4. 

peibm, w 1. 

peinbig, r 2. 

pemenb, u 1. 

pep, t 2, v6 ; piup, b. 

pepaoais (g.), e. 

pepaip, d; peppa, b. 

Pepsup, a, m 3, u 3 ; Pepps-, a ; 

pepsupa (g.), c, d. f, gr. 
peppaca, s 1. 
pepca, g, q 4. 

piaca, w 1 ; piacpac (g.), e ; -015, a. 
piaonad, p 3, 4, 5. 
piama6, p 4. 
pice, a, b, c, d, f, gr, h, i, j, 1 1, m 5, 

q 4, v 2, 5 ; -ec, c, 14, s 1, 2. 
pill, J. 

pfn, b, 1 4 ; pfna (g.), b. 
pinacca, f , u 1 ; pinba-, o 4, 5. 
pincaab, s 3. 
pint), q 2, r 1, w 1 ; -btiac, To., r 2 ; 

-bleic (g.), b-. 
pinbi, i. 
pine, r 1, t 3. 
pmgal, n 1. 
pip (adj.), vo; pipa, m6; pipmaic, 

plait, 1 3, 5, p 3, r 1 ; -ce, t 3, z 4 ; 

-cemna, p 2. 
plaicpi, v 1 ; coTn[p]laici, v 2 ; 

loTn[p]laici, v 2. 
plaicbepcac, gr, p 3, 4, u 2 ; -ai 

(g.) P 5. 
plaiciup, j ; -paib, j ; -cup m 3, 

Plant), t 6; -nn, h, r 3 ; -aint), (g.), 

li ; -Tin (g.), h. 
plannasan, h. 
pleaba6, o 5 ; ple$-, f. 
Pobla, r 3, x 4. 
pola (g.), s. 

pop, a, b, e, g, i, j, m 4 ; poppo, a ; 

poppin, a. 

popbafc, o 5 ; pop-, n 4. 
popbpoma, i. 
pop sup, c, m 1. 
ppap, g ; ppappa, g ; -ppa6, g ; 

-cn$ (g-), 8T. 
ppespa, s 1. 
ppeppabpa, j. 
ppi, a, j ; ppip, j ; ppipin m-, d; 

ppiu, a. 

ppic (vb.), q 4, v 3. 
pump, a, 1 1, 3, m 6, n 6, x 2 ; 

puapabap, k 5, x 4. 
(ab)puaip, r2; (inn)puap, q 4. 
pual, p 5. 
pu6c, o 1. 
puil, p 5. 
puil (vb.), er. 
pup, q 2. 

50 (sb.), j; 501, n4. 

pogab, 15, m 2, s 6; nocopsab, 

w 2 ; nocup-, -w 3; sabpac, n6, 

t 1 ; posabpac, k 1, 2, 4, u 2 ; 

pas-, v 6 ; bosapbpac, s 4 ; 

basaib, 1 5 ; pasaib, j ; sabail, 

a; sabup, s 1. 
506 (ca6), k 6, v 4, x 5, 7. 
<5aebel, s 2; -laib, i; -ealu, i. 
Saec, n 4. 
Saibcec, n 5. 
Saile, k 3, 1 2. 
Same, k 5. 
Saipe, k 3. 
Sala, s 4. 

5all, i; Sallu, h ; -aib, i, v 4, 6. 
San(cen), k 1, 2, 1 5, m 2, 4, n 4, 

pi, 2, ql, 2, 3, r2, 3, s 3, u 4, 

5, w 1, 2, 3, x 3. 
Sapb, v 3; sapba, k 1. 


: 7. 



50715, p 4, r 6, s 5 ; 
5apc, k5. 
56 (ce), w 4, 5. 
505, q 5. 
<5eiTnm, c, 
5ein, g-, w 6. 
Seince, k 1. 
pornsell, x 7. 
poseobain, 1 5. 
(po)sep, x 1. 
Siallais, b, c, d. 
5[-C]luaiTi-capb, i. 

5illa, j, x 7. 

5iU5panb, h. 

Slap, a, r 4. 

5le, n 3, w 1 ; 5le(caem), n 1. 

5leici, 1 1. 

Slenb, g; ftlinbi (g.), c. 

5leo, n 5, x 4. 

Sloin, u 4. 

5lonn, 1 2, v 1 ; slonba, w 2. 

5lop, r 5 ; -pt>a, r 5. 

, w 2. 

, k 4 ; 5km(bub), h ; (-tub), h. 
56, J. 

50 (co, conj.), k 3, m 3. 
Sop (co po), s 6. 
5Tnmpa&, u 1. 
Spealtaig, a. 

Spian, a; spein, a, 1, 2, w 2. 
5pib, w 1. 
5pinb, 1 1. 

5U (co, prep.), k 2, q. 3, v 3, 6. 
513 -m (co m-), x4. 
5U n- (co -n), n 5 ; suptm, t 4. 
5Uin, c, m 6. 
5ulbari, c. 
5up (co po), 13, o 2, 5, p 3, 6, 

w 5. 

<5upccm, c. 
5\icbiTib, d, n 1. 


haoapc, k 5. 

hQeo, g, o 5; hQeg, c. 

haen, m 5. 

hGinbinbi, i. 

hebapcap, j. 

heccpa, i. 

Ties, u 4. 

hGosan, t 3. 

hepenn, j, n 4, x 6. 

hi, f. 

Til, c, gr. 

hocc, v 5. 

hosaib, d. 

hu, c. 

hu6c, t 4. 

hllaip, w 2. 

hi (patronymic), c. 

1,0.2; hi, g. 

i (pron.), x 5. 

i (prep.), b, c, d, e, f, g, i, k 6, m 5, 

p 2, 6, q 4, r 3, 4, u 1, v 5, w 4, 

x 3, 6 ; ipm, e. 
il (i and n assim. to I foil.), i. 
i m-, a, b, c, i, w 4. 
l T1-, b, 1 3, n 2, 5, s 5. 
i p- (i and n assim. to p foil.), c, i, j. 
lappcnb, a. 
laplcnce, w 1. 
lap, i, n 2, 4, 5, q 3, 5, t 1 ; lap n-, 

a, b; lappin, u b. 
lapom, a; -pum, a. 
lapcain, q 1. 
lac (pr. pers. 3 p.), a. 
ibon, a, b, d, g-, i, j. 
15, a, h, m 6, x 1. 
ilaib, p 3 ; ilap, b. 
H6ealsai5 (g.), f. 
lllabaim, d. 
im, b. 
i(mai5), d. 




imalecep, x 3. 

Imbain (g.), i* 

imluaiopea, b. 

immaille, q 6. 

imoppo, j. 

imp oil, u 4. 

in (art.), a, b, i, j, n 3, 4, 5, o 4, 5, 

p 6, r 4, t 2, 3, 4, v 4 ; in b-, j ; 

in c-, o 3 ; inn, e. 
inapclaint), h, r 2. 
in allaig, r 6. 
inbain, m 2. 
Inbpeccais (g.), j, 
imp, k 1, x 5, 7 ; (Cpo)i-, i. 
innpuap, q 4. 

(g.), *, r. 

ip (vb.), d, i, j, x 5 ; ipom (ip and pr. 

suf. 1 s.), b. 
ip (ocup), c, k 3, 1 6, m 1, 2, 6, n 6, 

o 5, p 5, a 1, 3, t 1, 2, 3, 5, u 3, 

v 2, w 6, x 5. 

la (prep.), a, b, c, d, e, f, g, i, n 1, 4, 

o 1, 4, 5, p 6. 
labpcnm, w 4. 
laca (loca), f ; loc, n 1 ; loca, i. 

laec, p 4 ; -6t>a, k 4 ; -cpai&, s 4. 
laesaipe, a, b, k 3, 4, 1 1, t 2, 5. 
laibip, t 5. 
l/aigen, g; -snec, w3; -^nib, r 6 ; 

-5niu, a. 
Lampoba, f, g. 
polampac, v 4. 
Ian, w3; lancaem, m3; lanspib, 

w 1 ; lanpeimip, 1 1. 
lannaib, r 4. 
le (la, prep.), g ; lem .(la and pr. suf. 

1 s.) i, W 5 ; learn (id.), x 3 ; leip 

(la and pr. suf. 3 s. m.), i. 
[p]lecca, q 4. 

leomain, u 3. 

lee, j; leic, v 6. 

liac, r4. 

Libpene, d. 

l/ipe, a; -pi, i. 

linb, v 2, w 4 ; (pe) linb, u 4. 

Line, c. 

lice, q. 2. 

Loclanb, s 4. 

locc, q 2; Iu6c. 

tosan, e, m 6. 

Loin spec, f, u 2 ; -pig, g-, o 6, 

p 5. 
loipcpicep, b; sup'loipc, 1 3; po- 

loipc, 1 4, 6 ; lopcub, c. 
lom[p]laici, v 2. 
Ions, v 2. 
lonn, a, 1 2; lumb (g.), t 2, u3; 

cornlanb, t 4 ; comlamb, t 2. 
Lopcain, i. 
loc, n 1. 
poluabaio, 1 6. 
Luacpa, i. 

Lusab, t 5 ; -saib, a, b, 1 2, 3. 
luib, r 4. 

, v 2. 

m (pron. infix. 1 s.), x 7. 

mon (im an), m 6. 

mac, a, b, c, d, e, f, gr, h, i, j, 1 2, 6, 
m 3, 4, n 2, o 2, 3, p 4, 6, q 1, 3, 5, 
r 1, 4, s 6, t 4, 5, x 1 ; mac (d.), 
m 5 ; mac (dual), c, m 1 ; meic 
(n. p.), c, n 6 ; mic (g. s.), b, c, d, 
e, f, gr, h, i, n 2, o 4, 6, p 5, q 

mao, j. 

maban (fe^maibm), i. 

mag, p 6; maig, a, c, i. 

pOThaioig, x 6. 



TTIaeil-moppa, c; ITIaelabuin, f, g; 

-lipicpi, f. 
TTIael-Canais, g; -Coba, e, n 3, 6, 

u2; -sapb, c, 1 5 ; -mici<5, h; 

-TYlopba, c, 15; -TCuanais, h, 

rl; -Seclamb, b. ; -nn, h, i, 

k 4, r 1, s 2, 5, 6, t 6 ; -c Shec- 

loinb, u 4, 5. 
TTlai se-TTlanbacG, i. 
mai<5nec, w 3. 
maic, p 1 ; pipm-, q 4. 
rnaicm, v 1. 

map (conj.), k 6, m 3, v 6. 
mapaib, k 6. 
mapb, m 1, v 3, si; pomapb, 1 6 ; 

pomm-, d; popmapb, v3; po- 

mapbpac, a. 

meabap, b ; pomeababap, i. 
meabla, P 2. 
mep, p 6. 
mens, w 3. 
TTleTin, e. 

TTlibe, r 1, t 3 ; -bi, t 6. 
mi&oil, t 3, 4. 
mill, w 5, 6. 
TThleb, r 6. 
mine (adj.), ml; w 4. 
mimbe, j. 

mo (poss. 1 s.), t 3, 6, x 7. 
moc, n 1. 
mo&, c. 

TTlosa, j ; TTlogo, j. 
TTlolc, a, 12, t 1, 4. 
jnop, b, i, p 4, t 1, v 1, w 6 ; moip, 

g, j, 06, r 4, w 3 ; mopesna, 

s 1 ; moppeipep, v 4. 
TTIopcaiTi, i. 
mopclaic, o 2. 
, 12, r 1. 

, w 3. 
TTluillecam, j. 
TTIuincille, i. 

muip, u 3. 

TTluipcepcac, a, 14, u 3, v 1, 2; 

-015, c, d, e, m 1, n 2. 
TTluipebai<5, b, c, d, e, j. 
TTlulla, i. 
mullac, b. 
Tnumam, t2; -an, v3; -mnec, t4; 

TTluimTiec, vl; -nig, w 4. 
TTIupcab, ; -&a, gr, h, p 6, 

q 1, 3. 
, j. 
, j. 

n (i n-), j, 06, q 1. 

na (art. g.s.f.), ml, n4; (g. p.), k 1, 

13,n2, ol, rl,2, s 3, t4, vl,2, 

6, w6, xl,5. 
na m- (art. g. p.), k 4, x 4; na n-, 

k 3, o 2, u 1, v 2, w 5. 
na (neg.), j, w 2, x 6. 
nac (conj. neg.), a, v 6. 
nae (card.), f, g, i, k 5, p 4, 6, q 1, 3, 

r 3, s 5, v 5. 
nama, n 3. 
ndp, u 3. 

Neillme, c; Nellin, m 3. 
neim, t 5. 
nemctaic, x 2. 
nepc, e, s 1, x 1. 
m (neg.), a, d, j, n 1, 1 1, u 3, 5, v 6, 

w4, 5. 
Niall, g, h, q 2, 6, r4 ; Neill, a, b, 

c, d, f, g, h, r4, si, t, 1, 5, v4, 


mm, b. 

Nmbea&a, d, m 4. 
no (conj.), j ; (conj. temp.), s 6. 
noco, w2; nocu, -w 3. 
Moigiallais, b, c, d. 
nonbap, t 3. 
nor-map, x 2. 



o (sb.), * 2. 

o(prep.), b, k3, 4, 1 1, q 6, t 3, x 2. 

o (o and rel.), J, s 4, w 3, 6. 

Oca, a, b. 

occa (oc and pr. suf. 3 p.),j ; occo 

(id.), a. 
occ, e, f, h, k 4, o 2, 6, p 1, r 5 ; 

occTno<5$a, u 4. 
ocup (passim). 
05, k 1, x 7 ; oisimp , x 5. 
oibib, c, r 2. 
(in)oil, r 4 ; mi&oil, t 3. 
oili$, r 2. 

Oilill, b, 1 2, t 1, 4, v 2. 
017151 all, w 2. 

Oipnbnibe, gr ; Opnibe, h; -bi, q4. 
olc, o 1, x 5 ; oll6u, x 2. 
oil, t 3, u 4. 
oman, b. 
opb, m 5, u 5. 
op, b, o 2, 5, p 1, s 3, v 2, 5, w 1, 2, 

Ocain, gr. 

Pabpaic, b. 

pa (intens.), pabuan, r 2. 
pace, s 2. 

pamb, j. 

TCaic, c. 

bopac, a. 

pac, n4; paca, a ; popac, q 3 ; 

pacmap, v 5. 
TCaca, i. 
"Racin, i. 

pe (sb.), j, 1 4, s 1, 2, v 5, w 3. 
pe (prep.), k 2, r 2. 
pe (le), m 5, n 3, q 4, r 5, 6, u 4, 

pecc, e; peccpao, n 2. 

pei$, k6. 

peim, j, q4. 

pernie, i. 

peimip, k 6 ; 11; pempi, v 6. 

peiniTTien, v 5. 

penn, x 1, 5. 

pf, P5. 

pi (n. s.), c, e, j, m 2, n 2, q 3, w 2, 

x 2, 4 ; (g.), r 6 ; (ac.), c, f ; 

(n. p.), k 4, 5, m 1, t 3, 6, x 3 ; 

(g. p.), k 2, w 5 ; plaicpi, v 1 ; 

Saipspi, x 7 ; pi$ (g. s.), k 6, p 2, 

r2; (d. or ac.), a; (ac.), a; pis, 

, x 7; pigaib, j, k 5; 
, r 1; pige, v 4, 5; 

(aipbjpige, u 5, v5, w4; (blac)- 

pi5e, m 2 ; pigi, e, i, j ; pispab, 

u 1 ; -aib, u 2, 3, 4 ; -aba, e; 

piSpaibe, x4; -aibi, j. 
piasail, k 1, 1 6, n 2, q 3 ; 


pi am (adv.), j. 
bopiapaio", s 2. 
pfriicep, v 6. 
pinb, r 2. 
Rime, e. 

Himib, d, e, m, 6. 
po (intens.) pocaem, k 1; 

x 1 ; popac, q 3 ; pocapba, k 1. 
po (vbl. pcle.),pob',s 5; nipb', u 5; 

pobaib, 14; cop' baibeao, b; 

-eb, h; popbean, r 5 ; 

pobennpea, v 6 ; pobi, d ; 

pombi, e ; pupbij m 2. 

map'bo, d; pobupbpip, i; 

pocaic, 1 2, n 3. 

pocan, i, j ; mp'can, j. 

pocoipc, 1 6. 

pocpaio, 1 6 ; pupo* <1 6 ; 

pom&eab, m5; popaemao, q6; 

poppappaig, m 4 ; 


popopbab, n 4 ; 
ftup'popbab, o 5 ; 
pogab, 1 5; pagaib, j 
nocop^ab, w 2 ; 
nocupgab, w 3 ; sop 
posabpac, k 1, 2, 4. 
mp'sabpac, 1 1 ; 
popgeobain, 1 5 ; 
, w 2 ; 

s 6 

7 ; 

polampac, v4 ; gup'loipc, 1 3; 
poloipc, 1 4, 6; poluabaib, 1 6 ; 
pomaibiQ-, a: 6; pomapb, b, 16; 
5"up'mapb, p 3; pomm-, d; 
pupmapba, o 2; popmapb, v3; 
pomapbpac, a, s 4, 5 ; 
pomeababap, i; 
popTnugaig, 1 2; 
papablab, p 2 ; popaipis, a ; 
, p 6. 

po (vbl. pcle. infixed), abpoescnb, a ; 

bopcaip, p 6; bopocaip, e; 

copcaip, a, b, c, d, e, f, g:, h 1 ; 

copcpacap, d; bapuppap- 

pais, o 1. 

poini (prep.), b; poirtie, p 2. 
poiminip, x 5 
puaib, u 2. 
Huaibpi, j. 
T^uaipc, x 1. 
puacap, t 5. 
puipeac, o 3. 
"Ruip, i. 
pun, o 3, w 5. 

(pron. inf.), popbecm, r 5; pupbi, 
m 2 ; pobupbpip, i ; bapuppap- 
pais, o 1 ; poppappai5, m 4 ; 
popseobam, 1 5 ; popmapb, 
v 3; pupmapba, o 2. 

p (ip, vb.), p 5. 

p (ip = ocup), k 2, 6, n 3, o 2, 3, 6, 

r 1, t 6. 
-pa, j, v 1. 
paeb, n 1. 
paep, m 3, n2; -pbpig, s6; paip- 

bpec, k 2. 
paibi, j. 
paispeb, a. 
popaipis, a. 
Samna, b. 
Scannlan, e. 
bo pcap, s 6. 
pcela, d. 
pcic, d. 
p6 (card.), n 6, r 1, 2, t 3, u 4, w 5; 

peipep, k 2, vo; mopp-, v 4. 
Seacnapac, f ; Sec-, o 3, u 1. 
Seen all, a. 
pecc, d, f, g, n 2, 5, o 5, q2, 4, s 1, 


peb, n5; (pis)p-, r 1. 
Sebna, c,.d, m 3. 
pesba, n 1. 

, n 1. 

pencaib, i; pencaip, j. 
pens, n 4, u 1. 
-peorn, a, j. 

Shepeb, p6; Sepeg-mai^e, f. 
-pibe, a. 
Sil, j, t 2, 5. 

-pinb, d; -pin, a, i, j, u 5. 
pin (sb.), b. 

pip(5loin), u 4 ; pipiu, a. 
Slaine, d, e, f, gr, k 3, m 6, n 1. 
Slebe, e, n 3. 
[p]lecca, a 4. 
ple$, s 2. 
plemna, s 2. 
pluag, r 1. 
pmacca, o 4. 
po, d; pom, a. 



pona, s 6. 

pocail, f. 

puaicm<5, u 5. 

puaipc, o 3. 

Suibne, c, d, e, g, n 4, u 4. 

cabepeac, u 3. 
caeb, a; coeb, b. 
, j. 

, 1 1. 
Gaillcin, r 3. 
cainig, p 5. 
c-[p]a[i]p, w 2. 
caippceac, x 2. 
eailc, t 2. 
call, r 1, 3, t4. 
callainb, a 6. 
earn, p 1, r 3, v 3. 
Gapb, i. 

eapba, u 1 ; (po)capba, k 1. 
cappais, p 2. 
cape, a. 
Geaccmaip, r 5. 
Chebca, g. 

cec, m 6 ; cig, n 2, s 5 ; 015, h. 
ceccab, x 1. 
celcorna, b. 

Cemaip, j, 1 5; -mpa, i. 
eerm, 1 3, v 3, x 1, 2. 
cen, b; cene, 1 3, 4; ceinbcise, b. 
c-[p]iap, s 5, w 2. 


x 2. 

cip, a, b, w 3, x 5 ; cipi (g. p.), ml. 

, p. 5. 
(nern)claic, x 2. 
Co$a, e; -a&, n 3. 
Coippbelbac, j ; Copp-, x 1. 
coic, o 6. 

Comalcaig, j. 
conb(bain), 1 5; conn, d. 
copcaip, a, b, c, d, e, f, g-, h, i ; 

-cpacap, d. 
cpa, u 1. 
cpe (prep.), 1 1, 2. 
cpebac, u 1. 
cpen, 1 1 ; r 3 ; x 1 ; cpenpep, w 6 ; 

cpenn, 1 5. 
epi (card.), c, d, e, h, 1 5, m 3, 5, 6, 

n 3, 4, q 3, 6, r 4, 6, u 3, w 6 ; 

cpep, 1 5 ; cpiap, w 3. 
cpiblia&nac, p 3. 
cpi6a, e, k 2, 1 1, r 3. 
cpicc, s 3, 
cpoift, o 6. 
cpom(5alaip), p 1 ; cpuim (g.), 

n 3. 

cuacaib, j, w 2. 
cucpac, a. 
cuili, s 3, x 1. 
cuip, x 1. 
Ghuipbe, d. 
cuipmeam, k 6. 
w 6. 

u, s 1, w 3; hu, c; ua, g, n 3. 

uallac, s 5. 

uaip, m 5; uaipe (g.), f. 

uaip (conj.), w 4. 

Uaipi&nac, e, n 2; -015, f. 

hUaip, w 2. 

uaiplib, x 3. 

uap, x 2. 

hucc, t 4. 

uile, v 5; -li, j, x 1. 

Uipmg, s 5. 

UlaS, v 6 ; -aib, w 1 ; Ulca, b. 

Umaill (g.), t o. 



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rpI Jfrisjr 





preface, ^Translation, anfc Itfttos. 







F. R.U.I., M.R.I. A.; 

Royal Irish Academy's Todd Professor of the Celtic Languages. 





14, Henrietta-street, Covent Garden. \ 20, South Frederick -street. 






i. The Battle-Field, v 

ii. The Seven Manuscripts, vii 

in. The Warriors and Chiefs mentioned in our text, . . viii 

iv. The Date of the Battle and of the Saga, .... xiii 

v. Causes of the Battle, xiv 

vi. Summary of the Saga, xv 

vii. The Early and the Later Versions, ..... xx 

viii. The Printed Texts and Translations, xxii 

ix. The Glossary of the Leinster Text, xxiii 

x. The Versification, xxv 

xi. Remains of the LL. Text in the Modern Version, . . xxviii 
xii. Grammatical Remains of a Middle Irish Version different 

from the LL. Version, xxix 

xiii. Contractions explained in Preface of the Stowe MS., . . xxx 


LL. Texts and Translation, 
Modern Text and Translation, 


i. Men- or Man- Stems, 
11. S- Stems, 

. 2-59 
. 60-107 


in. 0- Stems (A-Stems, Windisch), 134 

iv. 0- Stems ending in -ach, 171 

v. 10-Stems (IA- Stems, Windisch), 181 

vi. I-Stems, 198 

vn. U-Stems, 201 









CELTICA," . . 26T 


Battle of the Boyne, now printed and translated for the 
first time, was the second of those battles of the Seven 
Years War which are said to have been fought at the begin- 
ning of the Christian era. The battle-field, the manuscripts 
that contain a description of the fight, or make reference to 
it, the warriors and chiefs who figure in it, its date, causes, 
circumstances, and results will form the subject of some pre- 
liminary remarks. 

I. The Battle-Field. 

It is called " Eosnaree on the Boyne " to distinguish it from 
Eosnaree in Island Magee or Seimite, where Aedan, King of 
Scotland, made submission to Baedan, King of Ulster, about 
the year 575. l About two miles below Slane the Boyne 
becomes fordable, and its course is broken by several islets. 
On its south-west bank is Eosnaree, and on its opposite swell- 
ing bank are seen Knowth, Dowth, New Grange, a series of 
raised mounds, raths, caves, circles, and pillar-stones. 2 This 
Eoss or headland was the place of residence of King Dathi's 
mother, 3 the burial place of King Cormac son of Art, 4 the spot 
where Conn the Hundred-Fighter was slain, 5 where Saints 
Fintan and Finnian established cells, and St. Colum-Cille 
found the skull of Cormac, which he reverently put again into 
the grave. 6 The researches of the Ordnance Survey discovered 

1 "L. Lecan,"fol. 139aa. 

2 " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland " ; "Wilde's Boyne and Blaekwater,' 
p. 188. Eosnaree is erroneously placed on the north, bank in the map prefixed to 
Dr. Reeves' " Adamnan." 

3 " O'Curry's MS. Materials," p. 286. 4 LU., pp. 60 b, 51 a. 

5 " Battle of Magh Lena," p. 98. 6 " Reeves' Adamnan," p. 236. 


that tradition still pointed out as the grave of Cormac a duma 
or mound, which was near the site of the Catholic chapel, but 
has since been levelled. 1 A few days ago Mr. J. P. Johnson 
showed me Cormac's grave on a mound, and adjoining it a 
" pagan burial place," about five minutes walk to the west of 
his mill of Bosnaree; on these mounds human bones are 
found scattered about, and bones of great size have been dug 
up. The stream of the Boyne flowing by that place was called 
Linn Bois, or the Pool of the Boss. 2 Near it the Ulstermen 
came "across Dubid, across the Boyne into Mag Breg and 
Meath," and made their drunken raid into the South. Accord- 
ing to HeDnessy, Dubid is " apparently some little river north of 
the Boyne," 3 but it is clearly Dowth, opposite Bosnaree, which 
is called Dubad in the " Four Masters," and Duibfid in " Tiger- 

In the " B. of Lismore," 205 a, Bosnaree is thus referred 
to: "What is yon wooded headland? saith Patrick, i.e. 
Bosnaree. It is Bos Caille, saith Cailte, and there are a 
thousand kinds of trees in it, and the king's sons had a great 
palace there." The place was called Eos Caille, or the Head- 
land of the "Wood, and also Ross Finnchuilly or the Promontory 
of the Fair-Hazel : 

" Boss Finnchuill of Cluain Diothrach 
where youths and greyhounds used to be, 
was a dark wood, royal its gifts, 
for the hunting of Dathi, son of Fiachra. 
Beibhinn, the daughter of powerful Brian, 
was the mother of Dathi, son of Fiachra ; 
it was she, as I have heard here, 
who obtained the meadows round the fair Boss, 
the Esgir of Brannan, son of Eochaidh, 
the grave of Conn of the hundred battles 
was a dark oak -forest until now." 5 

1 "Cambrensis Eversus," ed. Kelly, i. 483, 484. 3 " Four Masters," i. 462. 
3 "Mesca Ulad," ix. 14. 4 " Four Masters," an. 238. 

5 Beeves' "Adamnan," p. 374. Macniad took up a position there, "C. M. 
Lena," 144 ; to Eosnaree Baile MacBuain went to meet Ailenn "his fiancee. 


II. The Seven Manuscripts 

which contain descriptions of the battle are : 

1. "The Book of Leinster," fol. 171, copied circ. 1150. 
2, 3. Two MSS. "belonging to Colgan, date uncertain, buthefore 1650. 

4. "Egerton," 106, fol. 53, copied in 1715. 

5. "MS. 23k, 37 (pp. 198-219), E. I. Academy," copied in 1715. 

6. "Stowe MS., R. I. Academy" (E. iv. 3, pp. 111-128), copied 

in 1727. 

7. A MS. of Maynooth, date uncertain, but before 1795. 

All are mentioned in M. de Jubainville's "Catalogue," 
p. 81, except the last, the existence of which I learned from 
my friend, Mr. John M'Neill, and the collation of which with 
M'Solly's MS. I owe to the kindness of the Eev. E. O'Growney, 
Professor of Irish at Maynooth. Colgan's copies are not in 
the Convent of the Franciscan Fathers, Dublin. The modern 
recensions of Egerton, 1 Stowe, the Eoyal Irish Academy, and 
Maynooth may be considered as identical. 2 They differ so 
much in matter, arrangement, and phraseology, from the LL. 
version, that collation would be difficult, and would involve very 
copious quotations ; and as they are interesting and represent 
an ancient text different from that of LL., and moreover 
preserve many rare archaic vocables, they merit substantive 
treatment, and are printed here with a translation. 

Besides the MSS. or books that describe the battle, there are 
others that mention it, viz. " The Battle of Magh Bath," p. 210 ; 
" The B. of Fenagh," p. 328 (a MS. of year 1516) ; The Stowe 
MS.," xxvi., fol. 62 ; " The E. I. Academy's MS.," 23k, 44, 
&c. ; and " Harleian, 5280," fol. 54 a. 

1 Father M'Swiney, S.J., transcribed for me some pages of "Egerton," which 
show that it is like M 'Solly's copy. 

2 The Eoyal Irish Academy and Maynooth versions scarcely ever differ. 

viii PREFACE. 

III. The Warriors and Chiefs mentioned in our text. 

Ninety of these figure in our tale, of whom only forty-five 
appear in M. De Jubainville's treatise on the " Epopee Celtique 
en Irlande." 1 The following is the traditional pedigree of the 
chief Ulster heroes ; it includes the names of five women, and 
they seem to have been non-combatants, viz. Clothra, Dechtire, 
Fedelm, Findchaem, and Findscoth. 

This pedigree of the Clann Eudraige is not quite as 
authentic as that of the descendants of the Grodolphin Arabian ; 
but it is here given as throwing some light on our story. 





Cathbad Drui. Mace 
Findchaem. Irgala 

Conall Cernach. Decht 

lach. Roeg. Cass. 

ch. Fergus. Fachtna Fathach. 


h. Glas. Athclo. 

tad. Ferfiled. Atherne 


ire. Con 
ilaind. Fed 
idscoth = Er 

or Mac Nessa. 

AedCaem. Iriel Cfi Ch 


elm Noichruthach. Clothra. 

c. Conor MacArthuir. 

Loegaire Buadach. Cairell Coscarach. Aed Anglonnach. 

It will naturally be thought that these people are mere 
figments of bardic fancy ; and incredulity is awakened by the 
wonderful things told about some of them in our text, such as 
that Conall Cernach 2 killed a thousand Leinster men with his 
own hand, and that Cairpre slew eight hundred, &c. Even 
seven hundred and fifty years ago such things were looked on 

1 The Index to that book gives a full list of the heroes of the Cycle of Concho- 
bor, whose names appear in the tales edited by "Windisch, Stokes, De Jubainville, 
and others. 

2 But here "we must understand Conall and his men; cf. "helium in Monte 
Badonis in quo corruerunt nongenti sexagenti viri de uno impetu Arthuri (Nennius 
in "Monum. Hist. Britonum," p. 74). 


as " rhi'stoire veritable des temps fabuleux," as the scribe of the 
" Tain Bo Cualnge," in the " B. of Leinster," writes at fol. 
104 b: "A blessing on everyone who shall faithfully memorize 
the Tain in this form, and shall not put it into any other form. 
But I, who have transcribed this history, or rather fable, do 
not believe some things in this history or fable. For some 
things in it are delusions of demons, some are poetic figments, 
some seem true ['similia'], and some not; some were written 
to amuse fools." 

This shows that the LL. scribe was " nae fool," and con- 
firms what the poet Thomas Moore said of the Irish scribes in 
general. Of him O'Curry says 1 : " Moore alternately scanned 
myself and the many dark and time-worn books by which I 
was surrounded, and he said, ' Petrie, these huge tomes could 
not have been written by fools or for any foolish purpose.' 
Doubtless under the hands of bards things were exaggerated 
and highly coloured, but yet may have had, and probably had, 
an historical basis; and we may say of them what a German 
critic, C. Gr. Schoell 2 (whose audacities of assertion in other 
matters are to be reprobated), says of the Briton " Nennius ": 
" In the hands of this writer all things become fables ; however, 
his writings may be useful as giving a picture of his times." 

More competent men than Schoell, and as able and willing 
to apply the solvents of modern criticism, find a basis of facts 
in the sagas of the cycle of Conchobor. Such men as D'Arbois 
de Jubainville, Windisch, and Whitley Stokes think that, 
though much in these early tales is due to the fancy of writers, 
there is a foundation of facts which seem to date from about 
the time of the dawn of the Christian Era. 3 However, 

1 "Manuscript Materials," p. 154. 

2 "Inter istius manus scriptoris omnia in fabulas sur.t versa. Usui esse possit 
ut setatis illius indolem perspiciamus ; quod hand parvi est ducendum." "De 
Eccles. Britonum, Scotorumque Historiae Fontibus," p. 37 : Berlin, 1851. 

3 " D'Arbois' Introduction a 1'Etude de lu Litterature Celtique," p. 45. Windisch, 
in " Uev. Celt.," v. 77, says; "Nous sommes amenes a attribuer ces legendes 
aux premiers siecles de notre ere. . . . Nous pouvons tenir pour certain que les 


Dr. Windisch prudently says, " I don't see why there was 
not a King Conchobor and a Queen Medb," and the sceptical 
scribe of LL. does not deny it. But at the risk of being 
thought behind the times and ihefin de siecle, I venture, with 
my countrymen of the eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth centuries to salute them as real personages, though 
I do not admire them, and would make some uncomplimentary 
remarks about Medb were I not speaking in presence of some 
of her descendants who are members of the Royal Irish 
Academy. I do not go as far as O'Curry, who says of the " Tain 
Bo Cualnge," in which Conchobor and Medb figure so pro- 
minently, " though often exhibiting high poetic colouring in 
the description of particular circumstances, it unquestionably 
embraces, and is all through founded upon, authentic historic 
facts." 1 Yet will I go as far as I can in that direction, picking 
my steps in the very shaky bog of early Irish history, and 
taking care not to go farther than my documents will carry 

Now, firstly, the triumphs of Conchobor and his Ulster 
heroes over the south and west of Ireland have been handed 
down to us by early Irish writers of the south and west 
kingdoms, without the slightest hint about the unreality of 
these things and persons. Assuredly, the Irishmen of these 
four kingdoms, who, according to Campion, "were greedy of 
praise and fearful of dishonour," would have denied, or called 
in question, stories so disparaging to their countries, if they did 
not believe them. 2ndly. The scribe who copied these sagas into 
the "Book of Leinster," circa 1150, though sceptical enough with 

moeurs que ces legendes assignent a cette epoque ont eu leur realite, sauf les exagge- 
rations de la fantaisie, en un temps qui n'est certainement pas posterieur au com- 
mencement de notre ere. . . . Je ne vois pas pourquoi il n'aurait pas existe un roi 
Conchobor, une reine Medb, qui chez les generations suivantes sont passes a 1'etat 
de heios legendaires." "Conor and the other persons mentioned are said to have 
lived in tbe first century of the Christian Era, and the possible incidents of the 
Saga may well have taken place at that period." Stokes' Pref. to "Siege of 

!" MS. Materials," p. 33. 


regard to details, does not question the reality of those Ulster 
warriors. 3rdly. Maelrauire of Clonmacnois, the scribe of "L. na 
Huidre," slain in 1106, copied into that book many sagas 1 cele- 
brating the triumphs of the Ulster warriors over his own 
countrymen, and never once calls their existence into question. 
4thly. " The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick," compiled in the 
eleventh century from documents, many, if not all, of which 
were composed before A.D. 1000, 2 mentions "the reign of 
Coirpre Nia Fer," 3 who was killed in the Battle of Eosnaree. 
5thly. In the same century the conscientious and enlightened 
chronicler, Tigernach, treats of Coirpre, Conchobor, &c., as real 
kings. 6thly. The Bodleian fragment of "Cormac's Glossary," 
the language of which " shows it to have been written not much 
before the eleventh century," 4 gives the name of Eochaid, son 
of Luchta, who is mentioned in our text. Tthly. Cinaed Ua 
Hartacain, who died in 975, in a poem preserved in LL., 
p. 31 b, mentions Eogan son of Durthacht, Grergenn son of 
Iliad the son of Ross, and the sons of Uisliu. In another 
poem, LL. 161, Cinaed mentions the seige of Howth by the 
Leinstermen, and names Aithirne, Conchobor, Coirpre, the 
sons of Eoss Euad, Find Fili, and Mess Dead. 5 Sthly. Probus, 
author of the " Vita Quinta," in the tenth or ninth century, 6 
mentions "the reign of Coirpre Nia Fer." 7 9thly. Maelnmra 
of Othan, who died in 884, mentions the name of Eudraige, 
Fachtna Fathach, Fergus son of Eoss, or Fergus son of Eoig, 

1 Pages 19-22, 55-82, 82-99, 90-112, 113-115, 121-121, 134. 

2 Whitley Stokes ed. of "The Tripartite Life," Introduction, p. Ixxxix. 

3 "Tripartite Life," ed. by Whitley Stokes, p. 122. 

4 Stokes' edition of this "Fragment," pp. 1, 30. 

5 On this M. D'Arbois de Jubainville says : " Cette Legende etait deja eonnue 
au dixieme siecle, comme'on peut le voir par un poeme de Cinaed hua Artacain, 
mort en 275." "Essaid'un Catalogue," &c., p. 142. 

6 "A work well ascertained to the tenth century." Sir S. Ferguson in " Patri- 
cian Documents," p. 125. M. de Jubainville says he lived in the ninth century: 
I forget in what book he says so. 

7 The page of the " Trias Thaumaturga" where this is given may be found by 
reference to Colgan's Index. 


LL., p. 135 a. lOthly. In the "Book of Armagh," which was 
copied in 807 from old and faded documents of the eighth 
century, or earlier, " the reign of Coirpre Nia Fer " is recorded 
at fol. 14 aa, and so are the names of Cass and Glass, which 
appear in our pedigree of the Ulster warriors. To this eighth 
century we may also perhaps refer the statement of the " Tri- 
partite Life," as, to use the words of Sir Samuel Ferguson, 
" the first elements of almost all its matter may be found in the 
* Book of Armagh,' either recorded at full length, or indicated 
in the rough index to names of persons and places at the end of 
Tirechan in that collection. There can be little doubt that, what- 
ever be the date of its compilation in its present form, most of 
its substance is drawn from traditions, which were current 
before the compilation of the 'Armagh Codex.'" 1 llthly. Cenn- 
failid, son of Ailill, a poet of the seventh century, wrote some 
verses on the death of Cu Chulaind, which are cited in the 
"Book of Leinster," p. 121. He says that this hero was slain 
in his fight against Lugaid, son of Curui. 2 " The time of Cenn- 
failid was the golden age of Irish literature. To the reign of 
Guaire Aidne, who died in 659 or 662, the narratives of the 
Irish file refer the redaction of the epopee of the ' Tain Bo 
Cualnge.' The greatest part of the old epic literature of 
Ireland appears to have been committed to writing during the 
hundred and fifty years which followed the dawn of Guaire's 
reign. In the seventh century died Dalian, son of Forgal, 
Senchan Torpeist, and Cennfailid, the most ancient, perhaps, 
of the Irish file, who may be considered as the real authors of 
the compositions which bear their names. At the same epoch 
the cultivation of Greek and Latin literature was carried on in 
Ireland with marvellous ardour and success." 3 

From those considerations which I have put forward, it 

1 Ferguson's "Patrician Documents," p. 127, and Hogan's "Documenta 
Patriciana," pp. 110-111. 

2 De Jubainville's "Cours de Litt. Celt.," v., pp. 829, 347. 

3 De JubainviUe's " Introduction a 1'Etude de la Litterature Celtique," p. 366. 

PKEFACE. xiii 

seems that, from the twelfth backward to the seventh century, 
Coirpre Nia Fer and the other warriors of the cycle of Concho- 
bor were looked on as real men of flesh and blood ; and a 
strong presumption is created that they were not mere figments 
of bardic fancy. 

IV. The Date of the Battle and of the Saga. 

It must have been before the end of the first century, as 
Marianus Scotus does not give the name of Conchobor Mac 
Nessa in his list of Ulster Kings from the beginning of the 
second century. It was fought about the first year of our era, 
if we are to believe 0' Flaherty, 1 our best native guide, who 
founds his view on " The Annals of Tigernach," " The Syn- 
chronisms of Fland," " The Books of Clonmacnois and Lecan," 
and " The Chronicon Scotorum." In this view he is borne out 
by the old " Book of Fenagh," p. 32. It was fought in the 
summer which followed the beginning of the Seven Years 

The Saga, such as we have it in the earliest and latest version, 
is non-Christian and pre-Christian in texture and tone. But from 
a linguistic standpoint the LL. text is Middle- Irish, as is shown 
by the total absence of the neuter article, except in the word 
an-i. There are also post-Danish interpolations of Norse names, 
such as Olaf, 2 Sigurd, Sciggire, Lochland, &c., which must have 
been inserted after the Irish had become acquainted, if not with 
the persons, at least with the names of some sea-rovers of the 
North. When that was we cannot tell, though we know that 
those rovers began to infest our shores about the year 795. We 
find, even in the older MS. of " L. na Huidre," Cu Chulaind 
speaking of his fighting against Lochland, " fri Lochlaind a 
tuaid," p. 114 a, last line. 3 

1 0gygia,"pp. 128, 132. 

2 An Amlaip invaded Ireland in 852. "Ann. of Ulster." 

3 In a " S. Gall MS.," written circ. 850, p. 112, we read "don laechraid lainn 
oa Loth-lind " (Lochlind?). 


What seems to give to the tale a fabulous character is this : 
that the heroic " Red Branch Knights " of Ulster, including 
Cu Chulaind and Conchobor, under the advice of their chief 
druid, who was himself a brave soldier, sought for foreign aid 
as early as the first years of our era. That appears an inter- 
polation due probably to a Lagenian hand. We learn indeed 
from Tacitus, that about the year A.D. 80 an Irish regulus 
found his way to the camp of the Roman general, Agricola, 
and tried to induce him to invade Ireland; 1 and we are told by 
the poet and historian, Thomas Moore, that " it would hardly 
be possible to find a picture more pregnant with the future, 
more prospectively characteristic, than this of an Irish prince, 
in the camp of the Romans, proffering his traitorous services 
to the stranger and depreciating his country as an excuse for 
betraying her." 2 That was the act of one defeated or disap- 
pointed man. 3 But it is scarcely credible that the warriors and 
chiefs of all Ulster would have called in the aid of " strangers," 
unless they really were what Cathbad calls them (" friends in 
absence") foreign friends, that is, I think, their kinsmen of 
Scotland and the Isles, and even of Britain. This view 
receives some countenance from the Irish " Nennius," p. 48, 
which says that the Firbolg seized upon Mann, Ara, He, and 
Rachra, the Galian seized the island of Ore, the Cruithne 
seized the northern part of Britain. 

V. Causes of the Battle. 

Medb, the warlike and wise Queen of Connacht, being 
anxious to improve the breed of cattle in the West of Ireland, 
sent envoys to Dare, chief of Cooley, in Louth, to ask a loan of 
his celebrated brown bull, offering him in return a chariot 
worth fifty cows, and a large tract of the best land in Roscom- 
mon. The envoys obtained Dare's consent, and, in honour of 

1 " Tacitus' Agricola," cap. 24. 2 "Moore's Hist, of Ireland," i. 118. 

3 I retract this : Tacitus does not say so ; ef. Livy, v. 26. 


the event, were entertained at a great banquet. One of them 
drank to excess, and boasted that if Dare had not given the 
loan of the bull, Medb would come and take that noble animal 
in spite of him. Whereupon the envoys were sent home with- 
out the bull. Medb was indignant, mustered her forces, crossed 
the Shannon at Athlone, met some Leinster and Munster allies 
at Kells, passed the Boyne in spite of the heroic resistance of 
Cu Chulaind, wasted Ulster up to the gates of King Conchobor's 
palace of Emain, near Armagh, and carried away the famous 
bull of Cooley. The Ulster warriors were taken by surprise, and 
had not time to line the ditches. It is said that they were then 
labouring under a mysterious disease 1 much more prostrating 
than our modern influenza. They soon recovered, however, 
went in pursuit of Medb, routed her army at Gairech, near 
Athlone, but suffered so heavily in the fight that they were 
unable to pursue the Connachtmen and secure the bull. 2 Thus 
cattle-lifting was the teterrima belli causa between Ulster and 
the other provinces, as it was of the strife between the Dioscuri 
and Apharetidse. 3 

VI. Summary of the Saga. 4 

After the Battle of Gairech Conchobor could not eat, drink, 
or sleep, &c. To Cathbad, who was deputed by the Ulaid to 
diagnose his malady, he says the memory of the invasion of his 
territory and the loss of the bull was undermining his life ; 
and he vows immediate vengeance on Medb. 1-5 (1-4). 

Cathbad seeks to comfort him by saying he had already 
inflicted heavy loss on his foes ; counsels him to wait till 

1 The "cesnaiden Ulad," due .to Macha's curse, LL. fol. 125 b. 

2 For these details see 0' Curry's " MS. Materials, pp. 30-40, and "Windisch in 
"Rev. Celt," v. 70-79. 

3 See "Rev. Celt.," April, 1892, p. 287. 

4 The numbers refer to the paragraphs of the LL. version ; the numbers and 
sentences in parentheses refer to the later version. Passages found only in the "B. 
of Leinster" are marked LL. ; passages found only in the later versions are in 


summer, which was the best season for campaigning ; to give 
his warriors time to heal of their wounds ; and, meanwhile, to 
send for Conall Cernach, then warring away from Ireland, and 
to seek the assistance of foreign powers. 6, 7 (4-7). 

(Conchobor says he will wait ; but adds that, even if Conall 
and the foreign hosts do not come, he will ravage Leinster, 
Munster, and Connacht. 8.) 

LL. Envoys are sent, find Conall Cernach in the Isle of 
Lewis, are entertained by him, and Conall sends messengers to 
his friends in Gallic and foreign lands. 8. 

LL. The Ulstermen hear from Conall, and resolve to give 
a round of banquets in his honour. 9. 

The foreign auxiliaries land in three divisions, viz. at Mur- 
lough Bay, and at Larne, Co. of Antrim, and at the mouth of 
the Castletown river, near Dundalk. 10. (All land together at 
Inis Oilella, near Dundalk. 12.) 

LL. Conchobor is at Dundalk, thinks the strangers are the 
Irish of the three provinces, suspects treachery ; when Sencha 
reports that they are his auxiliaries, " the clot of gore that was 
on his heart came from his mouth, " 11, 12. (Conchobor comes 
to meet them. 12.) 

By Conchobor's request they are entertained at Cu Chulaind's 
castle (for a whole week). 13 (13). 

LL. Cii Chulaind is asked by Conchobor firstly, to request 
the Ulster chiefs to entertain the auxiliaries ; secondly, to invite 
the 150 veteran Ulster champions to join the campaign Cii 
Chulaind refuses. 14. 

LL. Conchobar himself visits the veterans in their royal 
house, and brings them to the trysting place at Dundalk. 15. 

LL. The southern kings and Medb hear of Conchobor's 
resolve ; the " three great waves " reverberate ; the princes 
assemble their troops at their chief forts. Eochu King of 
North Munster sends a proposal to Medb that full reparation 
should be made; she refuses; then yields, on the advice of 
Ailill her Prince Consort ; but, as if to defeat the pacific views 

PREFACE. xvii 

of Eochu and Ailill, she sends as envoy to the Ulstermen 
Dorn Ibair, the man whom they most hated ; the Ulster chief 
at her court protests against this ; but adds that the Ulstermen 
would not harm an envoy. 16, 17, 18. 

(Medb, hearing of Conchobor's preparations, of her own 
accord resolves to send Mac Eoigh to Conchobor to ask him to 
put off the war for a year (!). Mac Eoigh declines to go, as he 
had given good reason to the Ulstermen to dislike him. Medb 
says the Ulstermen never molest envoys. 9.) 1 

LL. Find, King of Leinster, marches his army from Dind 
Eig to join his brother Cairpre, King of Tara. They send a 
prudent envoy to Conchobor with offers of full reparation. 19. 

(Mac Eoigh visits the Leinster Kings and goes with their 
envoys to Conchobor. 10.) 

Conchobor refuses the terms, and says he " will pitch his 
tent in every province of Ireland," and will encamp at Eosnaree 
south of the Boyne that night. 19, 20 (11, 14). 

The envoys return and report this refusal to Cairpre and 
Find. 21. (Mac Eoigh and the envoys report to Cairpre this 
refusal, and the arrival of Conchobor 's auxiliaries at the strand 
of Eochaill, and at the strand of the daughter of Flidas, and 
Conchobor' s march to Eosnaree. 15.) 

LL. The Leinster kings resolve to give him battle, and 
send word to Medb, promising help, if Conchobor marches to 
Connacht, and asking her aid if he attacked them. 21. 

(Mac Eoigh returns to Medb ; description of him. 15, 16.) 

LL. Medb refuses help to her allies and brothers-in-law, 
says they do not require it " against that man." 22. 

(Cairpre directs the Meath and Leinster clans to march to 
Eosnaree. 17.) 

LL. Conor reaches Accaill and Slige Breg (Cuain Grlaisse 
of SliabhBreg), encamps there, as he hears Eosnaree is held by 
Cairpre. 23, 24. Sliab Breg is near Ardee. 

1 In the later version, the herald, " Mac Roigh," is confounded with the royal 
warrior, Fergus Mac Roig ; his name is Mac Roth in LL. 94 b, 95 b, 96 b, 97 b, &c. 


xviii PKEFACE. 

(Cu Chulaind remains at Dundalk, getting men and pro- 
visions for the campaign. 18.) 

(From Sliabh Breg Conchobor marches early towards 
Eosnaree; his vanguard reports to him that it is occupied. 19.) 

Feic, sent by Conchobor to reconnoitre the enemy's position, 
crosses the Boyne, attacks them, (is wounded) and drowned. 
25 (21). In the later version Daig goes first, then Feic. 

Daig, sent as scout, attacks (!), is slain. 26 (20). 

Iriel goes, sees, reports the numbers, &c., of the enemy. 
27, 28, 29. He is prudent in outpost duty, brave in battle, and 
fierce in pursuit ; our tale points many a moral. 

(Iriel and his escort are attacked ; he retires fighting ; 
advises Conchobor to wait for reinforcements. 22.) 

Conchobor is counselled by the Ulster captains to wait for 
reinforcements. This counsel is given in succession, as they 
bring their men to the Boyne, by Cathbad, Eogan, and 
Loegaire, &c. 30-33 (24, 25). 

(Dare arrives, is described, wants to fight at once, is stayed 
by Conchobor. 23.) 

(Celtchair arrives, is described. 26.) 

When the troops under Loegaire (or Celtchair) come, Con- 
chobor crosses the Boyne, fights, is worsted, begins to retreat. 
34-38 (27, 29, 30, 31). 

(Description of Conchobor' s battle-dress, &c. 27.) 

(Description of Cairpre and his army, his speech. 28.) 

Conall Cernach enters into the fight. 38, 39 (32, 33.) 

(Daire, Eogan, Cathfad, Iriel, Laegire vainly strive to 
withstand the Leinstermen. 34.) 

Mes Dead, Anruth, Feithen Mor, Feithen Beg, and Aithirne 
arrive, but Leinster still prevails. 39, 43 (30). 

Cu Chulaind appears on the scene, threatens to slay any 
Ulsterman who turns his back to the foe. 44 (35). 

Conall Cernach kills 1000 men (!), is attacked by Cairpre, 
reluctantly kills three warrior-poets who come to Cairpre's help, 
and when he and Cairpre are separated by a charge of Leinster- 


men, he slays 1000 more (!) 45-47, (36, which only mentions 
that Conall slew six, whose names are given). 

Cairpre kills 800 (!) Ulstermen, attacks Conchobor ; 400 
Ulstermen come to help their King; and Cairpre is brought 
safe away by the Leinstermen. 48-50, (31, which omits the 
numbers, and gives other details). 

Cu Chulaind fights ; seeks out Cairpre ; after a hard contest 
kills him, cuts off his head, and shakes it at the Leinstermen. 

(Cu Chulaind routs the Leinstermen, challenges Cairbre to 
single combat, Cairbre accepts, war of words ; they fight, their 
weapons are broken ; Cu is reviled by Loeg, kills Cairbre, cuts 
off his head and shakes it at the Leinstermen. 37-43.) 

(Cu Chulaind, Conall, and Iriel press the Leinstermen. 
43, 44.) 

The Leinstermen are pursued by Iriel as far as the River 
Eye, near Leixlip, where Fidach stops their pursuit. 52, (45.) 

(Cu Chulaind lays Cairpre's head before Conchobor. 46.) 

LL. Conchobor goes to Tara that night, at the end of 
a week is visited by Ere (his grandson) son of Cairpre, who 
" places his head on the breast" of Conchobor. From him Ere 
gets back his kingdom, a grandfather's blessing, and advice 
not to fight against Ulstermen, and particularly against Cu 
Chulaind ; he also obtains Cu Chulaind's daughter in marriage. 
53-55. (See LL.'s description of Ere in MS. Materials, 507.) 

LL. Conchobor takes Ere to visit the battle-field, says 
Cairpre prevailed up to Conall Cernach's arrival, and was beaten 
only by numbers. 55, 56. 

On their return to Tara Conchobor again praises Ere's 
father and uncles. 57. 

(When Cu Chulaind brings Cairpre's head, Conchobor 
praises Erc's father and uncles ; Cairbre is buried, and the 
Ulstermen return home in triumph. 46.) 

Such is the pleasant ending of our saga. But Cu Chulaind 
had cut off the head, not only of Cairpre, but of Calatin, and 



Uurui, whom lie basely murdered because Curui had beaten him 
in fair fight, and bound him, and shorn off his hair. The sons 
of these three princes formed a league, ravaged Ulster, and cut 
off Cu Chulaind's head; 1 and so the beheading went on for 
years, because a Connacht gentleman did not hold his tongue, 
and an Ulster chieftain foolishly mislaid his temper. 

VII. The Early and the Later Versions. 

From the foregoing analysis, and from what is and what is not 
in the later version, it is clear that it cannot be derived from the 
LL. story. The general plot is the same, of course ; but the 
incidents, and the sequence even, are not. The later version is 
superior to the earlier in some respects ; it introduces and 
describes Dare, who was the cause of the war, and yet is not 
mentioned in the LL. saga as concerned in this battle. It says 
that Conchobor was resolved to fight if the auxiliaries did not 
come ; that the Connacht herald went with those of Tara and 
Leinster ; it gives the report of the envoys, descriptions of 
Celtchar, Conchobor, and Cairpre, the challenge of Cu Chulaind 
to Cairpre, and their war of words ; it mentions that Cairpre's 
head was brought to Conchobor, and that he was buried ; it 
contains six pieces of old poetry ( 27, 33, 35, 38, 39) which 
are not in LL. And most of these descriptions of appearance 
and dress are a faithful reflex of pictures found in other parts 
of L U. and LL. ; for example, the description of Mac Both, 
the herald, which is not in our LL. tale, but is found in another 
part of LL. and in L U. : 

Mac Roth techtaire Ailella agus Medba is e timchellas Merind in 6en 
16. Fethal lindu imbi ; lorg anfaid in a Idim ; calg det f 6 a coim ; lene 
culpatach con rfer^-intliud imbi. LU., p. 68 a. 

Mac Roth ind echlach . . . gilla dond drechletlian alaind ; Iratt 
dond derscaigthech immi ; bruthgae umaidi na brut ; tarlsleni trebraid 

1 LL. 45 a, 81, 121 b, 161 a, 169 b. 


fri a chness ; da lernbrdic etar a da choiss is talam ; mdtad lorg find- 
chuill issin dara Idim ; claidel lethfeabair con eltaib det isind Him anail 
do. Aile, a gilla, ar C. comartha n-ecTilaige sin. ZZ., p. 70 b. 

Is amlaid iomorro do 15i Mac Roig. sirsiublac, Idn-aisdreach ; gon 
eadac eachlacha uime .i. lein throsall, trealnaide 1 re a cneas ; brat 
leancorcra tairsil seacJitair ; mad lorg feitreannac ion a Idim cli ; 
cloidiom leadar-fedbrac gon altail) dead ion a deas-ldim ; dd bearribr6ig 
breacdeanmaca im a troigtil, a ccomarta ealadan re teactairioct na 
h-Eirionn, go b-fios sgeal na riog agus na ruireac leis do Meidb agus 
do Oilill go Cruacan Rata h-Aoi re deirid gacJi laoi. "Modern 
Version," 16. 

But if the modern version has sundry things not to be 
found in the earlier (?) account, the LL. saga contains alone 
the poetical pieces of 4, 6, 19, 22, 29, 54, 56 ; describes the 
storm, the dispersion of the fleet, Conchobor's suspicions and 
Sencha's report, the dialogue with the princely yeoman, the 
loving reconciliation and happy marriage, thus ending as does 
the story of the Battle of Magh Lena and many a modern 
tale. If the recent redaction were derived from ZZ/., these 
interesting things would not have been omitted. It is less 
luxuriant in epithets than "the Battle of Magh Bath" and 
"the Battle of Magh Lena/' is quite pagan in texture and 
complexion, contains many descriptions which are like those of 
other tales in LL. and LU., and exhibits also many archaic 
inflexions, old vocables, and Middle-Irish survivals, which 
escaped the notice of the later compilers, or were purposely 
retained by them. All these things seem to show that it repre- 
sents an old Irish version coeval with, but not very closely 
related to, the LL. saga, and claim for it special attention and 
substantive treatment. 

The Stowe copy is well penned, on good paper, in well- 
spaced lines, by Brian mac doctuir leigis, 2 and is here printed 

l Treabnaide is a mixture of "trebraid" of LL. 70b, and "srebnaide," which 
appear often in descriptions of the dress of warriors. 

2 Perhaps he was son of u Dr. Brian O'Loghlen, who departed this life 18th 

xxii PEEFACE. 

as the best of the modern texts ; when other copies yield other 
readings, such variants are given. The text of the Royal Irish 
Academy (on bad paper and in bad writing by John Mac 
Solly in 1715) ; and that of Egerton (by John Mac Solly and 
Richard Tipper in 1715), and of Maynooth (written in the 
18th century), appear to be copies (or copies of copies) of one 
and the same manuscript; and the variations consist, for the 
most part, of insertions or inversions or omissions of epithets. 

VIII, The Printed Texts and Translations. 

The first text is here printed from the " Book of Leinster" 
itself. The contractions are extended, and the extension repre- 
sented by italics ; proper names are spelt with initial capitals ; 
the text is punctuated, and sometimes supplied with hyphens. 

The translation is very close, and may appear very rugged ; x 
yet will, I trust, be intelligible to the reader. An attempt has 
been made to translate 2 many vocables which are not found in 
dictionaries or glossaries; and even an honest endeavour has 
been made to render into English obscure passages the meaning 
of which is still somewhat doubtful to me. Such efforts are 
pointed out by a note of interrogation ; they may have resulted 
in present failure, but they will attract the attention of 
scholars able to throw light on those obscurities. On this sub- 
ject Dr. Atkinson says: " We do not know the import of many 
a word that occurs in our Irish texts, and we are not permitted 
the free licence of guessing indulged in by the past generation. 
At present there is scarcely the simplest piece of Middle-Irish 
prose of a few pages long but contains some word or phrase 

Sept , 1773," as is written on p. 128. Under the compiler's name is written 
" Semuis O'Moran, master an leabhair so." 

1 "Above all things the translation should be exact and literal" Edm. 
Burke's Letter to Valiancy, O'Reilly's " Irish Writers," p. 181. 

2 " Don't hesitate to" translate, holds good here, if fair warning be given.- 
The Irish way has been not " to give notice"; at which the Germans, to borrow 
words of the late Laureate, give " Marvellous great shrieks and ghastly groans." 



that must be passed over with a query or a blank space." 1 
Hence we find Mr. Whitley Stokes writing thus : " Many of 
the words in this paragraph are obscure, and the renderings are 
mere guesses ;" 2 hence also Dr. "Windisch sometimes gives up 
any attempt at translating a difficult passage, as for instance in 
the "Tain Bo Kegamon," p. 249;' and Dr. Thurneysen thus 
prefaces a version of twenty-eight lines : " The meaning of 
the following tale seems to be as follows, though many a 
particular word or phrase may be doubtful." " Rev. Celt." 
vi. 92. The poetry is often omitted by editors either because 
it repeats what is in the prose parts or because of its ob- 
scurity; the pieces marked with R. in the margin of old 
manuscripts are bits of Rose or Retairic, are hard to 
render into English as they are jerky, ejaculatory, allusive, 
or instances of aposiopesis or ellipsis. I have essayed a tenta- 
tive and timid translation of them in the hope of helping 
others to do better ; and I think that these difficult pieces could 
be successfully grappled with by any fair Irish scholar who 
would take the trouble to collate and index all of them that are 
found scattered here and there in our published books and 

IX, The Glossary of the Leinster Text. 

This might be called an Index Verborum, as it gives only 
the briefest explanation and parsing of the words. My reason 
for giving a full Index may be set forth in the words of two 
scholars competent in such matters. Dr. Atkinson, in his 
Introduction to the Fac-simile of the " Book of Leinster," p. 3, 
says : " It is indispensable that individual poems and works 

1 "Lecture on Irish Lexicography," p, 33. 

2 Stokes on " Irish Ordeals," p. 222. 

3 And 254: "Auf die Ubersetzung des Ganzen verziehte ich." In preface to 
"T. Bo Darteda," he says: "Auch jetzt bleiht noch mancher dunkle Punkt." 
p. 186. See also pp. 29 and 31 in Stokes' "Translation of the Bodl. Cormac's 
Glossary." To these roses may be applied Cormac's words (ib. 30): "Ni cech 
dialt tra rosegar inne," not every syllable attains a meaning. 

xxiv PKEFACE. 

should be carefully edited with careful glossaries honestly pre- 
pared, and not, as hitherto, with mere translations which never 
can be wholly satisfactory as long as the means of controlling 
the translator are not placed within the reach of scholars gene- 
rally." Dr. Thurneysen writes in Irische Miscellen, " Revue 
Celtique," vol. vi. : " Unfortunately the exact meaning of new 
and unusual words can hardly be determined as they occur in 
obscure stanzas, and, with special frequency, in detached flos- 
culi. The prose reading gives us very little assistance, as it, 
for the most part, passes over these particular forms. Even 
' Stokes' Index ' is not quite satisfying. In using it we find 
this difficulty, that frequently words which have been already 
established, as well as new words, are set down without their 
signification being added ; any one who has not the whole col- 
lection of forms present to his mind is constantly obliged to 
search Stokes' earlier Glossaries, to discover whether a word has 
been already explained or is still to be explained. Furthermore, 
the passages of reference are not given in their entirety in the 
case of each word ; so that the reader is not dispensed from the 
labour of compiling an Index for himself. What has induced 
the editor to depart from his earlier practice we do not know. 
We trust that the best-read of Celtic scholars will return to his 
former method in compiling these valuable Indexes; he will 
thereby render a great service to his colleagues." 

These remarks are quoted merely to show that the time has 
not yet come for mere translations and a collection of rarer 
words, if we want to satisfy students of Irish, and to help 
towards the making of a dictionary of our language ; yet I do 
not quite agree with Dr. Thurneysen as to the work of Mr. 
Stokes, whom I should be sorry to see turn to the drudgery of 
index-making from the close, exact, and crispy translations in 
which he has few or no equals. 

The words of our text which are not found or are not 
explained in Windisch's " Woerterbuch " are marked with an 
asterisk in the Glossary. The numbers refer to the paragraphs 


of the text ; the cases and genders are marked by their initials 
in italics, as napm. for nominative and accusative plural, mascu- 
line gender. " Dogebad sib," 46, " dogena-sib," LIT., p. 99 b, 
show the early " analytic" use of the 3rd sing, with pronouns of 
another number and person; fhepret. pass, tucait, rucait, slaidit, 
rogaibit, rohindlit; rarmetair-ne, co ro churiur, fagaim-se, 
fagum (dependent forms), fagbaim, fagbam are noteworthy. So 
are the accusatives " uair," " in n-uair," 13, ap. firu (than or 
as men), 13 ; the promiscuous use of "bar," " far," and "for," 
and of "do, ro, fo," "ra, ba." In "rabar" (for "la bar"), 
46, we see that "bar," the possessive pronoun, lengthens the 
vowel of "ra"; "ra" (with, in the opinion of), for "la," 26, 
27, shows that the confusion, which is now complete between 
"fri" and "la," had begun seven or eight centuries ago. 

X. The Versification. 

Ea airgestar Medb co mm 
co dun Daire 'n-ar ndeg-thir 

co dun Sescind ciped de . 

co dun sir-glan Sobairge. 

Syllables : 7777. Ehyme : 1 with 2, 3 with 4. Termination : 
1213. But in the other stanzas, the Termination runs : 1112; 
2312; 1223; 2312; 1211. The Internal Ehyme is not used. 
Alliteration irregular. Hence it may be assumed that the 
versification is not of the exact kinds. 


Ra-diglais chena co cruaid 
a Chonchobuir claideb-ruaid 

brissiud catha cuman lem 

bar cethri choicid Herend. 

Syllables : 7777. Ehyme : 1 and 2, 3 and 4. Termination : 
1312. In other stanzas, the Termination is 1214; 1112; 

xxvi PEEFACE. 

122(?)2; 1223; 1212; 1113; 1112. No Internal Ehymes. 
Alliteration irregular. Therefore not of the exact kinds. 

Tancamar 6 'n Chruachain Chroda 

nach "bee blad 
cucut-s' a Chonchobuir chora 

cruaid do gal. 

Syllables 8383. Ehymes 1 and 3, 2 and 4. Termination 
2121. Ehyme absent once; once replaced by Internal Ehyme 
in 4th verse. This is the measure known as Setrad nGairit. 


Da torset maicc Magach 
in sluag brotla bagach 
bud cro-derg al-lamach 

i cath Ruiss na Rig 
Da tora ri Macha 
saifiter a datha 
claifiter a ratha 

tairnfithir a brig. 

Syllables 66656665. Ehyme 1, 2, and 3; 5, 6, and 7; 4 
and 8. Termination 22212221. In three out of five stanzas, 
verse No. 3 is absent. The 5th stanza wants the latter half. 
In each of the four complete stanzas, verse 8 rhymes internally 
with 5, 6, and 7. This is Ochtfoclach M6r\ v. Thurneysen's 

Versl. 94. 


Atat i ceilg ar do chind 
issin ross imtheit Boind 

teora catha Clainne Deirg 

lassait mar lassair dar leirg. 

Syllables 7777. Ehyme 1 and 2, 3 and 4. Termination 
1211. Termination in other stanzas, 1213; 1113. No Internal 
Ehyme. Not therefore a classic measure. 




Beir mo bennact bi dom reir 

na dena fein frithbeirt frind 
da tuca dun tend fri tend 

is derb lem dafaethais lind. 

Syllables 7777. Ehyme 2 and 4. Termination 111.1. 
Eegular Internal Rhymes and Alliterations. This is the classic 
measure known as Rannaigecht Mor. 


Ba escomol comrac fris 
dichor Cairpri do chlar fiss 

sochaide am rodoscloe 

cossin laithe sin rosbae. 

Syllables 7777. Ehyme 1 and 2, 3 and 4. Termination 
1132 (1111 ?). Termination in other stanzas, 1222, 1111. In- 
ternal Ehyme and regular Alliteration absent. Not therefore a 
classic measure. 


Tri maicc Rosa Ruaid in rig 

gabsat in tir buidnib sel 
Find i n-Alind Ailill i Cruaich 

Carpre thuaid i Temair Breg. 

Syllables 7787. Ehyme 2 and 4. Termination 1111. In- 
ternal Ehyme not regular, except in above stanza. Seemingly 
-a variety of the classic measure Rannaigecht Mor (see vi.) 


Dimbuaid fir 
frithrosc madma 
maidm ria ngnusib 
ocbad n-essairm 
gillanrad diairm 
dichra fedma 
f uidb do anocht 
follogod feile 
rith fri geltaib 
gair ri dogur 
dal ri dimbuaid. 


Ni hi n-am inrim errach 
is fuar ga bel gaethach 
garfit ili Elga 
airderg in bith 
bebsat buale Febra 
fanna mila Marta 
trena uile Aperoil 
oenach more maimthi 
moaigsem ri ceim nitha 
connach i n-aim inriin errach. 

xxviii PREFACE. 

These compositions are of the kind called " Rose." There 
are no stanzas, no regular number of syllables in the verse if 
it may be termed verse no rhyme, and, of course, no "termi- 
nation." The only ascertainable characters seem to be (1) 
alliteration, (2) short, jerky sentences, and (3) a certain 
laconic and somewhat oracular diction. The Luirech Pddraig y 
the Formulae of the Brehon Laws, Dubhthach's Judgment in 
the beginning of the Senchus Mor, the first poem in Lodges 
Mace n- Usnig, are of this class. 

XI. Remains of the LL. Text in the Modern Version. 

Par. 3. A mo papa a Catfaig, ar se, is mor aclbar . . . agom-so, 6ir 

do ruactadar ceitre hollcoigib Eirionn : 
mo deag-bailtib : = mo deg-baleda. 
,, 4. ni cat liomsa cat nacar tuit rig. 
5. ni ham . . . earrac, &c. 
,, 5. gurab cearcaill . . . gac fod fear-glas. 
,, 7. cuir-si feasa 7 teacta uait go. 
7. tar muincinn mara 7 mor-Fuirgge. 

(some of the Norse, and other names}. 
7. rig (ar) an seactmad rann do'n domuin Loclannaig. 
,, 17. tri cata Cloinne Deirg. 
,, 21. ro cheil a meanmain orro. 
,, 22. mideas 7 moir-Feacas. 
,,22. go ttig bur ttreoin. 

31. gur geis ... an Ochaoin .i. sgiat Concubair. 
,, 31. tri tonna . . . na hEirionn . . . .i. tonn . . . Ruclraige 7 

tonn . . . Cliodna 7 tonn . . . Tuaide. 
,, 32. madma 7 moir-teitme. 
,, 32. Diombuaid fear friotrosg madma maidm re ngnuisib . . . 

ogbad asairm . . . diocar feadnia . . . rit fri gealtact. dail 

go ndiogra. dul fa diombuaid. 
,, 34. an cat ar do coimirce. 

,, 43. gur bean a ceann de. 7 croitios an ceann ris na sluagaib. 
,,46. maith am inti . . . Tri mic RossaRuaid in rig gabsat an tir . . . 

fine analladOilill a cCruaic Cairbre antua a tTearhraig Breag. 
,, 46. A n-aoin-Feact ... an triar . . . ann gac gleo . . . a 

mbeirdis a mbaid. 
,, 46. Ba trat n-a ttri n-uaitne 6ir . . 6 ... in treas . . . 

PREFACE. xxix 

XII. Grammatical Remains of a Middle Irish Version different 
from the LL. Version. 

Par. 5. reide . . . seitrig, sonairte . . . admara . . . ilbreaga . . . 

slearima, slinn-geara. 
,, 5. caoma: all the foregoing adjectives, being predicates, agree ivith 

the subject, contrary to modern usage. 
13. go aroile. 
,,15. a ttoig (= i taig) R. 
,, 15. go traig n-Eochaille. 
,, 17. ait a mbi (= a mbai). 
,, 17. go Monad a mbi. 
,, 18. do anasdar. 
,, 20. a ttorchair ... go xnbeart. 
,, 22. adchid (for atchm). 
,, 23. go n-ad ann isbeart (= asbert). 
,, 25. cairp(t)iB = modern cairbdib. 
,, 27. a mbi do chlochaib (mod. a raib). 
,, 28. don leith araill gonad (ann) isbeart. 
,, 29. fiallac n-eadrom n-anbfosad. 
,, 34. anosa. 

,, 35. adbeart . . . am sliab, &c. 
,, 35. adaig (read adaid) a gliaid ngaisge as 7 a dearnoin ndearmair 

(accusative o/gleo, dearna, dearmar). 
,, 35. ionnus go mbi (= combai, mod. go raib). 
,, 36. aroile. 
,, 38. do beart = tug. 
,, 38. 6 ro ria chugam-sa. 
,, 39. ro adfiad-sa soin (= rotbia-su sain) . . . isam triat ... am 

niad, &c. . . . cairpteac (= mod. cairbdeac). 
,, 40. tug gac aon diob diograis ngon. 
,, 40. ar dromainn (= for drommaimm?) 
,, 40. tarractain. 
,,41. torrachtadar. 

,, 42. sonairte soiiheisnig (predicate in agreement]. 
,, 43. nf tearnod. 
,,45. torcradar, ruige, go ro so. 
., 46. dia raibe = da raibe. 


XIII. Contractions explained in Preface of the Stowe MS. 

c = cead. 1 = caogat. m = muin . 2 = da. f = ea. d. o = doirionn. 

ee = eile. 11 = dail. bb = Daibi. = ara. = Eire. = Eirionn. 

a e o 

^ a = grad. J = fear. s f s = fearr. = Eirinn. ^ = e fein no fainne. 

I = eirge no gre. ^ = feidm. G = gac. g - gac. = garb. 
& * 8 & 

= failte. m = imrim, no muin ar muin. r = fairrge. b- = bud. 
en- = chuaid. dh- = deag no diaid. b = -bann. by = bead. 07 = cean. 
de = duine. dc = dearc. dg = dearg. f = fein. g = gan, go. 
.i. = ingion. im = imurro. sg = sgeul. cp = corp. ct = ceart. 
cr = Criost. m = mud. 

The Academy MS. has the following note at p. 42 : 

Finit. Ar n-a sgriobad le Seon mac Eamuind mic Donnc(ada) 
mic Muiris mic Solaid an seactmad la do mi Abraoin, an bl[iadain] d' 
aois an Tigearna 1716 ; 7 do cuimniugad uaisle 7 atarda cloinne 
Eugr[aide], 70. Trocaire 6 Dia go" bfag(baid) an sgribneoir .i. Seon 
mac Solaid. 

On page 1 of Stowe E. iv. 3 : 

Ceatrar do ni dion da 
gac ealadain, iodon. 
Log, aimsior, tacad sgribinne, 7 pearsa. 
Log don leabar-so, Maig Glas a cConntae an Clair, 
a mbaruntact Uib Breacain, a ccoigid Muman. 
Aimsior fos don leabar-so .i. aimsior Seoirse 
do beit n-a rig ar Sagsaib, ar Albain, 7 ar Eirinn. 
Tacad sgribinne an leabair-se .i. bliadain d'aois an 
domain cuig mile seact ccead, 7 .... bliadain deag, 
7 d'aois Criosd, mile 7 seact ccead, 7 seact mbliadna 

PREFACE. xxxi 

fitciot, an cuigicl la do Mi's Mai 
Pearsa fos don leaBar-so .i. Brian mac, 
doctuir leigis. 

\_And in a very bad hand~\ 

Semuis Moran 

Master an latiair so. 

Andrew Mac Curtin [Aindrias mac Cuirtin] also wrote in this 

The contractions used in the collation of the modern texts 
are A. M. S. for the copies of the Royal Irish Academy, of 
Maynooth College, and of the Stowe MSS., E.I.A., respectively. 
The other contractions are explained, as occasion requires, in 
other parts of this book, or are easily understood. The numbers 
refer to the pages of the books or manuscripts quoted, unless 
where the folio is mentioned ; but in the Indices the sections 
are marked by the figures. 

While urging in my Lectures the advantage of giving full 
indices of texts, I quoted the words of Dr. Thurneysen, but I 
did not concur in all he said ; and I remarked that, in his 
most elaborate and learned Index of the words quoted in 
Zeuss' Grrammatica, several hundred words were omitted, and, 
to use his own phrase, " the passages of reference are not given 
in their entirety in the case of each word." I added that I 
had made a list of such words, and would print them if it 
were thought useful. With the approval of the Academy I 
append this list of omitted words or word-forms as a supplement 
to the monumental work of Drs. Griitterbock and Thurneysen. 

When writing a Glossarium to the Irish of the "Book of 
Armagh," and while compiling the Index to our LL. text, I felt 
that grammars and dictionaries did not give information enough 
with regard to the gender of nouns, and specially of the neuters. 
To begin with the latter I collected and classified materials 
which I trust go some way towards supplying a full treatise on 
the subject. The plan of the declensions I have taken from 

xxxii PREFACE. 

Mr. "Whitley Stokes' Treatises on " Celtic Declensions," and on 
"S-Stems in the Celtic Languages." I gratefully acknowledge 
that I got much of my materials from those treatises and from 
the prefaces of his books, in which he never fails to point out 
the neuters of his texts. 

With regard to the whole of this volume I have had many 
helps and hints from Mr. John MacNeill, B.A., who placed 
at my disposal the treasures of his knowledge of Old, Middle, 
and Modern Irish. To him, my former pupil and present 
learned friend, I beg to tender my cordial thanks. 


December 3rd, 1892. 




T. Nairn bai a Conchobor i w-Emaiw mm-etrocht Macha ar b cur 
chatha na Tana lais. Connn, bai biad ra-tholathar do, 7 coraiar-chotail 
co sam, 7 conna ro-ataim do neoch d'Ultaib cid do-n-rat samlaid ri 
tremsi na teora coicthiges. Et atchuas d'Ultaib am sin A, Conchobor* 
do bith i sergg 7 i sir-galr, 7 conna bai biad Ta,-iho\athar do, 7 
connar-chotail co sam, 7 conna ro-ataim do neoch d'Ul^w'J cid donrat 

2. Andsiw doringned tin 61 7 tochostul ac TJltaib co h-Emain min- 
etroct Macba. Et ra-comarliced accu-som dawo, cia bad choir do- 
choibsegud na cnedi ra-cnedaig rig d Ulad, 7 in galair buirb ra-s-basaig 
7 ro-s-banaig ra tremsi na coicthiges, conna bai biad la-iholathar do 7 
conna ro-ataim do neoch d'Ul^'3 cid donrat samla^W. Iss-<?? ro- 
raidsetar-som uili dawo. corop e in nech ro-s-ail 7 ro-sn-irthocaib .i. 
drui deg-amra. 

3. Ro-luid reme dawo C'dfhbad drui deg-amra co hairm i mbai 
Conchobor, 7 ciis dera folcmara for-ruada fola cor bo flinch bla3 7 
brunni do. Airchisis Conchobor do deor ChathbW. " Maith am 
and-siw, a mo phopa Chathb^eW," ar Convhobor, <{ cid do-t-gni torsech 
dobbronach do-menmnach?" " Eo-fail am a mor-abba dam-sa 

Or La ira-bai ; in aim = when. b ar in fac- simile. 

c Conchobor in full, fo. 174 b, 1; Conchobur, LU, 103 b, Conchubor, LIT., 

p. 70 ; g. Conchobuir, LU. 34 b. In tbe translation the usual Conchobar 

is given; d. Conchobur, LU. 128. 

1 Navan Fort, near Armagh, on the road to Keady. 

2 Debated ; " it is allowed " in Anglo-Irish = is agreed on. 

3 Cobsaighther, confortettir, Atkinson's Glos., is from cobsaid; e. .i. sithugad 
noleasugad, H. 2. 15, p. 120, lit. cognoscere (cubus). 


1. Once upon a time Conchobar was in smooth-bright Emain of 
Macha, 1 after the giving of the battle of the Tain by him, so that 
there was not food that pleased him, and that he slept not easily, 
and that he confessed not to any of the Ulaid what made him so, for 
the time of the three fortnights. And that thing was told to the 
Ulaid, that is, Conchobar to be in decline and in long-sickness, and 
that there was not food that pleased him, and that he slept not easily, 
and that he confessed not to anyone of the. Ulaid what made him so. 

2. Then was made a gathering and an assembling of the Ulaid to 
smooth-bright Emain of Macha. And it was allowed 2 by them then 
who would be proper to ascertain 3 the wound that wounded the king 
of the Ulaid, and the violent sickness that brought him to death, 4 and 
made him pale for the time of the three fortnights, so that there was 
not food that pleased him, and that he confessed not to anyone of the 
Ulaid what made him so. It is this that all these said then, that it 
was the person who reared him and brought him up, namely, Cathbad 
the famous druid. 

3. So on went Cathbad, the right- wonderful druid, to the place in 
which Conchobar was, and he wept floodlike deep-red tears of blood, 6 
so that his breast and bosom were wet. Conchobar took pity on 
the tear of Cathbad. " Good, indeed then, my master Cathbad," 
said Conchobar, " what makes thee sad, sorrowful, dispirited?" 

e The nom. and accus. Cathbath in full, LL., pp. 93, 106 ; voc. is evidently 
Cathbaid in 5, last line, as the versification requires it. n. Cathbath, 
LL. 311, 3 col. He was a fennid, or warrior, as well as a druid, LL., 
p. 106. In the B. of Armagh the gen. is Cathboth, Cathbath, Cathbad, 
as if from n. Cathbu. 

4 i.e. was killing him ; galar also means grief. 

5 Cu Chulaind's charger, The Grey of Macha, let fall big tears of blood, 
tarlaic a bolgdera mora fola," LL. 119 b, 1. 3. 



ale for Cathbfl^. ' ' Na f etar ca cned ra-t-cbnedaig 7 ca galar borb a 
ro-t-basaig 7 ro-t-banaig ra tremsi na teora eoicA*j0w." "Pail am a 
mor-abba dam-sa," bar CWchobor. "' Daig da-w-riachtatar oetbri oll- 
chofceda JLerend. Et tuctha leo-sum a n-aes ciuil 7 airfiti 7 admolta, 
combad leriti na hairgni, 7 combad moti na hurbada ; 7 ra-loscit ar 
ndunaid 7 ar ndeg-baleda 0wnach arddi (at 'nas b a n-airidni 7 a n-i/wmell- 
aige. Et barroebris dawo AilW c 7 M^d catb. form-sa. 7 rucad laeg 
mo bo fadem a purt eicne uaim-se." Et iss-amlaid ro-boi 'ca rad 7 
atb0rt na bria^Ar-sa and : 

4. " Ro-fail lim-sa domna broin d 

dia festa-su, a ChathbotW choir, 

Ulaid uile, aidble gal, 

nir-bo chommairge d' oen-daw. 

E-a-thinoil Medb anfar, 
iwgen Ecb^cA ciarbanriad, 
co rue le buar 7 brat 
7 or 7 arget. 

Ra-airgestar Medb co mf 
co dun Daire n-ar nd^g-tbir 
co dun Sesciwd cip ed de 
co dun sir-glan Sobairge. 

M farggaib 'n-ar coiciud cbain 
mur n6 bale can argain 
na dun na maitis coscur 
no mur can a dian-loscud. 

a Read galar m-borb, if it be not masc. here. b For indas, than. 

1 borb is said in Munster of a very heavy crop, and seems to mean here excessive, 
intense : borrthorad. 

2 Or strongholds ; baile also signifies townland. 

3 A division of a house ; i.e. half a house, Petrie's Tara, p. 202; isin airidin 
airthair (LL.), in the eastern half of the house; etir imdaid ocus aiiidin, H. 2. 16, 
p. 557; sin n-airidin, in the room (of the invalid), LL., p. 52, 1. 11 ; T. Bo Reg. 

4 The surrounding or outside premises. Cf. iomallaiche, "the outmost part,'* 


"I "have indeed great-reason for that," replied Cathbad, "that I 
know not what wound has wounded thee, and what obstinate 1 sick- 
ness has deadened thee, and paled thee for the time of the three 
fortnights." "Great-reason indeed have I for it," said Conchobar, 
"for four great-provinces of Eriu have come to me, and with them 
were brought their men of music, and of amusement, and of eulogy, 
that the more conspicuous might be the ravages, and that the greater 
might be the devastations ; and our fortresses and our fine-dwellings 2 
were burned, so that no higher (were) they than their rooms, 3 and 
their outhouses. 4 And Ailill and Medb gained a battle too against 
me, and the calf of my own cow was taken from me out of a place of 
safety." 5 And it is thus he was saying it, and he uttered these words 
thereupon : 6 

4. " There is to my mind a cause of grief. 

if thou wouldst know, just Cathbad, 

the Ulaid all, vastness of brave deeds, 

it was not a protection for one bull. 

Medb assembled (them) from the west 

the daughter of Echu, though it was a woman's raid 7 
and carried off kine and raiment 
and gold and silver. 

Medb ravaged easily 8 

unto Daire's fortress in our good land, 
unto Diin Sescind, what there is of it, 
unto the long-famous fort of Sobairge. 9 

She left not in our fair province 
wall or stead without ravage, 
nor fort in which they boasted not triumph, 
nor wall without fiercely burning it. 

c So in full, 23, and LL. 170 b. d Two lines to one of the MS. 

Scotch Bible, Numbers, xxii. 41. It seems to be compounded of imm and ellach y 

5 Lit., of force or violence. 

6 Or then. 

7 Or ' Medb of dark-white chariots." 

8 Or " marched on," connected with eirgim. 

9 Dunseverick, Co. Antrim. 


Mo dam-sa is daw dowd Daire, 

'm-a laifeit 6ic ilgaire 

nocho raba riam -mace bo 

'm-an mo donither d' anro 
M lia esbaid daiw na bo 

acaind i coiced Ewno a 

na esbaid laich dadluig b 

ar n-a fothrucud 'n-a full." P. (sic) 

5. "Maith. am c a m' anam a Chathb^m?,' 5 bar Convhobor, "cade 
do chomairli-siu dun?" 7 is amlaid ra-bai 'ca rad 7 aibert na bria^Ar/z: 

" A ChathbflW, cowairle dun ; 

do-n-rmgni mertaiw mimn, 

terna Medb assiw chath gle 

iss-ed am r-ar-metair-ne. 
Mr bo choir do Meidb don Maig 

tiwol ar cend mo daim d 

cia-r-sa dam co wda mbeiwd 6ir, 

beth acum nirb furoil. e 
Ce wbad e a dam-si bad mo, 

nirb furail di Iseg a bo ; 

leeg ar mbo fein fath amne 

nir-bo choir a iarraid foirne. 
Meir is forni im Ia3g ar mbo 

tuc ingen TZchach anro 

mithig diin dul d'a dfgail 

bar Meidb, bar-sin mor-rigaiw." 

* Sic, for the rhyme. b A syllable wanting ; read [6in]laich ? 

l Ut, "cow's son." 

2 Medb, his former wife, inflicted such loss on him at tbe battle of Gairech, that 
he could not follow up his victory. 

s " My dear life " is an Anglo-Irish expression ; it is to be found in the letters 
of some ladies of the kingdom of Kerry. See Life of Count Daniel O'Connell, by. 
Mrs. O'Connell Fitzsimon. Cf. "Your soul, bow are you?" Anglo-Irish. 

4 Either the sickness (cesnaiden) ; or the cowardice of Medb and her echlach. 

5 = ro-ar-metair-m, has cowed us ; meata = cowardice, 0'., W. ; rar-mellais, 


My bull and the brown bull of Daire, 

about which the warriors will give forth much shouting, 

there was not ever a cow's bull calf 1 

about which more of misery is wrought. 
ITot more the want of bull or cow 

to us in the province of Emain 

than the loss of a hero that she cut down 2 

having bathed him in his blood." There is. 

5. " Good now, my life 3 Cathbad," said Conchobar, "what is thy 
counsel to us ?" and it is thus that he was saying it, and he said the 
words : 

" Cathbad, a counsel for us ; 

faintness 4 has wrought an evil design on us ; 
[that] Medb escaped from the famous battle, 
it is this truly that has dismayed us. 5 
It was not right for Medb from the Plain 
to muster [an army to come] for my bull : 
though it were a bull with two horns of gold, 
that I should have [it] was not too much. 6 
Though it were her bull that were the greater, 
the calf of her cow was not too much for her ; 
the calf of our own cow, a cause of patience, 7 
it was not right to ask him from us. 
Since [?] it is on us for our cow's calf 

that Echu's 8 daughter has brought hardship, 
time for us to go to avenge it 
on Medb, on the great queen." 

c am in fac- simile. d Verse deficient ; read tinol sldig (?). 

e Syllable wanting ; read a beth ; read dawbeind (ox-horn). 

thou hast deceived us, Fragm. of I. Ann., 14 ; nach-ar-leic = ne nos inducas, Afk. 
Gloss., 545, col. 1 ; atar-fail, nacbar-len, nachar-cobrai, S. na Rann, 55, 146. 

6 furoil, gl. abundantia, Z. 

7 Or "a reason or cause indeed." I divide this cheville thus: fatli amne ; 
.aimne = patience, O'R. ; or = ita, so, in Z. Cf. fathairgne, "cause of plunders," 
MS. Materials, 492. 

8 Fedlecb, the father of Medb, and father-in-law of Conor. See Irischc 
2'exte, i. p. 266. 


[Cathbad.~\ "Ka-dfglais chena co cruaid, 

a ChonchoJw/r chlaideb-ruaid, 
brissiud catha c?man lem 
bar cethri choicid Her0m." 
\_Conor.~] " Noco chath na tuitt ri redg 
ar cruadbach ar comferg a ; 
sluag do thernam a cath chain 
both ait ri mat ruanaid. 
Suail nach ed b do-m-gni marb, 
mo tharbga ac troit na da tarb, 
meni thi mo throit-se de, 
7 meicc Matae M.urisce. c 
Meni thaeth Aih7/ is Medb 
lew-sa 'maw dail-se co derb 
atb<?rim rib aidblib tuir 
mebais mo chride, a Chathb0t&."' A. 

6. " Is hi mo chomaiiie-se duit," ale bar CatHbad, "anad d' in- 
chur-sa. Daig at garba na gaatha, 7 at salcha na sligeda, 7 at mora 
na haibni 7 na huscida, 7 at gabalta lama leech ra dena/M dunad 7 
dindgna i crichaib echtrand. Et an dun in tsin cow-tuta e samratta 
chucaind, corop cerchaill each fot feranach, corop suntaich ar sen-eich, 
corop seitrig ar serraig, corop slana ar fir da fuilib 7 chnedaib a 
haithli chatha Thanad f B6 Cualwy*, coro gairdi na haidchi ri fot 
7 ri foraire 7 ri freccomas i w-iathaib bidbad 7 i crichaib echtrand."" 
Is amlaid ra-boi, ca rad 7 atb^rt na l>iia.thra : 

a One syll. wanting ; supply is before second ar. 

b Seems na cured. 

c Head Ocus . . . Muirsce, or Is ... Murisce. 

d The rhyme requires voc. Cathbaid ; so it is an 0-stera. 

1 ni cuman lem, gl. nescio, Wb. 8 a. 

2 But cf. bedgno redg, " start or fit," Sench. Mor, in. 180 ; redgach, "furious,"' 
" powerful," B. of Mag h Hath, 278, 298 ; " fury or a mad cow," O 1 Clery. Eedg 
was Ailill's jester or "cainte"; redgcaig, bedgaich, LL. 198 a. 

3 Or escaped ; Medb had escaped from him, and he considers that it was not a. 
victory for him. 

4 Or good and valiant. 5 i.e. this has almost killed me. 


\_Cathlad.~\ u Thou hast already avenged it sternly, 

red-sworded Conchobar 

[by] the winning of a battle I remember 1 
over the four provinces of Eriu." 

\_Conor.~] " It is no battle, in which a stout 2 king falls not 
by hard-fighting, by fury ; 
an army to escape 3 from a goodly battle ! 
a king falls if they are valiant. 4 
It is almost this that 5 makes me dead : 
my bull 6 at the fight of the two bulls, 
unless shall come from it my contest 
and [that] of the son of Mata of Muirisc. 7 
Unless Ailill should fall and Medb 
by me in this encounter assuredly 

1 say to you, with prodigies of a host, 8 
my heart will break, Cathbad." 

[Cathbad a counsel for us.] 

6. " This is my counsel for tliee," replied Cathbad, "to stay for 
the present. For the winds are rough, and the roads are dirty, and 
the rivers and the waters are great, and warriors' hands are occupied 
with making fortifications and strongholds in the territories of 
strangers. So wait for us until the summer weather conies to us, 
until every grassy sod is a pillow, till our old horses are spirited, till 
our colts are strong, till our men are whole of their wounds and hurts 
after the battle of the Tain B6 Cualnge, till the nights [are] short to 
watch and to ward and to guard in the lands of enemies and in the 
territories of strangers." It is thus he was saying it, and he uttered 
the words : 

e Tutta in fac-simile. Read contuta in t-sin samratta chucaind (?) ; it seems 

contuda in the MS. 
f Note g. tanad, and g. canad, 7, for tana ; Cualngi never in full, but it is so 

inZZ. 56 b, LU. 65 b, 92 b ; Cuailnge, LU. 55 a, ZZ. 93 a. 

6 tarbga = tarb, as Liathga (Cu Chulaind's horse) = Liath, ZZ. 103 ; gen. ><g. or 
pi., Mag Tarbga, ZZ. 166 b ; etc. ftp., i Tarbga (some place in Meath), MS. Mater. 
492 ; a tarbga na tuath, "who assaults the tribes" (Man. % Oust. in. 460, where 
it means bull or fight (?)), tlachtga of ZZ. 1156 = tlacht. 

7 i.e. Ailill. 

8 Or vastness of lords or multitude, dp. ; it is a cheville ; cf. aidble remend, 
IV., and Adamnan, p. 274 ; aidble bainn, vastness of deed, S. na Jtann, p. 125. 


ll. a " Ni hi n-aw iwrim errach. b 

is fuar gabel c grcthach. 

garfit ili Elga 

airderg in bith 

bebsat d buale feba e faVbra. 

fanna mila marta. 

trena uile aperoil 

oenach more maiwthi 

mo aigsew ri ceim nitha 

connach i n-aim inrim erracb." ~N. 

7. "Et an dun," ale bar Cathbtf^, "daig ni fuil tar dot' inchaib- 
siu and-siw. Daig echlach ra-s-ruc in aithed 7 in elud uait-siu iri lar 
eatha f er nKerend siar sechtair. Et da ructha can digail bad chotamus 
don cbetamus fair sin. Acus f faitti fessa 7 tecta uait-siu chena cot' 
chairdib ecmaissi .i. co Conall cruaid coscorach eowmaidmech cath- 
buadach claideb-derg co airm i fail ac tobuch a chisa 7 a chanad i 
crichaib Leodus, i w-iwsib Cadd, 7 i w-insib Or, g 7 i crichaib Scithia 7 
])acia 7 Gotbia 7 NorthmanmVz, ac tastel mara let 7 mara Torrian, 7 
1720. ic slataigecA^ sliged Saxan. Et faitte fessa 7 tecta | uait no cot' chair- 
dib ecmaisse co iathaib Gallecda, co Gall-iathaib na nGall, .i. co 
Amlaib (no Olaib) h hua Iwscoa rig Ijochlainne, 1 co Findmor mace Rofir 

a R. = Rann, or Rose, or Roscada, maxims. See O" 1 Don. Suppl. ; rose eatha is a 
war-song. Or (as at p. 124 of LL.} R = in rethoric-se, a kind of rhapsody, 
retairic, LU. 91 a, 38 a. Cf. Cetamain cain ree, Mac-GhnioinharaFJiind, 
p. 44 ; or rithlerg, as in Hyjiachrach, p. 26. Cf. Amergin's Ritairec in. 
Hardiman's "Minstrelsy," p. 350. 

b Cf. ni hinbaid oenaig ind inbaid garb gemratta so, LL. 264 b. 

c Gacb. bel? ns. Elga, L. Hym. 0. S. F., p. 38. 

d Cf. beg briga bebsat bi bath midlach, "little energy forbodes the destruction 
of a coward" (!), B. of Mag h Rath, 170. 

1 Cf. oenach n-uircc treith, the fair of the son of a king, Stokes* Bodl. Cormac, 
28 ; in-oenach thuirc threith, LL. 187b. 

2 Cf. " these tribes are freed from the hosting of Spring and Autumn" sluaiged 
earraig ocus fogmair, Tribes and C. of Hy- Maine, p. 66. 

3 I have divided this R. into verses, conjecturally ; and I have hazarded a timid 
and tentative translation ; in aim = this time, in Widisch. 

4 ale bar occurs six times, and ale ar, ale far once ; it seems to mean " con- 
tinued." It begins sentences : Aile ar Mac Roig, Aile for Cu Chulaind, Ale leice 
as a Fherguis ar Medb ; Aile a gilla, ar Cu Chulaind, LL. 55 a, 63 a, 61 a, 70 b. 


R. " Spring is not the time for an invasion. 
Every windy ford [or gap] is cold. 
Many of Elga will shout, 
famous the cause [world ?]. 

The good cow-droves of February have died [disappeared?]. 
Weak are the animals of March. 
Strong are all [cattle] of April. 
A fair of hogs 1 . . . 

. . . for a march of battle. 

So that Spring 2 is not the time for an invasion." 3 
7. " So stay with us," now* said Cathbad, "for there is no 
disgrace to thy honour therein. For [it was] a horse-boy that carried 
it in flight, and in escape from thee through the middle of the battle 
of the men of Eriu away westward. And if it was carried off 
without vengeance, there shall be measure for measure 5 for that. And 
let there be sent tidings and messages from thee forthwith to thy 
friends in absence, 6 namely, to Conall the stern, the triumphant, the 
exultant, the victorious, the red-sworded, to the place where he is, 
raising his tax and his tribute in the territories of Leodus, 7 in the 
islands of Cacld, and in the islands of Ore, 7 and in the territories of 
Scythia and Dacia and Gothia and North mannia, voyaging the Ictian 
Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, and plundering the roads of the Saxons. 
And let there be sent tidings and messages from thee too to thy 
friends in absence, to the Gallic lands, to the foreign lands of the 
foreigners, namely, to Amlaib or Olaib [i.e. Olaf] grandson of Inscoa, 8 
King of Norway ; to Findmor son of Rofher, the king of the seventh 

e Febr;i faebra, in fac- simile, seems an erroneous repetition. 
{ Acus in full here and 11. & Recte Ore as infra. 

h no Olaib is a marginal note. 

1 Or L<>chland, as in B. of Mag h Rath, 80, and Cog. G. 7 G. passim, it meant 
Norway and Denmark. 

5 Victory-attack (cod-amus], for the first attack (?). cod = victory, O'Reilly. Or 
co-tomas and cet-tomus; i tosuch cetumus, at the first attempt, LL. 114 b. 

6 Absent friends. 

7 Isle of Lewis, Wars of the G. and G., Index, = Ljodus, Stokes on the Ling. 
Value of the Irish Annals, p. 118. Inis Cat is " Shetland," Todd in Wars of the 
G. and G. ; and Insi Ore are the Orkneys; but Crich Cat is " Cateness," Caith- 
ness, Nenniiis, p. 148 ; written Inis Gaid in W. 

8 i.e. "Big Shoes," a nickname, as Stokes surmises; cf. son of Safer, "Big 
Man," infra ; cf. fofer, " good man," Tl. 242. 


co rig scchtmad raiwni de Lochlaww, co Bare na Sciggire, co dunnd 
na Piscarcarla, co Brodor Roth 7 co Brodor Fiuit, et co Siugrid Soga 
rig Sudiam, co Sortadbud Sort co rig insi Ore, co secht nmccaib llom- 
rach, co hll, co lie, co Mael, co Muile, co Abram mace Ro/rac//, co 
Get mace Komrach, co Celg mace llomracA, co Mod mace Herliwg, co 
Conchobor coscarach mace Artuir meicc Bruide, meicc Dungail, co mace 
rig Alb an, [7 Clothra iwgen Conchobuir a 

8. " Cia doragad risin tectairect siw?" bar Conchobor. " Cia 
doragad and," bar Catbbtf^, " acht mad Findchad mace Comliobuir 
and-sut, et Aed Caem mace Conaill Omaig, et Oecgus mace Oenlama 
Gabae, b et Cano Gall do munud eoluis dar rnuncirad mara 7 mor-fairge 
doib." Is and-sm ra-lotar-siw rompu dar muwcind mara 7 mor-fairgi 
co hairm i mbai Conall Cernach i crichaib Leodus, et condnoathatar 
dawo na scela ro-batar accu do Chona\l. Ferais dawo falte iri Fiwdcliad 
mace Conchobuir, 7 dobretha a laim dar a bragit 7 dobretba teora poc 
do. Is and dawo barridnacbtatar-so^ do-sum Tain Bo Cu&lngi do 
breith a hUl0t&. Sceiwnis a chridi cruaid colomda Conaill a mid-uactwr 
a cbleib, immar thoirm tuiwne tr0than-glassi c ra tir. " Atdir-sa d 
bretbir am," bar Conall, " mad da mbeiwd-se i cricnaib IJlad conna 
bertha in tain siw can digail bad chotamus do'n chetamus fair." 
Iss amlaid ro-bai Conall dawo 7 fessa 7 furic ar n-a ndenam do and-siw, 

a Parenthetical. b Oenlame gaba, LL. 94. 

c Cf. Do ineadaigeadar na tonna a ttrethan ocus a ttorman, Ch. of Lir, p. 132 ; 
trethan-tonn, . of Mag h Lena, 46. d Read atdiursa, as in 28, 46. 

1 i.e. Ey-Keggiar, the Faeroe Islands, Stokes, till supra, pp. 58, 120. 

2 Some town of the Fseroe Islanders ; the only word I find like this is Dun na 
Trapcharla in Munster, F. Mast. an. 1062. 

3 Roth, Fiiiit = Eed and White, Norse loan words. Stokes. 

4 Sweden ; or Suderoe, one of the Fseroe islands. 

5 i.e. Herlingr, Stokes ; Romra, g. Romrach, is an Irish word in S. na Rann y 
1. 3982, and LU. 40 a. Cf. Tracht Romra = Solway Frith, Adamnan XLV. 

6 Prohahly a Pictish name, Stokes, 117, ubi supra; but Cano also is Irish, and 
means a file of the 4th degree. 

7 Or top; .i. nachtar mara, I,. Gabdla, p. 3, and O'CL O'Reilly renders it by 
headland or seacoast ; but " tri muincinn mara Romuir," S. na Rann, 1. 3987 ; for 
muncind mara, Nennhis, 234. 

8 " et condnoathatar " ; hatnoathar, 21, should he, perhaps, hatnoatbatar. Is 
airi cotnoat-som (ML 112 b) seems to mean "wherefore they adverti/e or admonish 
him," though the Latin text, as given by Ascoli, omits some word like commonere ; 


part of Norway ; to Bare of the Scigger, 1 to the fortress of the 
Piscarcarla ; 2 to Brodor Roth and to Brodor Fiuit, 3 and to Siugraid 
Soga, King of Sudiam ; 4 to Sortadbud Sort, the King of the Orkney 
Islands ; to the seven sons of Romra, to II, to lie, to Mael, to Muile, 
to Abeam son of Romra, 5 to Get son of Romra, to Celg son of Romra, 
to Mod son of Herling, 6 to Conchobar the victorious, son of Artur, 
son of Bruide, son of Dungal, to the son of the King of Scotland, and 
Clothra, daughter of Conchobar, [was] his mother." 

8. " Who should go on that embassy ? " said Conchobar. " "Who 
should go upon it," said Cathbad, " but [if it were] Findchad, son of 
Conchobar yonder, and Aed the Handsome, son of Conall Cernach, and 
Oengus, son of Oenlam Gaba, and Cano 6 the Foreigner, to teach the 
way over the surface 7 of the sea and of the ocean to them." It is then 
that those went forward over the surface 7 of the sea and of the ocean 
to the place in which Conall Cernach was in the territory of Leodus, 
and they manifested 8 then the tidings that they had to Conall. He made 
welcome to Findchad, son of Conchobar, and put his hands about his 
neck and gave 9 him three 10 kisses. It is then too that they conveyed 
to him that the Tain B6 Cualnge was taken from the Ulaid. The 
stern, steadfast 11 heart of Conall started from the mid-upper part of his 
chest like the noise of a sea-green wave against the earth. "I vow 
[I say a word] indeed," said Conall, " were it that I had been in the 
territory of the TJlaid, that that spoil would not have been taken 
without a vengeance which would be measure for measure for it ! " 
It is thus, then, Conall was : feasts and festivities having been made by 

noud, .i. urdarcagud, O'Dav., p. 108, and O'Clery. I think at-no&d. (W. Texte, 
142, 1. 15) = let him declare ; ro noad (ib. p. 79, 1. 19) = was manifested. W. 
queries those words, but they are connected with words of our text. 

9 dobretha; W. gives three instances of this 3 sg. pret. in ta ; here and 53 are 
four more, including "robretha," infra; the form is that of the pret. 3 pi. pass. ; 
this form is not in Z. or in Atkinson's Glossary ; " confaitti," 9, seems to be the 
same tenae, if not an historic pres. 

10 teora poc; so "ra thairbir teora poc," LL. 58 ab, 59 ab ; one would expect 
" teora pooa," apf. ; the asf. is poic, Fled Brier. 50 ; (dorat, dobert, tug) poicc do, 
Atkinson's Glossary. Cf. di laim im Etain ocus poc di, LU. 131 b ; thug se tri 
poga do Ghrainne, Diarm. and Grainne, 19. "Teora poc' ? seems a crystallized 
expression and a deflection from regular declension; Joyce, p. 98, says that teora 
generally governs nouns in the gen. plur., as " teora ban." 

11 Or column-like? columnach = columnaris, Ogygia, 117; dove-like, or hide- 
like (di cholomnaib ferb, LU. Tain Bo (7.), would not suit here. 


7 "ba gleire desca^ 7 ba aibbgetus a hola and-sin. Et ro-bretha Conall 
in fleid sin do mathib Ula^. Et fuitte dano fessa 7 techta uad co a 
chairddib ecmaisse fo iathaib Gallecda co Grtdl-Mtkaib na nGall. Is 
and doronad tiwol 7 tochostul leo-sum dano. Et ro-hellamaigit al-lonti 
leo-sum dano 7 ra-glmnigit al-longa 7 al-laideng. Et tancatar co 
hairm i mbai Cowall. 

9. Is and confaitti Conall fessa 7 techta uad co iathaib ~Ulad, conna 
betis Ulaid i w-etarlen 'rithalma ar ciwd a wbidbad 7 aw-naraat 7 a 
n-echtnmd. Is and-siw ro-gniad comairle la Ultaib dano, 7 daronait 
fessa 7 fuireca leo-sww "Dogen-sa fled," a ar Cuchulaind, "i 
n-accill 7 i n-airichill Conchdbuir ac dun drech-solus Delgga." 
" Dogen-sa fled a mor-chai^ mor-adbul aile," bar Celtchair mace 
172 b TJthechair* u i w-accill | 7 i w-airichill Conaill c Gernaig weicc Amair- 
gm ac carraic Murbuilg." u Dogeu-sa no fled mor-chaiw mor-adbul 
aile," for Loegaire, " ac Iwbiur Seimne thuaid." 

10. Ra-ergitar ira in trom-choblach mor muride amal atrubramar 
ba Chonall Cernach mace Kmairgin, et ma Eiwdchad mace Chonchobuir, 
et nia Aed Caew mace Conaill Qernaig, et ma mathib 'Lochlainne, et 
tancatar rempu immach bar Sruthair na Maile Chind Tiri. Et 
atr^aclit glass- anfud in mara mor-adbuil doib. Et atnzachtatar a roiw 
7 rossail 7 a chorr-cind 7 a chenandaiw 7 il-rfana in mara mor-adbuil 
doib-sium dano. Is e tressi in n-anfaid ra-erig doib co ro-ramned in 

a field would be a better. 

b Uthidir, Dthicbair in full, LU. 95, 103. c Or Choncobuir, Chonaill. 

1 aibbgetus, ripeness, maturity (= aipcheacht, O'Begley's Dictionary] ; it seems 
synon. with "gleire" here, or with "aibnius," 13. Gleire = ahundance, purity, 
choice; and descad in Z. glosses fax, fermen turn; a hola = its drink, i. e. of the/<?s. 

2 So in F. Masters, in., p. 2272, and 6'. Maige Lena, 44. 

3 etarlen, mutual or deep sorrow ; g. lein, sorrow, B. of Fenac/k, 374. Cf. 
etargleod, decision, LL. 84 ; etar seems an intensitive, as etar-meddn, lar-mcdon. 

4 " accill" and "airchill," thrice here and 11, are synon. ; for aicill do marbtha, 
in wait to slay thee, Mac Gn. Finn, 32 ; do airichill, twice, LL. 106 b ; ro hairi- 
chlit, they were expected, LL. 268 a, bis. Cf. i foichill, F. Mast., p. 2124; oc 
airichill comraic, awaiting, preparing for battle, LB. 210 a. 

5 Dundalk; d. Dclga, LU. 68 b., shows that the nom. is not Delg. 


him there, and it was the abundance of leavings and the ripeness 1 of 
his drinking then. And Comill gave that feast to the nobles of the 
Ulaid. And there were sent then intelligencers and messengers from 
him to his absent friends, through the Gallic lands, to the foreign- 
lands of the foreigners. It is then that there was made a gathering 
and muster by them too ; and their stores were prepared by them also, 
and their ships and their galleys were secured in order ; and they came 
to the place in which Conall was. 

9. It is then that Conall sent intelligencers 2 and messengers from 
him to the lands of the Ulaid, that the Ulaid might not be in much- 
concern 3 of preparation against [for] their foes and their enemies and 
their foreigners. It is then that counsel was held by the Ulaid, and 
feasts and festivities were held by them too. "I will make a banquet," 
said Cu Chulaind, " in wait and in preparation 4 for ConChobar at the 
bright-faced castle of Delgga." 5 " I will make another splendid vast 
banquet," said Celtchair, son of Uthechar, 6 "in wait and in prepara- 
tion for Conall Cernach, son of Amairgen, at the rock of Murbolg." 7 
"I too will make another splendid monster banquet," said Loegaire, 
" at Inber Seimne 8 in the north." 

10. ]S"ow set out the great naval armament, as we have said, under 
Conall Cernach son of Amairgin, and under Findchad son of Coucho- 
bar, and under Aed the Handsome, son of Conall Cernach, and under 
the nobles of Norway. And they came forward out on the current 
of the Mull of Cantire. And a green-surge of the tremendous sea 
rose for them ; and the 9 seals and walruses and crane-heads and 
* cenaudans ' and ' ilrians ' 10 of the tremendous sea rose for them too. 
Such was the strength of the storm that rose for them, that the 

6 Uthechair, in full, LIT. 103 b ; but TJtidir, L U. 95 b. O'Curry, in Man. and 
Oust. in. 610, reads Uthichair, Uithidir, Uthair; Hennessy, in Me sea Ulad, reads 

7 Muvlough, Co. Antrim, F. Masters, i. p. 26. Dunseverick Castle was in Mur- 
bolg Dulriada, ib. Cf. Muirbolc, Adamnan, p. 40. 

8 Larne, Co. Antrim. Maghseimne was in Dalaraidhe, F. Masters, Index. 
Inis Seimhne = Island Magee. 9 Lit., its. 

10 rossail or rosualt, walrus (?), LL. 118, L U. 11 a ; corrcind, " crane- (or round-) 
heads," or sword fish (corr, sharp, J5. of Fenagh, 400, 298). Cf . serrcend, serpent (?),. 
Tigern. 1137 ; cenandan looks like ceinndan (little white head) of the B. of Armagh ; 
il-riana means the many water-ways ; rossail = ross-hwael, horse- whale (?). 


cohlack i trz. Tanic tn'an dib ma Chonoll Chernach mace Amairgin co 
carraic Murbuilg. Tanic trmn aile ma maccaib Romra co hlriber Semni. 
Dolluid in tn'an aile mo Alaib hua Iwscoa rig ~Lochlainne, 7 ma 
Fin dm or mace Rafir rig in sechtmad raind do LochlmVm, et ma Baire 
na Sciggiri a dunud na Piscarcaiia. Et dollotar sain co Traig riiBale 
weicc* Buaiw, co hlwber Limii Luachaiwne. 

11. Is in tan sin rol-luid Conchobor reme coicfiur 7 tri fichit ar 
noi cetaib co hlnber Liraii I^uachainne. Et ra-hecrad tech n-6il 7 
air-aibniusa leis i wdun drech-solus Delga. Nir-bo chian do Chon- 
chobor dia wbai and co facca na corr-gabla siuil, 7 na lowga lucht- 
lethna, 7 na pupla corcar-glana, 7 na merggida aile ill-dathacha, 7 na 
confiwgi catha, 7 na siblanga gorma glaiwidi, 7 na liidna aig. ii Maith 
and-siw, a deg-es dana-sa this. Tabraid curu 7 tenta 7 trebairi 
dam-sa." <c Maith a thriath 7 a thig^rna," bar Sencha mace AiMla, 
" cid 'ma 'ta lat-su saiw?" " Met far ndolaid 7 far niurir daw," far 
Conchobor "febus mo chowmaiw crichi 7 feraiwn 7 forbbaid f oraib ; 
febus mo chommaiw set 7 maini 7 iwdmassa foraib. K"a bad furail dam 
na ticfad d'ulc 7 do maitb dam 6 'n cliind \Aiadna c'a cheile sib-si 'n-a 
remur 7 'n-a airichill dam." "Maith a thriath 7 a thigmia," bar 
Sencha mace Aile/la, " cid 'ma 'ta lat-su sain ? " " Nad-fetar-sa am," 
bar Conclwbor, "act manip fat in Gab'an Lagen, no in Mumni b mor- 
Mwman, no choiced Olncwnacht dariacht and ; acht is mid-Ian Iwber 
Liwni Ijuachainne 7 Trig Baile meicc^Buain" " Atiur-sa brethir am," 
bar Sencha mace AiMla, u nach tarmchillend Herew oclach do neoch 
dobeir a laim il-laim tigerna nach aichnid dam-sa. Et mad iat fir 
Hevend bes and, iarfat-sa sossad catha forthu-swm no co cend cfan 
coicthigis for mis. Acus mad iat do charait ecmaisi bes and a iathaib 

a Or maccu ? 

1 Larne. 2 The strand and river-mouth at Dundalk. 

3 corrgabla, round or beaked spears or forks. 

4 confingi(P). 

5 siblanga = sith-langa, long boats ? Cf. sithlungi, of a long ship, Togail Troi, 
pp. 43, 109; sib-in (a bulrush) is a dimin. of sib ; lang appears in Erc-laug, Dun- 
lang, etc. ; sithlongaib, LU. 80 a. 

6 Supply " said Conchobor." 7 Or, \\'hy must thou have that ? 


fleet was parted in three. A third of them under Conall Cernach 
son of Amairgen came to the rock of Murbolg. Another third under 
the sons of Romra came to Inter Semni. 1 The other third went under 
Alaib, grandson of Inscoa, King of Norway, and under Findmor, son of 
Kafher, King of the seventh part of Norway, and under Baireof theFaeroe 
Islands, from the fortress of the Piscarcarla ; and these went to the 
Strand of Eaile mac Buain, to the mouth of the water of Luachann. 2 

11. It is at that time that Conchobar came on [with] nine hundred 
and sixty-five men to the mouth of the water of Luachann. And a 
house of drinking and high merriment was prepared by him in the 
bright-faced castle of Delga. It was not long for Conchobar, when 
he was there, till he saw the bent spars 3 of a sail and the full-crewed 
ships, and the bright-scarlet pavilions, and the beautiful many-coloured 
flags, and the machines 4 of battle, and the blue bright lances [?], 5 and 
the weapons of war. " Good, then, ye good men of learning down 
here, give sureties and bonds and guarantees to me!" 6 "Well, 
chief and lord," said Sencha son of Ailill, ' ' why is it so with thee ? " 7 
" [For] the greatness of your charge and of your burden to me," said 
Conchobar; " [for] the excellence of my bestowal 8 of territory and 
land and property on you ; for the excellence of my bestowal of jewels, 
treasure and wealth, that it may not be too much for me 9 that there 
should not come [of] evil or good to me from one end of the year to 
the other, [from] your [being engaged] in preparing and procuring it 
for me." 10 " Good, chief and lord," said Sencha son of Ailill, " why 
is it so with thee ? " " Because I know not indeed," said Conchobar, 
" if they be the Galian of Lagin, or the Munstermen of great Muma, 
or the province of Olnecmacht, that have arrived there ; but the 
estuary of the water of Luachann and the strand of Baile mac Buain 
are full." u " I give [my] word indeed," said Sencha son of Ailill, 
" that Eriu [Eire] surrounds not a soldier that puts his hand in the 
hand of a lord, who is not known to me. And if they be the men of 
Eriu that are there, I will ask a truce of battle from them till the 

8 commain gs. of comman ; but commaine would be better, as the n. and d. are 
commain, Wb. 6. 25. " Met " and " febas " seem dat. of cause ; " dolad," charge ; 
imposts, Stokes on Atk. Pass. $ Horn., p. 37. 

8 i.e. it is due to me ; it is the least I should expect in return. 

10 Preparing = rem()ur. He seems to reproach them with having brought the 
Leinster-men against him. 

11 midlan, half full, or quite full ? 



173 a Gallec^# 7 Gall-'iathaib na nGall, | baferr son let-su cammaiw."* " Da 
wbad iat," bar Conehofior, "rapad lugaiti bar n-enecLmw-si." 

12. Is and-siw ra-luid reme Sencha mace AiMla co airm i mbai in 
trom-choblach mor muridi siw; 7 ro-iarfach dib, " Cia dothset 
and?" Is sed ro-raidsetar-sww dawo cor-bo iat carait ecmaisi Concho- 
luir ro-batar and. Tanic remi Sencha co hairm i wbai Concholor. 
" Maith am a m'anm, a Choncholuir, iss-iat do charait ecmaisi-siu 
failet and sut a iathaib Gsillecda 7 a Gall-iathaib na nGall. Cid tra 
ackt nir chutulsa do ChonchoSor iw[d] Heriu et*V ra met leis a brotha 
7 a brige 7 a baige. Et ro-mebaid loim crao 7 fola dar a bel sell 
seclitair. Et in chgep cnro 7 fola ro-boi for a chride issi rosceastar ra 
halt na huaire siw. b 

13. " Maith a Chuchulaind," bar Conchobor, " gabtar latt gabra 
Maige Murthemni. Indliter carp^ chethir-riad forro. Et tabar lett 
mathi I^ochlainne i carptib 7 i cethir-riadaib co Dun drech-solus Delga. 
Corop fa dreich rig I^ochlainne ecairther in tech 6il-seo 7 aibniusa." 
Is and ro-gabait gabrtf Maige M.urthemni 7 ro-hindlit carp<w 7 cethir- 
riad forro, 7 rucait i w-agid rig Lochlmw0, 7 tucait iat co Dun ndrech- 
solus nDelga. Et ra-falmaiged in bruiden la Conchobor. Corop fa 
dreich rig Ijochlainne ro-hecrad ass-a aithle hi. 

Et ra-ergitar iartain rannair fri raind accn 7 dalemaift M dail. Et 
ro-dailed iw[d] fled saiw for mathib Lochl^ww^, corbat mesca medar- 

a Or cammaiJ, camai, Z. 

b Of. nirb ur&.il lim loim cro 7 fola issin mbel tacras sin, LL. 264 b ; and nirb 
urailjim lorn cro 7 fola issin m-bel tacras sin, Mesca UL, p. 20. 

1 cammaiw; recte, perhaps, "commaib," however, Z. 702. 

2 nir chutulsa ; but nirbo chutulsa, 15 ; it seems to mean "it did not satisfy," 
it was not a satisfaction. Isi nimdeni cutal (Irische Texte, i. 98) means (I think) 
"it [the advice] does not give me satisfaction"; but " codul do .i. iarraid do," 
T. 86 Flidais. 

3 cethir-riad, gp. t it was a four-wheeler, petor-ritum, Auson. Ep. viii. ; 
ct. de-riad, gl. bigce, Z. ; the dp. c.-riadaib, 13, and LL., p. 29. It seems 


distant end of a fortnight in addition to a month. . But if they be thy 
friends from abroad that are there, from the Gallic lands and the foreign- 
lands of the foreigners, that will please thee better however." l "If it 
be they," said Conchobar, " your honour-price shall be the less." 

12. It is then that Sencha son of Ailill went forward to the place 
where that great naval armament was, and he asked them, " Who goes 
here?" It is this they said then, that they were the foreign friends of 
Conchobar that were there. Sencha came forward to the place in which 
Conchobar was. " Good now, my soul, Conchobar, they are thy foreign 
friends that are yonder, from the Gallic lands and the foreign-lands 
of the foreigners." However, the [whole of] Ireland did not please 2 
Conchobar at all through the amount in him of his ardour and of his 
energy and of his fierceness. And a drop of gore and blood burst 
through his mouth a little out ; and the clot of gore and blood that 
was on his heart, it is it that pained him at that juncture of time. 

13. " "Well, Cii Chulaind," said Conchobar, " let the horses of the 
plain of Murthemni be caught by thee ; let four-wheeled chariots 3 be 
harnessed to them. And bring with thee the nobles of Norway in 
chariots and in four-wheeled cars to the bright-faced castle of Delga. 
So that it may be for 4 the kings of Norway that this house of drinking 
and enjoyment is prepared." It is then that the horses of the plain of 
Murthemni were caught and the chariots and the four-wheeled cars 
were yoked to them, and they were brought to meet the kings of 
Norway, and they (i.e. the kings) were brought to the bright-faced 
castle of Delga, and the mansion was vacated 5 by Conchobar. So that 
it was for the kings of Norway it was prepared after that. And there 
arose thereupon carvers 6 to carve for them and butlers to deal out 
[drinks]. And that banquet was served to the nobles of Norway 

neuter from np. ceithirriad, 14: so in Latin. Cf. rheda; but p. -return is 

4 fa dreich, under the face ; cf. ar chiunn. 

5 Not in W. ; in Atkinson it means " devastated" ; folmugad, to evacuate, C. M. 
Lena, 64. 

6 Eecte rannairi, distributors to distribute ; np. rannaire, Mesca VI. 12. Cf. LL., 
pp. 29, 30; LU. 101 a. 



chaiwi. In n-uair ropo thressiu flaith firu, 7 ba comrad each dessi 7 
each thri'r dib, ra-curit in an aitib 7 in an imdadaib 7 in a cotaltigib 
iat. Ko-canait ciuil 7 airfiti 7 admolta doib ; 7 tarrassatar-sow and co 
solus-trath eirge ar n-a barach. 

14. Ro-erig immorro Conchobor moch-trath ar n-a baracli. Et 
tucad CuchuMnd d'a saigid. 

" Maith siw, a Chuchulaind," bar Conchofior ; " tabar in deired fledi 
fail acut do mathib I^ochlainne corop bude-chaiti fat. Et faitti fessa 7 
techta uait fo iathaib ~U\ad cu hocaib "Ulad. Erithalter leo-sum no a 
carait Gall a Gall-iathaib na nGall, co ndigiur-sa co hlnber Liwni 
~Lni&chamne ; co ngabthar sossad 7 longphort lim and. Raid dam 
dawo risna iri coicait senorach a senlaech ro-failet i n-a ligi aisi fa 
Irgalach mace Mfl01aig b meicc Congaile meicc Rudradge ar ndichur a 
ngascid 7 a n-arm ; raid dam-sa riu tiaclitaiw lem in fect-sa 7 in 
sluaged, co wbad d'a reir 7 d'a comairle donethea e." u Messi d'a 
rad riu ! " bar C&cMaind. <c Ni ebber, 7 a ndul ni mesti lem dawo." 

15. Is and ralluid Coneholor reme issi^ rigthech ro-mor ir-rabatar 

na senoraig 7 na senlaich. Is and-siw tuargabtar-swm a cind assa 

n-atib 7 assa n-imdadaib ra facsiw in c rig rosc-letham ro-moir. 

173 b Et ni'r-bo chutul-sa dawo doib-siuw a menma. Suail nacA f<?rroebla- 

ngatar in bruiden ir-rabatar dib. " Maith a thriath 7 a thigerna," bar 

a Insert ocus A0r, as aiow^ 6 ?i^s infra : na senoraig ocus na senlaich. 

1 Or when beer -was stronger than men, when they were overcome by it ; flaith = 
prince, 22 ; reign 54 ; here, "a kind of strong ale," as in O'-ffi. and W. If so, 
this is the oldest instance of the word in that sense. In Mid. Irish the compar. 
governs an accusative, firu. Noteworthy are the "we won't go home till morn- 
ing" habits of the Conchoborian Cycle. 

2 bude-chaiti, lit. thank-spent (?). 

3 no for dino, dano, 7, 9, 14, 25, 34, 41, 46, 51, XZ. 79 b. 


until they were drunk and right-merry. "When a chief 1 was mightier 
than men, and it was a conversation of every pair and of every three 
of them, they were put in their apartments and in their couches, and 
in their sleeping-rooms. Tunes and amusing songs and eulogies were 
sung to them, and they tarried there till the clear time of rising on the 

14. Now Conchobar rose early on the morrow, and Cu Chulaind 
was brought to him. " That is well, Cii Chulaind," said Conchobar. 
" Give the rest of the banquet that thou hast to the nobles of Norway, 
that they may be fully-satisfied. 2 And let intelligencers and messengers 
be sent from thee through the lands of the Ulaid to the warriors of 
the Ulaid. Let their foreign friends from the foreign-lands of the 
foreigners be ministered unto by them also, 3 while I go to the mouth of 
the water of Luachann, and a position and camp is taken by me there. 
Say for me too to the three fifties of elders [and] old champions that 
are in their repose of age under Irgalach son of Macclach son of Congal 4 
son of Rudraige, having laid aside their exercise of arms and their 
weapons say for me to them to come'with me on this campaign and 
on the hosting, so that it may be by their will and by their counsel 
that it may go on." 5 " I to say it to them ! " said Cii Chulaind, " I 
will not say [it] ; and yet I think not the worse of their going." 

15. It is then that Conchobar went on into the great royal -house in 
which were the veterans and the old champions. It is then that they 
raised their heads 6 out of their places and out of their couches to see 
the large-eyed majestic king. And their spirit was not indeed satis- 
factory to them. 7 They almost 8 leaped the mansion in which they 
were. " Good, chief and lord," said they, " what has made thee 

b Or Meicc Laig ? c For ind rig. 

4 Congal, g. Congaile as Dunlang, g. Dunlinge (B. of Armagh] n. Congal, g. 
Congaile, Congail ; n. Fergal, g. Fergaile, Fergail, Frag. Ir. Ann., 44, 40. 

5 do-n-ethea ; do-n-ethe, 15, see "donetha" and " atetha" incur vocabu- 

6 Norn. pi. for ace. ; it may also mean " their heads rose." 

7 The meaning appears to be that they could not contain themselves. 

8 " suail nach" = beg nach, almost; "bruden" should be brudin, asf. Some 
words are missing before dib (of them), or it is redundant as de often is. 


iat-sww, " cr&t ro-t-astndg 7 ro-t-imluaid chucaiwni iwdiu ? " " JS"ach 
cualabair-si," ar se, "in sluaged cowbaga-sa tancatar cethri oll- 
ehoiceda Herend chucaiwd ? da tucsat a n-ses ciuil 7 airfitid 7 admolta 
leo, co mbad leriti na liairgni 7 co wabad moti na hurbada ; 7 ra-loscit ar 
ndiinaid 7 ar ndegbaleda connach airddi iat 'nas a n-airidni 7 a 
n-immellaigi. Et rop ail dam-sa dawo sluag<9^ cowbaga chuccu-sww, 7 
co wbad da bar reir-si 7 da bar comairle donethe in fecht 7 iw sluaged." 
" Gabtar ar sengabra latt 7 iwdliter ar sencliarp^ co ndechsum. in 
fect-sa 7 in sluaged latt." Iss-and ro gabait a sengabra leo-sum 7 ro 
hiwdlit a sencharp^^. Et tancatar rompu co hlriber Liwni 
in n-aidchi sin. 

16. Et ro-cuas do chethri oll-ehoicedail) TLerend saiw. Et ro- 
chritlinaigsetar tri towna Herend remi-siw in n-aidchi siw, .i. Tond 
Chlidna 7 Tond Rudiraigi 7 Tow(? Tuage Iwbir. Is and-si^ folluid 
Eochu mace iuchta xemi co dawnaib dilsib do Eecartachaib Dedad 
co Temraig Luachra aniartuaid. Is and-sin* A1U71 7 Medb co 
Cruachan-raitli Connacht. Is and-siw falluid Eiwd -mace Rosa ri Galiara 
co clawnaib Deirg imme co Diwn Rig 6s B0rba bansolais. Is and 
falluid Carpr0 Ma Per co Luagnib Temrach imme co Temraig. 

a No verb and no lacuna in the MS. ; but we must supply folluid, as 2 lines above, 
or follotar. 

1 From astrach, way-faring. 

2 in fecht-sa ocus in sluaged ; note the particula augens omitted after the second 
noun here, and in in tech oil-seo acus aibniusa, 13. 

3 Cf. adcos uaim duit, Chr. Scotor. y p. 8; atchuaid, gl. exposuit, Wb. 21 d; 
atcos don rig, was told to the King, AtJe. Gloss. , p. 552 ; or, was sent. 

4 Or trembled, shook at this. 

5 Tonn Cleena, Glandore Harhour, Co. Cork (Index to F. Masters], in the Bay 
of Clonakilty (C. M. Lena, 95) ; T. Rudr. in Bay of Dundrum, Down; T. T. Inbir, 
at the mouth of the Bann, ib. Cf. LL. 168 h, B. of Balymote, 374 a, 395 h. The 
waves hounded for joy (sometimes, at least ?), "Do failtigeadar tri tonna na Fodla 
.i. T. Inbir ag freagra Thuinne R. acus T. Chiodna ag freagra don da thonn oile," 
C. M. Lena, 94: there was also a famous wave, "Tonn Luim," B. of Fenagh, 


travel, 1 and moved thee towards us to-day ? " " Have you not heard," 
said he, "of this expedition of hostility [on which] came the four great 
provinces of Ireland to us, to which they brought their men of music 
and amusement and eulogy with them, that the ravages might be more 
manifest and that the depredations might be the greater ? and our for- 
tresses and our fine dwellings were burned, so that they are not higher 
than their apartments and their outhouses. And so I should like an ex- 
pedition of hostility against them, and that it be by your direction [will] 
and by your counsel that the journey and the expedition may proceed." 
" Let our old steeds be caught by thee and let our old chariots be 
yoked by thee, till we go this journey and this 2 expedition with thee." 
Then their old chargers were caught by them and their old chariots 
were yoked ; and they came on to the mouth of the Water of Luachann 
that night. 

16. And this was told 3 to the four great provinces of Eriu. And 
the Three Waves of Eriu reverberated 4 before this that night, namely 
the Wave of Clidna, and the Wave of Rudraige, and the Wave of 
Tuag Inbir. 6 It is then that Eochu son of Luchta 6 went on with the 
native clans of the Recartaig Dedad to Temair Luachra 7 from the 
northwest. It is then that Ailill and Medb [went] to Cruachan 
Raith of Connacht. It is then that Eind son of Ros king of the 
Gralian 8 went with the clans of Def g about him to Dinn Rig 9 over the 
clear-bright Barrow. It is then that Cairpre Ma Eer went with the 
Luagni 10 of Temair about him to Temair. 

6 King of N. Munster, Man. and Gust. n. 21 ; Curfii or his son was K. of the 
other part of Munster, Cambren. Eversus, i. 453. 

7 Near Abbeyfeale, ib. m. 132 ; Hennessy (If. Ulad. v.) thinks it was further 
north. Temair Erand was the burial-place of the Clanna Dedad who occupied a 
great part of Cos. of Cork and Kerry. As these came southwards to it, I think it 
was Mt. Eagle (near Castle Island), the highest summit of Sliabh Luachra. 

8 Galeoin, the Leinstermen, Bench. M. i. 70; cf. rige Coicid Galian, LU. (?). 
They possessed at one time the Orkneys, Nennius, 50. 

9 Burgage Moat, Co. Carlow; dind, .i. dun, Stokes 1 Bodl. Cormac, 16. 
10 A powerful race slew Lugaid, K. of Ireland, A.D. 79, and Cathair Mor, 
A.D. 122 (Tigernacti). They occupied the land from Glasnevin into Cavan, gave 
their name to (the baronies of) Lune and Morgalian in Meath, and to (the baronies 
of) Leyney in Sligo and Gallen in Mayo, Cambrensis Eversus, i. 471. 


17. Is and-siw ra-cowarleiced cowairle ac Eochu mace ~Luchta 7 ac 
clannaib Dedad, .i. " Cach beo da aissec 7 cac^ aissec da beo ; imdenam 
a chrichi 7 a feraiwd do Choncholtur mace Fachtnai "Sathaig, .i. sond 
in n-iwad each suind, 7 gHanan in n-iwad each grianain ; teg in n-iwad 
ca^a tigi, bo in n-iwad cacha bo, dam in n-iwad each daim ; et in 
Dond Cualwy* fair anuas. Comleithet a aigthi do derg-6r do Chon- 
chobur don chur sain, 7 can slnaged combage d'insaigid fer nHer<md." 
Is and-siw dano ro-fessa a fessa 7 techta 6 Eochu mace Lucta, co Ailill 
7 co Meidb risirc comaid sin. Docuas do Aib71 7 do ~NLeidb ani sin. 
11 Ro-gabtha go-law donti o tuctha na comairli sin. Uair in n-airet 
bes ocaiwni nech ris ba heitir erdorn claidib 7 sciathrach sceith do 
gabdil fo bragit, ni raga do-sum in choma saiw." " JS"ad orgenawar-ni 
fort-su in chomairli sin, a merddrech ut!" bar Aib7L " Daig niw- 
mo ar cuit-ni da ice saiw anda cuit cech fir do chethri oll-choio6&f$ 
ILerend do neoch ra-bui for sluagud Tana Bo CueHngi." " Atfua lim- 
sa on," bar M.edb. 

18. u Cia doragad risin techtairecht saiw? " bar AiU71. " Cia? " 

174 a ar Medb, " acht Dorn Ibair hua Cipp Gobawd, | 7 Eadb Darach \\ua 

Owna." Mebais a faitbiud gaire lor Fergus. " Cid dobe[t']r th' 

orf ailtius ? " b bar Ail71. u Pail a mor-abba dam-sa saiw," bar Fergus. 

Perhaps we should read f&itti fessa, faitte fessa, as 7, 8. 

1 Lit., "was allowed," = (Anglo- Irish) it was agreed on. 

2 They lived near Luachair Dedad, or Slieve Logher, near Castleisland, Kerry. 
Cf. Joyce's Keating, 166. 

3 Lit., doing up, horder (?), gl. limbus. 

4 co cloidmib ocus sonnaib, cum gladiis et fustibus (LB. 72 bb) Matt. xxv. 55. 
.i. cuaille no tadbhan, a pole, 'Clery ; sunn-chaistel, a bawned castle, O" 1 Cl. ; sond- 
ach, a palisade, LU. 236, Stab. Ch. Con Chulaind, p. 386, Fled JBricr., p. 73. 

5 A summer house, .i. temair in tige, Cormac. 

6 Lit., on it from above ; the Brown Bull of Cooley was dead at this time, but 
the South-Munstennen did not know it. 

7 Or falseness of hands ; it seems to mean he made a false or unworthy retreat, 
cf . W. v. lam ; gabail lama, to drive back. 


17. It is then that a resolution was agreed 1 upon by Eochu son 
of Luchta and by the Clanna Dedad, 2 namely : " Every living [thing] 
for its payment and every payment for its living [thing], reparation 3 
of his territory and of his land to Conchobar son of Eachtna Fathach, 
namely, a palisade 4 in the place of every palisade, and a grianan 5 in the 
place of every grianan, a house in the place of every house, a cow in 
the place of every cow, a bull in the place of every bull, and the 
3)ond Cualnge over and above ; 6 the equal-breadth of his face of red 
gold to Conchobar for that turn, and no expedition of hostility against 
the men of Eriu." It is then too that tidings, intelligencers, and 
messengers were sent from Eochu son of Luchta to Ailill and to Medb 
with that proposal. That thing was related to Ailill and to Medb. 
[Medb said] "A false hand was taken by him 7 from whom those counsels 
were brought. For so long as there shall be among us one to whom it 
will be possible to take the hilt of a sword and the shield-strap 8 of a 
shield about his neck, that proposal shall not go to him." 9 " We have 
not urged on 10 thee that counsel, thou bad woman," 11 said Ailill. " For 
not greater is our share of that payment than the share of every man 
of the four great provinces of Heriu who was on the expedition of the 
Tain B6 Cualnge." " Thou art good as to that in my opinion," 12 said 

18. "Who should go on that embassy?" said Ailill. "Who," 
said Medb, " but Dorn Ibair, grandson of Cepp Goba, and Fadb 
Darach, grandson of Omna ? " His chuckle of laughter broke out on 
Fergus. " What causes thy loud mirth" ? said Ailill. " I have good 
reason for that," said Fergus, "the man that is the greatest enemy to 

b = th-'forfailtius, cf. forfailid, joyful, in B. of Armagh. 

8 sciath-rach is clearly here the thing by which the shield was held and carried 
" about the neck"; cf. cum-rech; s. = strap or trappings of a shield, Man. and 
Oust. in. 162. ii. 331 ; it was sometimes mounted with (if not made of) silver, "s. 
argit," LU. 129; dp. (neuter?) sciathragaib, LB. 21 7 a. 

9 Medb calls Conor (her former husband) "him," "the man," 22. 

10 Proposed, prepared, orgenamar here and 33 ; "ni argensat," they did not 
prepare, LU. 58; " irgnam, urgnam," preparing, cooked, 23, 24, from 
(urgniu) ; cf. forgea, forraig, forrgithir, press, hurt, L U. 71 a ; LL. 205 b ; 193 b (?). 

11 Lit., harlot ; but Ailill would hardly say that to Medb in public, though her 
conduct was rather light ; Chulaind called the ladies of Ulster " merdrecha, " L U. 43. 

12 Or lit., I deem thee under him (fua) as to that, or I think thee good (fua) in 
that. She appears to agree with his view. 


"Duni is mo is bidba d'TJltaib bar-sin bith a do Meidb d'a saigid. 
TJair cen co dernad d'ulc riam n6 iaram friu, acJit mad Mend mace 
Salcholgan do goin bar renaib na Boiwne, ropad lor d'ulc do ; 7 cid 
ed," bar Fergus, " ni hecal do nf don chur-sa 7 teiged-sww and. 
Daig nit feltaig airecta in luct saiw." Is and-siw tancatar-sum rompu 
co Temraig. 

19. Is and-siw falluid Find mace Rosa ri coicid lamdeirg Lagen co 
clawnaib Deirg iwmi-sium co Temraig fathuaid co airm ir-rabi a 
brathair Carpr0 Ma Fer. Et atchuas doib na comada sain. Et ra- 
comarleiced accu cia doragad risiw tectairecht saiw. ~Lss-ed ro-raidsetar- 
sww co wbad e Fidach Ferggach Feda Gaible ; daig fer fathach 
fiamach fir-glicc e. Is and ra-lotar-sww rempu fathuaith co airm i 
mbai Concholor, 7 ro-iwnisetar-sww do na coma saiw, .i. " Cach beo 
d'a assec 7 each assec d'a beo ; iwdenam a chrichi 7 a feraiwd do Chon- 
chobur mace ~Fachtnai ; 7 sond in n-ircad each suiwd, 7 grianan in n-iwad 
each griandin, teg in n-inad each thigi, bo in n-iwad cacha bo, dam in 
n-iwad each daiw, 7 in Dond Cualngi fair anuas ; cowleithet a aigthi do 
d0rg-6r do Choncholur ; 7 can sluaged cowbaige d'iwsaigid fer nHem^ 
do'n chur-sa." Amlaid bai Concholor ca n-acall/w 7 atb^rt na 

[Concobor.] "Canas tancatar na techta 
sund do cheiw ? 
In slaiwnid dam-sa bar n-echtra, 

in dam' reir ?" 
[Tecta.] " Tancamar 6'n Chruacbaiw chroda 

nach bee blad, 

cucut-su a ChonchoiwM" chora, 
cruaid do gal. 

a Ellipsis o/da laidiud, to be sent (?). 

1 Of. Colcu g. Colgen, Adamnan ; Mend m. SalchadiB, LV. 101 a. 

2 ren, gl. torrens, Ml. 134 b ; rian muir reisi (sea, span), ' Cl. 

3 Lit., not fear to him is a thing on this turn, i.e. there is no danger. Note the 
inviolability of heralds. 


the Ulaid in the world [to be sent] by Medb to go to them ! For had 
he not done any wrong before or after to them, except to wound 
mortally Mend son of Salcholcu 1 on the waterways 2 of the B6and, it 
would be enough of wrong for him. And though it be so," said 
Fergus, " he need not fear 3 for this time, and let him go thither. For 
the assemblies of that people are not treacherous." It is then that 
these proceeded to Temair. 4 

19. It is then that Find son of Eos, King of the redhanded pro- 
vince of Lagin, went with the clans of Derg about him to Temair north- 
wards, to the place where his brother Cairpre Nia Fer was. And those 
offers were made known to them. And it was debated by them, who 
should go with that message. 6 It is this that they decided, that it was 
Fidach Ferggach of Fid Gaible; 6 for .he was a wise, modest, truly 
prudent man. It is then that these proceeded northward to the place 
in which Conchobar was ; and they told him those proposals, namely : 
"Every living [thing] for its payment, and every payment for its 
living [thing], Keparation of his territory and of his land to Concho- 
bor son of Fachtna ; and a wall in the place of every wall, and a gria- 
nan in the place of every grianan, a house in the place of every house, 
a cow in the place of every cow, a bull in the place of every bull, and 
the Dond Cualnge over and above ; the equal breadth of his face of 
red gold to Conchobar ; and no expedition of hostility against the men 
of Eriu for this time." Thus was Conchobar addressing them, and he 
spoke the words : 

\_Conor.~] " Whence have come the envoys 

hither from afar ? 
do you signify to me your adventures ? 

is it to do me homage ?" 
\_Envoys.~] " "We have come from valorous Cruachu, 

which is not little in fame, 
to thee, just Conchobar, 

stern thy valour; 

* To join the Leinster envoys on their way to Ulster. 
6 On that embassy. 

6 Of Feeguile, parish of Clonsast, barony of Coolestown, King's Co., L. na 
p. 214; LL. fol. 112 a. Gabal was the name of the river, and it is now 
called Fidh GaiBle. 


Tancamar ra himluad n-athisc 

dait, a rf, 
a Meidb is a Ai^'ll amra, 

calma a cri." 
[Concobor.] " Slaiwnid dam bar n-athisc n-awra \_sic~\, 

nach bee blad, 
a clieitliern ro-gasta ra-glan, 

cipe cban." C. 

20. "Atbiur-sa brethir am," bar Concholor, " connach geb-sa 
-cc-maid dib-si^, na a co raib iwad mo phupla cacha coicid i %-Herind 
feib ro-saidset-sww a pupla, a wbotha 7 a wbelscahmtf." " Maith a 
Ghoncholuir," bar iat-swm, " cait i ngabai-siu sossad 7 mor-longphort 
iwnocht?" "Ir-Kos na Big as Boind ban-solus," bar Concholor. 
Daig nir-cheil Conchobor riam bar a namait bail i ngebad sosad no 
longphort ; conna hapr^itis cowbad b ecla no uamun doberad fair can a 

21. Is and-siw ro-lotar-swm rempu co Temraig fades co hairm i 
mbai Carpre Ma ~Fer 7 Find mace ~Rosa', et batnoathar doib na scela 

174 b saiw. | " Maith and," c bar Carpr0 Ne F^r, " mad cucaiwni dob^ra 
Conchobor 7 "Ulaid a n-agid, ticed AiMl 7 Medb 'n-ar f urtact-ni 7 'n-ar 
forithiw. Mad sechoiwd digset i coiced cend-find (7ownacht, ragmait-ni 
'n-a furtacht-swm 7 na forithin." 

22. Is and-siw dawo ra-lotar natechta siwrompo co airm i mbai Ailill 
7 M.edb. Et anuair rancatar, ro-gab Medb ac iarfaigid sel dib. Is 
&m\aid ra-bui 'ca rad 7 afbert na hiisithra : 


a noco ? Cf. atbert-sum na gebad coma for bi't on rig act cat. C. M. Rath, 42. 

1 athesc, a speech, words, LS. 206 b ; Tl. 172, 244. 

2 cri; cf. hi colla cri, in carnal shapes, F. Masters, an. 926; i g-cri, in life 
(Circuit of Ireland, 1. 244) ; body, S. na Sann, p. 132, 116, "i cri ria n-ec " ; and 
MS. Mater. 512 ; LL. 307 a ; Felire. 

3 Cf. " your distinguished orders" of tradesmen's circulars. 

4 Lit., of; or till all the provinces of Eirin have been a place for my tent. 

5 belscalana, np. belscal&in, 23, 24 : botha agus belscalana, F. Masters, in. 


We have come to move a proposal, 1 

to thee, King ! 
from Medb and from noble Ailill, 

brave their form." 2 
[Conor, ,] " Name to me your noble request 3 

whose fame is not small, 
most sprightly handsome warrior-band, 

whencesoever it be." Whence . . . 

20. "I give my word, indeed," said Conchobar, " that I will not 
take terms from you, till there has been the place of my pavilion in 4 
every province in Heriu, as they have set up their tents, their booths, 
and their huts." 5 

" Good, Conchobar," said they, " where mayest thou take halt 
and encampment to-night ? " " In Eos na Big above the clear-bright 
Boind," said Conchobar. For Conchobar concealed not ever from his 
enemy the place in which he would take station or camp, that they 
might not say that it was fear or dread that caused him not to say it.* 

21. It is then that these proceeded to Tara southward to the place 
where were Cairpre Ma Fer and Find son of Ros; and those 
tidings were announced 7 to them. "Good, then," said Cairpre Nia 
Fer, " if it is towards us that Conchobar and the Ulaid will turn their 
face, let Ailill and Medb come to our aid and to our help. If it is 
past us that they will go into the fair-headed province of Connacht, 
we will go to their aid and to their help." 

22. So it is then that the envoys proceeded to the place where 
Ailill and Medb were. And when they arrived, Medb began to ask 
tidings 8 from them. It is thus she was saying it, and she spoke the 
words : 

[" Whence 

b combad. recte. c maith dm, generally. 

311; botha ocus belscalana, . 57 a; sgathlain, sheds, 0. M. Lena, 76, 78; 
scalan, penthouse, scaffold, O'Begleifs Eng.-Ir. Diet. 

6 A very foolish thing. He found the Leinstermen there before him, and was 
not able to attempt to dislodge them. 

7 A sing, verb with a plur. nominative ; perhaps we should read " batnoathatar," 
they declared. Of. condnoathatar, 8. 

8 " sel" I take to be a scribal error for " seel." 


" Can tecait na techta ? 
slamnid daw far slecta 

co Conchobor Cairn ; a 
in n-anaw( in Emaiw, 
in flaith cusna fledaib ? 
no in n-ed tic do debaid 

i wdegaid a tairb ? " 
" Nocho n-anat Ulaid 
nocho chert na cubaid 

damait dairecht Breg 
ni ba crecha gairdi 
na co roisset fairggi 
na co ndern&t airgni 

far Carpr* Ma Per." 

" Beit i w-a rith romaiwd 

ticfat a b cind da colaiwd 

mad da ti a thig 
biat-sa sund i wbalib 
can locht is can anim 
daig is lor lim Lagin 

i w-agid ind fir." 

" Da torset meicc Mag0A 

in sluag brotla bagach, 

bud croderg al-lamach 

i cath Ruiss na Big." 

a i.e. of Armagh ; cf. 6 flaith Macha ... 6 iarla in chairn, B. of Fenagh, 366. 

Cf. a Chongail Mullaig Macha, B. of M. Hath, 172. 
b Line one syl. too long omit this a. 
c "Ni amlaid sin ba-sa, ar Ailill. . . . Tanac-sa dano. Gabsus rig i sundi 

tunachus mo mathar ; daig ar bith Mdta Murisc ingen Magach mo 

1 Or tell me (of) your tracks or journey ; slecta = accounts (G. M. Lena, xxn. ; 
Hyfiachr. 334) or facts (Adamnan, p. 268) ; n. slicht, g. slechta. 

2 (1) Either "Cairn na foraire ar Sliab Fuaid" (LU. 78 ab), which was near 
Newtownhamilton, and guarded the pass to Conor's palace of Emain. Conor's son, 
Cormac, is called " nia an Chairn " (H. 3, 18, p. 594). Or (2) it was the cairn of 
Armagh; cf. "A Chongail Mullaig Macha," C. M. Hath, 172. 

3 The banqueting prince ; Medb, his divorced wife, seems to hint that he was 
fitter for the banquet-hall than for the battle-field. 


\_Medb, .] " Whence come the envoys ? 
Tell me of your journey 1 

to Conchobor of Cam ; 2 
waits he in Ernain, 
the chief of the banquets ? 3 
or is it that he comes for strife 

after their 4 bull?" 
[Envoy. ~] " The TJlaid wait not : 

it was not right or fitting, 

they resolve 5 to watch the Bregians ; 
the plunders will not be slight, 
until they reach the sea, 
until they work ravages, 
on Cairpre Ma Fer." 
\_Medb.~] " They shall be running before us, 

their heads shall come from their bodies 6 

if he come from home. 
I shall be here in my homesteads, 
without fault and without disgrace : 
for I think the Lagin enough 

against the man." 

[Envoy. ~] " If the sons of Magach should come 7 
the bold, warlike band, 
their shooting will be gory -red 
in the battle of Eos na Efg." 

mathair." XL. 54 a. " Urthatar techta aile co maccaib magach .i. 
Get mace M.&gach, 7 Anluan mace M.a.gach, 1 M.acc Corb mace M.a,ffach, 
7 Bascellmcc M.agach, J En mace Doche maecc, (7) Scandal mace ~M.a.gach " 
(Qu. read En mace Magach, Doche mace Magach ?) ; Ailill, Anluan, 
Moccorb, Get, En, Bascall, Doche, LU. fo. 45. 

4 Perhaps we should read " a thairh," his hull. 

5 "damait," they suffer, yield, consent. Or "it is not justice (and it is not 
proper) that they concede to the assembly of the Bregians." Cf. daimh, .i. deoin, 
consent. I think it means here they "allow," resolve; cf. "comairleiced," co- 
mairliced, 2, 17, 19, and my previous note on that word. 

6 Lit. body. 

7 These Connacht \\ T arrrors were Get, Anluan, Mog-Corb, Bascell, En, Doche, 
-and Scandal (see note to text], Anfinn and Fergal, Ogygia, 269. 


" Da tora ri Macha, 
saifit<?r a datha, 
claifittf/ 1 a ratha, 

tairnfithir a brig." 
" Da torset ar sluag-ni, 
tinolfaider uawni, 
bid cowdalb in cuani 
i fir-catha can." C. 

23. Imthusa Concholuir, tanic-sWe reme dirram sloig moir co- 
Accaill Breg 7 co sligid mBreg. And barrecaiw Aifo'll flath-briugaid 
do-sum and. " Maith and. a Choncholuir," bar Ailill. " Cid in 
dirram sloig moir ro-fail i tegaid, 7 cid ass ail latt dol ? " " Cor-Eoss 
na Rig as B6M ban-solus and-so," bar Conchobor. " Noco gliwnigthi 
duit-siu saiw," ale bar Aill, " acht is foen glircni. Daig ro-n-f uilet 
in Galian 7 Luaigne na Temrach awd-saiw bar do chiwd." " Geiss 
dam-sa dola dom' chonair," ale bar Conchobor, " et geiss daw dola i 
cath ca^A 1m. Gabar sosad 7 longport acairai and-so fodectsa," bar 
Conchobor. " Saitter ar sosta and-so 7 suidigter ar pupla. Gnit^r ar 
mbotha 7 ar mbelscalam. Dentar irgnam bid 7 lenna. Dentar 
7 tomaltus. Cawtar ciuil 7 airnti 7 admolta acaiwd and," 

24. Is awd ro-saittea a sosta 7 ro-suidigthea a pupla, ro-gnithea a 
mbotha 7 a mbelscalmft, ra-ataithe a tenti ; doringned urgnam bid 7 
lenna. Doronait gr^tha glanfothraicthi leo, 7 ro-slemun-chirtha a fuilt, 

1 " condalb " of. condalb sain, condelg n-aga ; tanic ell condailbe im Ultaib do, 
LL. 57 b ; or it is = condailbe, friendship, O'R. and W. " condalb " is not in the 
gloss, or dictionaries. "With " cuani " cf. ds. " cuaine," breed (Eyfiachr. 93) ; cuana 
.i. buidne, (PCI. ; cuanene, .i. pugil, Z. (Cf. eistid, Stanza 20 of Fair of Carman.} 

2 " Can " is the first word of this poetry, which would go very well to the tune 
of " Go where glory waits thee," but it " sweeter far might be" to the envoys 
if Medb went with them. She brought the Leinstermen into this war, and then 
abandoned them and her brothers-in-law. 

3 I take Accall to be the highest point of Slieve Bree, about seven miles due 
north of Rosnaree, and Slige Breg to be the road there passing Sliab Breg. Conor 
was not at Accall (or Skreen), " near Tara," so called to distinguish it from other 
places of the same name. To get near Tara he had to fight a battle on the Boyne. 


\_Medb.~\ " If the king of Macha come, 

his colours will be turned back, 
his fortunes will be overcome, 
his might will be lowered." 
\_Envoy.~] " If our bands arrive, 

a muster will be made by us, 
there will be a rivalry of the fighting band 1 
for the real combats." Whence. 2 

23. To return to Conchobar he came on [with] the multitude of a 
great army to Accall Breg and to Slige Breg. 3 There Ailill, a princely 
yeoman, 4 met him then. " Good then, Conchobar," said Ailill, "what 
is the vast number of a great army that is behind thee ? and where is 
it your pleasure to go ? " "To Eos na Rig above the clear-bright 5 
Boand here," said Conchobar. "That [place] is not to be secured 6 
for thee," replied Ailill, " but it is insecure. 7 For the Galian and the 
Luaigne 6 of Temair are there before thee." "It is an obligation to 
me to go my way," replied Conchobar. "And it is an obligation to 
me to go into the battle of every number. 9 Let a position and 
encampment be taken by us here for the present," said Conchobar. 
" Let our stations be pitched here, and let our tents be erected. Let 
our booths and our tents be constructed. Let preparation of food and 
drink be made. Let dinner and victuals be made. Let tunes and 
merry songs and eulogies be sung by us here." 

24. Then were their positions fixed and their pavilions were 
pitched, their huts and their tents were made. Their fires were 
kindled, cooking of food and drink was made ; baths of clean-bathing 

4 Large landholder ; nom. sg. rig briuga, LL. 160 b. 

* "Os Boind bain." O'Hartigan's Poem in LL. "The clear, joyous river 
ran sparkling." (Smiles, in account of the Battle of the Boyne). " Sons of the 
strong, stern race that forced the ford through Boyne's dun water." (A poet, 
Mr. Austin, in a Sonnet to the Ulster Loyalists, National Review of August, 1892.) 

6 The past participle as part, necessitatis of "glinnigim"; glinn, stronghold, 
0' CL ; glinni, securities, Mesca III. 4. 

7 A weak security ; glinne, secure, O'Don. Suppl. Foenglinni is the name of 
a man in Mesca VI. 40. Cf. the earth was void, faon, Gen. i. 2. 

8 The men of Leinster and Meath. 

9 However numerous the enemy ; but he did not do so afterwards, he prudently 
waited and waited for all his troops to come into the field. 



ra-min-glanta a cuirp, ro-caithecl pr#M 7 tomaltus leo. Et ro-canait 
ciuil 7 airfitid 7 admolta leo. a 

25. "Maith and-sm a Ultu," bar Concholor, "in faguw acaib 
nech dig do midem 7 do mor-descam bar in sluag?" " Eagat-sa," 
bar Peic mace Pollomum meicc Pactna Pathaig. Is and-siw luid remi 
Peic mace 'Follomuin meicc T?actna Pathaig \ cor-ranic co Dmn na 
Boiwne ban-soilsi. Ar-saiw ro-gab ac midem 7 ac mor-descam ar in 
sluag. Et cessis a menma cu mor iorthu-sum no. "Eagat-sa fathu- 
aid iwnossa," bar Peic, "co hairm i failet ~Ulaidj 7 mniasat doib in 
sluag do bith icom fuatecht-sa. Ticfait 'Ulaid atuaid. Gebaid each 
a lathir catha 7 comlaiwd 7 comraic dib. "Ni ba mo a nos na allud na 
erdarcus daw-sa in chathaigthe ass-a aithle anda do cech oen fir d'Ult- 
aib. Et cid daw-sa na curfiwd mo chomlund a chetoir romum?" Et 
ralluid-sium reme iwnuwd dar iwber na Eoiwne. Et tuc bleitn mulind 
tuathbiP forthu. Tuc a n-airthiur for a n-iarthur 7 a ndesciurt for a 
tuasciurt ; 7 ro-gairset in sluag i w-oen-fecht immi-sium. Et ni forul- 
ngither do-sum beith. i cind in tsloig ro-moir ; 7 tanic-sium rowi d'iwnai- 
gid inn inbir dar a tanic iwnuwd. Et ni hed barroeblangair do-sww 
itir on ; acht ra- lingestar sseb-leim i-sm mBoiwd mban-solw^. Mar a 
boi iwber bud domni a cheili ar a B6md c ro-liwgestar sgeb-leiw and co 
ro-thib tond tairis. Co ro-baded 'sin liwd sin can anmain etir. Corop 
buan 7 corop marthanach d'a eis a iwnchomartha. Corop Liwd Peic d 
aiwm na liwni ir-ro-baded. 

a Of. thefulachta before the battle of Moylena, C.M. Lena, 76. 

b Is amlaid atad na catha go hanordaigithe 7 bleith muilinn tuaithfil orra, Cog. 

G. 7 ., p. 198. 

c Araboind (MS.), for ar Boind or ar abaind. Cf. rostib tond, LL. 165 a. 
d Perhaps it is the same as Linn Eois, on the Boyne. (See Index to Four Masters.) 

1 Commanding hill, either Knowth or New Grange ; the former faces Rosnaree, 
and commands a fine view of it. Cf. tilach airechais ocus tigernais hErend .i. 
Temair, Sick Bed of Cu, 384. 

2 " cessis," 25, 26, "nir cheiss," 27; and " rosceastar," 12; also "cessis 
a menna fair," LL. 70 a; " ac cessacht formsa," reproaching me, Hogan>s Irish 
Phrase-book," p. 117; roba ceasachtach air, he grumbled at it, G. M. Lena, 64. 
The word means to suffer, Z ; also to torment, afflict, Matt. viii. 29. 

3 fuadaigh, = put to flight, drive, force away, Coney's Diet. 

4 Lit., its. 

5 "inber," in 25, 26, is the river at Rosnaree, which is not affected by the 
tides, and cannot be called a river-mouth or estuary at ten miles from the sea. 


were made by them, and their hair was smooth-combed ; their persons 
were minutely cleansed, supper and victuals were eaten by them ; and 
tunes and merry songs and eulogies were sung by them. 

25. " Good then, Ulaid," said Conchobar, " do we find among you 
one who will go to estimate and to reconnoitre the army ? " "I will 
go," said Feic, son of Follomon, son of Fachtna Fathach. It is then 
that Feic, son of Follomon, son of Fachtna Fathach, went on till he 
reached the Fortress of the clear-bright Boand. 1 Thereupon he began 
measuring and reconnoitring the army. And his spirit chafed 2 greatly 
about them. "I will go northward now," said Feic, a to the place 
in which the Ulaid are, and I will tell them that the army is driving 
me away ? 3 The Ulaid will come from the north. Each of them will 
take up his station of battle and conflict and combat. The 4 glory and 
the honour and the distinction of the fighting will be no greater for 
me afterwards than for every single man of the Ulaid. And what is 
there for me that I should not engage my combat at once straight 
away ? " And he went on over across the river 5 of the Boand. And 
gave the grind of a left-handed mill on them. 6 Their van caught (or 
closed on) their rear, and their right wing (joined) their left, 7 and the 
army shouted at once around him. And it was not endured [dared] 
by him to be against the huge army, and he came on towards the 
river over which he had come across. And it is not that it was leaped 
by him at all, but he leapt a false leap into the clear-bright Boand. 
Where was the water that was deeper than elsewhere, he leaped a 
false leap there, so that a wave laughed over him, and that he was 
drowned in that pool without life at all. And lasting and longlived 
after him was the memorial of it, for Feic's Pool 8 was the name of the 
pool in which he was drowned. 

6 i. e. he went around them in a wrong direction, lost his way, or, rather, ran 
amuck. Cf. " They are disorganized all round like the grindings of a mill turn- 
ing the wrong way" (ocus bleith muilinn tuaithfil orra), Cog. G., p. 198; "for 
tuaithbell," lefthand-wise, L. na gCeart, pp. 2, 12, LL. 114 h. 

7 Or "he bore (drove) their right wing in on their left, and their rear on their 
van" (!). An Irish soldier in the Peninsular "War strayed from his quarters, and got 
drunk. To escape being shot by "Wellington's orders, he brought French prisoners 
to the English camp, and, when asked how he managed to disarm them, he said 
"I surrounded them." If the phrase be connected with what goes before, I fancy 
it means, "he took their east for their west, and their south for their north." 

8 Lind Feicc, g. Lind find Feic na fian, O'Hartigan's Poem in LL. 



26. Rop iwgen ra Conchobor 7 ra Ul^w ro-boi in fer saiw 'n-a ecmais. 
"Maith em a Ultu," bar Conchotor, "in fagaim-se acaib nech dig do 
midew 7 do mor-descaiw daw bar in sliiag sm?" " Ragat-sa and," bar 
Daigi mace Dcga de TJltaib. Et ra-luid rewe connici in tulaig tigmiais 
cetna as ur na Bomne ban-solsi. Ro-gab ac midem 7 ac mor-desem in 
tsloig ; 7 cessis a m^wma 7 a aicned 7 a imiithim forthu f on cuwma 
cetna. Ra-bai 'ca rad na cetna : " Ragat-sa fathuaid am," bar e-siuw, 
" 7 iwniasat d'Ultaib na sluaig do bith icom 'uaitecht ut. Dorosset 
IJlaid atuaid. Gebaid each a lathir catha 7 comlaind 7 comraic ; 7 ni 
ba mo a nos na allud na irdarcus dam-sa in chathaigthe anda do cecli 
oen fir dib-sium. Et ragat-sa d'iwnaigid in tsloig co ro-churiur mo 
cnomlond romom." Is and-siw dolluid-sium dar iwber na Boiwne 
iwnund ; 7 ro-mesc bar in sluag e. Et ra-theigsetar na sluaig immi- 
siuw do dib lethib no ; 7 bogmtha gum gal[^ww] a de ; co toichair 

27. Ba imgen am ra Conchotor ro-batar saiw. " Maith am a Irga- 
laig meicc M^cclaig meicc Congaile meicc ~Rudraige, in n-abbrai cia as 
choir do thechta do midem 7 do mor-desciw bar in sluag?" " Cia 
doragad .and," ale bar Irgal^, " acht mad Iriel gascedach glunmar 
mace Conaill Qhernaig ? Acht is Consill ar choscor e. Is Cu Chulaind 
ar chlessamnacht. Is Cathbd^ drui deg-amra ar cheill 7 ar chomairle. 
Is Sencha mace AiMLa ar sid 7 ar so-b^rla. Is Celtchair mace ~Uihechair 
ar chalmacht. Is Conchobor mace Fachtna ~Fathaig ar rigdacht 7 ar 
rosc-lethni, ar thinlucun set 7 mami 7 iwmass. Cia doragad acht mad 
Iriel ? " * * Ragat-sa and," ale bar Iriel. 

Is and luid Iriel reme connici in taulaig tigmiais cetna 6s ur na 
Boiwne ban-solsi. Gab ac midem 7 ac mor-desciw in tsloig. Mr-cheiss 

a gal- in MS. " Doronsat guin galann de," &c., C. M. Lena, 142 ; LL. 258 a. 

1 A great fact or wonder (?), imgen, 26 ; imgen, 27, for imchian. 

2 The meaning seems to be that he rushed blindly at them. Our native trans- 
lators "get mixed" in attacking this phrase. It here means lit., "he plunged 
into the army." It is found in LL. 54 ab, "ro mesc in Badb forsin t-sldg; 
mescfid a sil for Eirinn," "his seed shall prevail over E.," C. M. Lena, 152 ; mesc- 
thair ar cond, that confuses our senses, Sick Bed of Cu, 383 ; rasmescsat iat ar in 
t-sluag, they mixed themselves through the host ; ra cumasc for in sluag, he 
wrought confusion on the host, Mescz Ulad, 30, 32. It seems the idiom "cumaisg 


26. It seemed very long 1 to Conchobar that that man was absent. 
" Good truly, TJlaid," said Conchobar, " do I find among you one who 
will go to estimate and to reconnoitre that army ? " "I will go," said 
Daigi son of Daig of the' "Ulaid. And he went forward to the same 
hill of command, above the brink of the clear-bright Boand. He 
began measuring and reconnoitring the army. And his spirit and his 
nature and his mind chafed about them in the same way, and be was 
saying the same [things] : " I will go northward indeed," said he, 
" and I will tell to the TJlaid that the armies are pursuing me yonder. 
The Ulaid will arrive from the north. Each of them will take up his 
station of battle and of conflict and of combat ; and the glory and the 
honour and the distinction of the fighting will be no greater for me 
than for every single man of them. And I will go against the army, 
that I may put my combat before." It is then that he went over the 
river of the Boand across, and he rushed rashly on the army. 2 
And the hosts came around him on both sides also, 3 and a wound of 
lances 4 was made of him, so that he fell by them. 

27. It seemed long indeed to Conchobar that these [two] were 
[absent]. " Good indeed, Irgalach, son of Macclach, son of Congal, 
son of Rudraige, sayest thou who is proper to go to estimate and to 
reconnoitre the army?" " Who should go there," replied Irgalach, 
" but Iriel, good at arms, great kneed, son of Conall Cernach. But he 
is a Conall for havoc, he is a Cu Chulaind for dexterity of feats. He 
is a Cathbad, the right-wonderful druid, for intelligence and for 
counsel, he is a Sencha son of Ailill for peace and for good speech, he 
is a Celtchair son of Uthechar for valour, he is a Conchobar son of 
Fachtna Fathach for kingliness and for wide-eyedness, 6 for giving of 
treasures and of wealth and of riches. Who should go except it be 
Iriel?" "I will go there," replied Iriel. It is then that Iriel 
went forward to the same dominating hill, over the brink of the 
clear-bright Boand. He began measuring and reconnoitring the 

ael air," mix lime with, it, Hogari's Irish Phrase-book, p. 119. Lit. plunged: 
" mescaid in claideb and," he plunges, Tl. 70 ; "mescthus isin duiblinn isin," LU. 
95 a; "mescais a chuaranu and," LB. 213 b; "romeasc each ar dan a cheile," 
MS. Mater. 46 ; measgas iad fein air (i.e. muir or saogal), Three Shafts, 262. 

3 "No," too, indeed (seven times in our text), = dino, dono; not in W. 

4 guin gal[w]. Cf. doronsat guin galann de, "they made a victim of lances 
nd spears of him," C. M. Lena, 142 ; galan appears in our modem texts. 

5 Breadth of view (?). 


a memna na aicned na ifmithim forthu-sww itir. Atetha a tuarascbail 
leiss co liairm i mbai Conchofior. 

28. " Cinnas, a m' an^m a Iriel" ? bar Conchobor. "Atdiur-sa 
brethir am," bar Iriel, "dar lim-sa na fail ath for abaiwd na lia for 
tilaig na chend-roit na sliged bar crig Breg no Mide nach Ian d'a 
ngrddgib 7 d'a ngi!10td. Andar lim at lassar rigthigi di leirgg 
a tlachtga 7 a n-errid 7 a n-ettaid," bar Iriel. 

Ro-raid Conchobor: 

29. " In fir an atfiadat na fir, 

a Iriel galaig glun-gil ! 

teora catha for clar chliu 

ar ar ciwd i comnaidiu ?" 
' ' Atat i ceilg ar do chind 
issin ross imtneit Boiwd ; 

teora catha Claiwne Deirg, 

lassait mar lassair dar leirg. 
' ' j^a tecbta dachuatar uan 
d'a fis ca 1m ata in sluag, 

ni tnicfat sund, ^miad nar lac ; 

is e a fir a n-arfiadat." In. 

30. "Maith a Ultu," bar Concholor, a cade far cowairle dun in 
cath-sa lind?" " Is i ar comairle," ar Ulaid, " anad co tisat ar treoiw 
7 ar toisig 7 ar tigmimais 7 ar fulngidi catha." Nir-bo fata inn 
irnaide doib 7 nir-bo chian a in chownaide, co faccatar tri carptig d'a 
n-iwnaigid. Buiden da cet dec i comair cecha carptig dib. Is iat 
ro-bai awd-saiw, triar deg-gesa dana d'Ultaib, .i. Cathb#^ drui deg-amra, 
et Aitlwni Algessach, 7 Amargiw in fer dana. 

Or 57 2 . 

1 sliged, recte slige, sligid, or sligeda; cendroit, head or end of a road (?). 
3 Hence I fancy he was at Knowth or towards Slane. 

3 A ' * ross " is a wooded promontory. 

4 Sons of Derg ; from 16, 19, 29, they were evidently the Leinstermen with 
their headquarters at Dinn Rig on the Barrow. Derg was probahly one of the two 
Dergs of Bruden da Derg or Bohernabreena, S. Mor. i. 46. 


army. His spirit, or his mind, or Ms thoughts did not fret over them 
at all. He brings their description with him to the place in which 
Conchobar was. 

28. " How, my life Iriel ? " said Conchobar. "I give [my] word 
truly," said Iriel, " it seems to me that there is not ford on river, nor 
stone on hill, nor highways nor road 1 in the territory of Breg or Hide, 
that is not full of their horse-teams and of their servants. It seems to 
me that their apparel and their gear and their garments are the blaze 
of a royal house from the plain," said Iriel. 
Conchobar said : 

29. " Is it true, what the men declare, 
valorous white-kneed Iriel, 
three battalions on the plain to the left, 2 
before us in waiting ? " 
\_Iriel. ,] "They are in ambush before thee 

in the wood that the Boand goes round, 3 
three battalions of Clann Deirg ;* 
they blaze like fire across the plain. 
" The messengers that went from us 
to ascertain what strength the army is 
shall not come [back] hither an honour 

that is not trivial 
it is the truth of it, what they declare." 

30. " Good, Ulaid," said Conchobar, "what is your advice to us 
[about] this battle of ours ?" " Our advice is," said the Ulaid, "to 
wait till our strong men and our leaders and our commanders and our 
supporters of battle come." Not long was their waiting and not great 
was the stay, till they saw three chariot-warriors 5 approaching them, 
and a band of twelve hundred along with each rider of them. It is 
these that were there three of the goodly men of science of the Ulaid, 
namely Cathbad the right -wonderful druid, and Aitherni the Impor- 
tunate, and Amargin the learned doctor. 6 

5 " cairptech " or " eirr " is a warrior who fights from a chariot, not an " ara " 
or rhedarius. In LL. 121 a. Cu Chulaind said when Ldeg was killed, "I am now 
charioteer as well as chariot - war rior " ; culmaire, .i. cairpthech, LI7. 109 a. 

6 "fer dana," man of science and art. Such men were also men of war, as 
appears from our text. 


31. "Maith a ocu," bar Concholor, " cade bar comairle dun?" 
" Is i ar comairle," ar iat-swm, " anad co tisat ar treoiw 7 ar toisig 7 ar 
tig^mmais 7 ar fulngidi catha." Is and-siw ra-ansat. Mr-bo chian \n 
chomnaidi 7 nir' fata inn irnaide, co faccatar tri cairptig aile d'a n-in- 
saigid, 7 bidden tri chet dec i comair cacAa carpt*^. Is iat tanic and- 
siw, Eogan mace Duithacht, et Gaine "mace Daurth#0A 7 Carpr0 mace 

32. "Cade bar comairle dun, a ocu?" bar Conchobor. "Is i ar 
comairle," ar iat-sum, " anad co tisat ar treoiw 7 ar toisig 7 ar tig^ru- 
mais 7 ar iulhgidi catha." Ro-ansat. Nir-bo cnian in chomnaidi 7 
nir fata inn imaide, co faccatar tri carp^y aile da n-iwsaigid. Is iat 
tanic and-sm, trim^c Connaid Buide mewc Iliach, .i. Loegaire Buad- 
ach. 7 Cairell Coscarach 7 Aed Anglownach. Buiden cetliri chet dec 
i comair each carptig dib. 

33. " Cade bar comairle dun a ocu ?" " Is i ar comairle," ar iat- 
swm, a "anad co tisat ar treoin 7 ar t[oYs^] b 7 ar t[_igernmais~^ 7 ar 
fulngidi catha." " Nad-orgenamar-ni fhoirb-si siw a ocu. Daig ata 
trian sloig "Ulad sund, 7 ni fail acht trian sloig fer nKerend and-siit,'* 
bar Conchobor ; " cid dun na tibrimmis in cath?" 

34. Is and-siw atr^acht Conchobor 7 ro-gab a chath-eirred c 7 com- 
laiwn 7 comraic imme. Atr^acht trian sloig Ulad laisium no, et lotar 
dar inb^r na Boiwni iwnund. Et atr^ctatar na sloig aile doib, ar ndul 
dar iwber na Boiwne iwnund. Et ro-gab each dib ar slaide 7 ar slechtad 
araile, far foirtched 7 far foillged, cowna bai samail Ulad ra halt na 

a So here and 6 lines infra; read cian. b So 7 lines supra. c Supply catha. 

1 "doib," of similar phrase supra, is here omitted. 

2 Eogan, king of Farney, Co. of Monaghan, slew the children of Uisnech ; he 
was father-in-law of Conall Cernach, LI7., p. 103 h. 

3 "nad orgenamarni," we have not served, obeyed (cf. fogniu, orgnam, and note 
at 17) : we did not suggest that to you (?). 


31. " Good, warriors," said Conch obar, " what is your advice to 
us ? " " Our advice is," said they, " to wait till our strong men and 
our leaders and our lords and our supporters of battle come." It is 
then they waited. Not great was the 1 waiting and not long was the 
delay, till they saw three other riders approaching them, and a band 
of thirteen hundred along with each rider. It is they that came then, 
Eogan son of Durthacht, 3 and Gaine son of Daurthacht, and Carpre 
son of Daurthacht. 

32. " What is your advice to us, warriors?" said Conchobar. 
" Our advice is," said they, " to wait till our strong men and our 
leaders and our lords and our supporters of battle come." They 
waited. Not great was the waiting, and not long was the delay, till 
they saw three other chariot-fighters approaching them. It is they 
that came then, the three sons of Connad Buide [the Yellow], son of 
Iliach, namely Loegaire the Victorious, and Cairell the Havoc-worker, 
and Aed of the mighty deeds. A band of fourteen hundred along with 
each rider of them. 

33. " What is your advice to us, warriors ? " " Our advice is," 
said they, " to wait till our strong men and our leaders and our lord* 
and our supporters of battle come." " We have not prepared that for 
you, 3 warriors. For there is a third of the army of the Ulaid here, 
and there is not but a third of the army of the men of Eriu yonder," 
said Conchobar. " What is there for us* that we should not give the 

34. It is then that Conchobar rose and took his battle-gear [of 
battle] and of conflict and of combat about him. A third of the 
army of the Ulaid rose with him too. And they went over the river 
of the Boand across. And the other armies arose to them on going 
over the water of the Boand across. And each of them took to hacking 
and to cutting down the other, to destroying 5 and to wounding 5 till 
there was no similitude of the Ulaid at that juncture of time, except 

4 i.e. why. 

5 Conjectural renderings ; foirtchead = destroying, C. M. Hath, 248 ; failgis = 
he cut, struck, G 1 Clery ; they look also like for-teched, fleeing, and foillged, follow- 
ing, tracking (cf. fuilliucht) ; fortched, exciting, C.M.Rath, 170; see Glossary. 


huaire sin. Aclit na-beth ruad-daire ro-mor bar lar machaire 7 na- 
gabad mor-sluag na farrad, 7 ra-etlaithe a chael 7 a mm iw fheda ass, 
7 ra-factha a railge riiada ro-mora da eis. Is awlaid-siw ra-slaidit a 
ngillai oca aitedcha-sww 7 a n-aes ocbad, cowna raba acht a curaid 7 a 
cath-mihVZ 7 a ndeg-laith gaile d'a n-eis. a Cid ira acht nir-barulngither 
d'a ngillaib oca aitedcha-sww, na cor-mewaid rosc-beiw rigdaide dib 
tria-siw cath fothuaid, 

35. Is and-sw ra-tuairced Iwnochaiw sciath Conchoouir co ro-geses- 
tar. Co ro-gesetar tn towna ILevend .i. Toed Chlidna 7 Towe? Rudr^/^* 
7 T0w(? Tuage Inbir. Co ro-gesetar sceith Ul^ uile iw n-uair siw, 
each 6en ra-boi ar a nguallib dib 7 i w-a cairpdib. b 

36. Is e iw la sain barrecaim d'Ultaib tidacht immach. Et barre- 
-caim Conall ir-rewthus resna sluagaib. Acht cid airchind ra-betis eich 
bad luaithiu na eich Conaill and, ni ro-lam nech d'Ultaib aiged a ech 
na charpat do thabairt sech Conall. Iss-and-siw ra-^owcatar glas-lath 
Ulad gnuis Conaill cucu ra halt na uaire sin. Et ra-ansatar, daig rap 
-anad fa inneoin leo. Et rapo doss diten 7 rapo buiwne bratha 7 ropo 

a Compare tlie description of the battle of Clontarf : "Is amail sin amail robi 
caill Tomair ar loscad a minbaig 7 a hoccrund 7 na secht catha coictidis 
ar mis ic a gerrad 7 a railge romora 7 a dairge diomora in a sessam. 
Is amlaid sin atad na catha cechtarda ar ttuilim a fforba uile acht 
uathad da ttrenf eraib 7 dattrenmileadaibnasessani." Cog. G. 7 Gf., p. 198. 

1 Lit. its ; " (f)arrad, opposed to secessio, ML 42 a. 

2 ra etlaithe, 3 sg. pres. pass, of (es-tallaim) etlaim; 3 pi. ra etlaitis; LL. 
268 b ; or they flew away. 

3 " railge," np. of rail; g. ralach ro dirge, LL., pp. 108, 109 a ; darach na rail- 
geadh, L. Gabala, p. 28 ; a railge ocus dairge, Cogad G. ocus G. 198 ; ns. rail, infra. 

4 " ocbad" seems gen. pL, 34, 38. The young, juventus ; cf. findbad (ML 14), 
fidbad ; tip. ocbaid, warriors, C. M. Lena, 40. 

5 Cf. the description of the battle of Clontarf in Wars of the Gaedel with the 
Gaill, p. 199 " They appear to me the same as if Tomar's Wood was on fire, and 
the seven battalions had been cutting away its underwood and its young shoots for 
a month, leaving its stately trees and its immense oaks standing," etc. See note 
to our text, 34 ; and cf. modern version. 

6 i.e. "and" or "so that." 

7 " roscbeim'' = rush-stroke, or charge ; cf. rusgadh,0'.#. ; frithrosc na conaire, 
F. Masters, v. 1862; rethait rithrosc, S. na Eann, 116. 

8 Innocham, 35 ; Innochain, 48 ; " indochoin Conchobuir," .i. sciath Con- 
chobuir, LL. 107 a. 

9 They do the same in 16 ; but "What are the wild waves saying" ? And 


it were a huge sturdy oakwood in the middle of a plain, and a great 
army were to go close to it ; and the 1 slender and the small of the 
wood were cut off, 2 and its huge sturdy oaks 3 were left behind. It 
is thus that their young [and] youthful pages and their young folk 4 
were cut off, so that there were none hut their champions and their 
battle-warriors and their good heroes of valour behind them. 5 How- 
ever, it was not borne by their young youthful pages, and 6 a kingly 
brilliant dash 7 of them burst through the battle northward. 

35. It is then that Inn6chain, 8 Conchobar's shield, was battered 
and it moaned ; so that the Three Waves of Eriu moaned, namely, the 
Wave of Clidna and the Wave of Rudraige and the Wave of Tuag 
Inbir ; 9 so that the shields of the Ulaid all moaned at that hour, every 
one of them that was on their shoulders and in their chariots. 

36. It is that day that it happened to the Ulaid 10 to come out. And 
Conall happened to be in the forefront, before the armies. But though 
it is fleet 11 that the horses would be that would be swifter than Conall' s 
horses there, none of the Ulaid ventured to bring the front of his horses 
or his chariots past Conall. It is then that the raw recruits of the 
Ulaid saw the face of Conall towards them at that juncture of time ; 
^,nd they halted, for they were fain 12 to halt. And a bush of shelter 
and a wreath of laurel 13 and a hand above was Conall to them. For 

b Cf. ro-s-glannbeartaigit a sceith ar guaillib a n-gaisceadach, B. of Magh 
Rath, 140. 

what have mythologists to say about this sonant sympathy between shield and 
shield and shields and waves ? 

10 A fresh body of them came on the field under Conall Cernach, as the other 
Ulaid were retreating. 

11 Not found in dictionaries ; it seems to mean prcecipites, forward, headlong ; 
airchinn (principium), Z. 868 ; is airchenn, est cerium (Z. 343, not in the Index 
Verborum) . 

12 Cf. dot' ain-deoin, against thy will, (7. M. Rath, 160 ; but inneoin, support, 
Hyfiachr. 254. It is clear that the Ulstermen were running away, and that our 
version is so full of euphemisms that it must be an Ulster one. It was ever thus, 
from Rosnaree to Waterloo, that accounts of battles have been written. The 
"glaslath" (= recruits, Man. Mater. 102, and CP Don. Suppl.} were green or raw- 
troops, with which cf. glas-gesceda, glas-darach, 37, and glais-fiann (Diarm. and 
Grainne, 88). 

13 " buinne," a branch; cf. buinne-an, a branch (Job xiv. 7), buinne doat 
-(LIT. 134), branch, or ring of forearm. It also means a wave or torrent : buinne 
dilenn, Cog. G. 154. Bratha = of doom, or destruction (O'Clery}; a wreath 
placed on the head of victors (Cormac}. 


lam i n-uachtwr leo Conall. Daig ba demm leo ni fil iwad i faicfith6- 
gnuis Chonaill ar a teichfithe and. 

37. Is and-siw ra-lotar fon fid ba comnessam doib, 7 ro-benatar 
dairbre glas-darach il-laim cech fir ; et ro-redigsetar a iwad d'a ndornaib 
intib ; 7 tuargabtar ria n-aiss na glas-gesceda darach sam, 7 tawcatar 
mar 6en ra Conall i cend in chatlia. 

38. Is and-sin barrecaim a rig TJW tri tr^igid techid do breith 
assin chath fathuaid. Dercais 7 fegais Conchobor dar a aiss 7 ra- 
chonnaic gnuis (7owaill d'a saigid. " Maith a Chonaill," bar Conehobor, 
"in cath bar th' oesam 7 bar do chowmairge." u Atiur-sa brethir 
am," ar Conall, " cowbad b assu lim-sa in cath do thabairt m'oenur a 
chiawaib anda in maidm do fossugud iwnossa. Et dimbuaid do rfg 
coicid far-siw mbith a fhacciail im-maidm no im-morthechiud." Et 
ss-amlaid ro-boi Conall [ca rad] d 7 atb^rt na bria^r-so and : 

" Dimbuaid fir frith-rose madma. 
maidm ria ngnusib. 
ocbad n-ess-airm. 
gillanrad di-airm. 
dichra fedma fuidb do anocht. 
follogod feile. rith fri geltaib. 
gair ri dogwr. 
dal ri dimbuaid." 6 D. 

39. Is and-siw selais Conall in claideb aith-ger iar-lebur ass a iwtig 
bodba, 7 dob^rt cocetul a chlaidib bar na sluaga$. Atchloss rucht 

a ro-redigestar in Fac- simile. b combad ? c For f acb^il. 

1 Lit., on which it would be fled there. 

2 Or it is = fri a n-ais, on their back ; they must have thrown away their spears 
in their flight, since they had to get shillelaghs, when rallied hy Conall. 

3 " essairm, diairm, ochad, gillanrad," not in dictionaries, and the English is 
somewhat conjectural. These foxir lines are a rose. 

4 "dichra" seems a noun here ; but = fervent, W. t Atkinson's GL, and Stokes 1 
S. na Rann. 

5 "fodb," arms, W. ; fadb, weapon, S. of Fenagh ; as fodb (= spolia ?), LU. 
196; "fodbugud," to despoil, cut down, C. M. Rath, 216. 

6 " anocht," not in dictionaries, unless it is "fanachd," to stay, O'R. ; or inf.. 
of "aincaim," I protect. 

7 fullugim, follaigthe, gl. abdo, neglecta. 


they were certain that there is no place in which Conall's face would 
be seen, in which there would be flight. 1 

37. It is then that they went through [into] the wood that 
was nearest them, and they cut oak -branches of green oak [and put 
them] in the hand of every man, and they smoothed a place for their 
fists in them, and they raised in front 2 of them those green branches 
of oak, and they came along with Conall towards the battle. 

38. It is then it happened that by the King of the Ulaid were taken 
three steps of retreat out of the battle northward. Conchobar looked 
#nd scanned behind him and saw the face of Conall approaching 
him. " Good, Conall," said Conchobar, " the battle on thy favour 
and on thy protection!" " I give [my] word truly," said Conall, 
" that I think it easier to give the battle by myself by far than to stay 
the rout now. And [it is] disaster for the king of [any] province in 
world, to leave him in a rout and in a stampede." And it is thus that 
onall was [saying it], and he said these words then : 

" The countercharge of defeat is a man's discomfiture ; 3 
a rout before [his] face : 
youth unarmed : 
followers disarmed: 3 

earnestness 4 of effort of weapon, 5 to succour : 6 
forgetfulness 7 of honour : running against madmen ; 
shouting in distress ; 8 
meeting in disaster." 

39. It is then that Conall drew 9 the sharp long sword out of its sheath 
of war, 10 and played the music of his sword on the armies. The ring 11 

^ Supply this as 3, 5, 6. e This, though not marked R, is "Rethoric," or Rose. 

8 "ri dog?<r," against calamity ; perhaps we should read dogru. 

9 "selais," .i. lopped off, W. ; " co-selastar," .i. dorat (Z., 1093), .i. gave, 

10 "intig," ds. neuter for ('f)intig (?), as. fintech, LL. Ilia; but d. intiuch in 
Ascoli's Glossary; cf. ass a (f)intiuch, LL. 80 b; "Bodba" (here and 40, 41, 
43) = dangerous, CPDon. Suppl. ; healach bodba, dangerous pass, C. M. Lena, 26 ; 
Mesca Ul. 14, 26; majestic [phalanx], C. M. Rath, 216 ; beraib bodba, fierce darts, 
Mesca Ul. 22; bodba = of "steam, fog," and hence, "of danger" (O'B. Crowe 
in Relig. Beliefs of the Ancient Irish, p. 318) ; 6s an m-broinig blathbodba, over 
the fine flowing flood," (yDugarfs Top. Poem, p. 6, ruathar bodba, LB. 216 a. 
Bodb is a man's name in the Ch. of Lir. 

11 rucht, 39, 48; groan, G 1 Cl. 


claidib Ccwaill dar na cathaib cechtarda ra halt na huaire Bin. Girt 
tra acht feib ra-chualatar cocetul claidib (7[^]owaill, ra-chuclaigetar 
a crideda, 7 ra-luawmaigsetar a ruisc, 7 ra-bansatar a ngnusi, 7 ra- 
scuich each dar a ais dib i w-a inad catha 7 comlaiwd 7 comraic. 

40. Cid tra acht is and-siw ra-dercastar Con&ll dar a aiss. Et ra- 
e^ownairc d'a iwnaigid Mes Dead mace Amairgm. " Maith a m'an^m," 
bar CVwall, " a Meis Dead ; in cath ar th' oesaw 7 ar do chowmairgi." 
" Is ucht ra mor-diliwl alt neich mar sein itr#d-sa," ale bar Mes ~Dead. 
Is awl dercis 7 dechais Mes Dead meicc Kmairgin dar a ais ; et ra- 
eAomiairc d'a iwnaigid Anruth Mor mace Amairgiw. "In catli bar 
th.' oesuw 7 bar do chowmairgi, a Anraid Moir meicc Amargiw," bar, " co ro-cherddaiwd mo buraig ferge 7 mo thigardail mbodba 
far na sluagaib." " Is saiget i coirthi alt neich mar seirc i tr#th-sa, n 
ale bar Anruth Mor mace Amairgin. 

41. Is and-sin fegais Anruth Mor mace Xmairgin dar a aiss, 7 
ateoranairc Peithen Mor maee Kmairgin. u Maith a Feithin Moir 
meicc Amairgin, in cath for th' oesum 7 ar do chommairgi, co ro-cherd- 
daiw-se no mo buraig f^rge 7 mo thigardail mbodba for na sluagaib." 

42. Is and-sin ro-dercastar in Peithen Mor -mace A.mairgin dar ais. 
Attfownairc d'a iwnaigid in Fethen Bee mace A.mairgin. " In cath for 
th' oesam 7 ar do chowmairgi, a Fethin Bic meice Amairgin," ar in 
Feithen Mor, u co ro-cherdaiw-se mo bur^ f^rge 7 mo thigardail 
mbodba for na sluagaib" "Is essarcaiw ciwd fr^' hallib am alt neich 
mar sain," ale ar in Feth^w Bee. 

43. Is and-siw fegais in feihen Bee dar aiss. Atchownairc Atherni 
Algessach d'a saigid. " In cath for th' oesaw a Atherni Algessaig," for 
in Fethew Bee, " co ro-cherdaiw-se no mo \mraig ierge 7 mo ihigardail 

1 i cuclaigi carpait, LU. 91 b; cucligid Temra, S. na Rann, 132. 

2 Lit., like that. 

3 buraig feirge ( 40, 41, 42, 43), charge of fury, or furious charge ; .i. borr-ag, 
great exploit, O'Clery; .i. bellowing, Mesca Ul. 32; .i. vengeance, C. M . Rath, 



of Conall's sword was heard throughout the battalions on both sides at 
that moment of time. However, as soon as they heard the music of 
Conall's sword, their hearts quaked 1 and their eyes fluttered, and 
their faces whitened, and each of them withdrew back into his place 
of battle and of conflict and of combat. 

40. However, it is then that Conall glanced behind him, and he 
saw approaching him Mes Dead son of Amairgin. " Good my life," 
said Conall, " Mes Dead, the battle on thy favour and on thy pro- 
tection." " It is a breast against a great flood, the action of anyone 
under those circumstances 2 at this time," replied Mes Dead. It is then 
that Mes Dead son of Amairgin glanced and scanned behind him ; and 
he saw approaching him Anruth the Tall, son of Amairgin. " The 
battle on thy favour and on thy protection, Anruth the Tall, son of 
Amairgin," said Mes Dead," till I cast my charge 3 of anger and 
my tigarddil* of war on the armies." " It is an arrow against a rock, 
the action of anyone under those circumstances this time," replied 
Anruth the Tall, son of Amairgin. 

41. It is then that Anruth the Tall, son of Amairgin, looked 
behind him, and saw Feithen the Tall, son of Amairgin. " Good 
Feithen the Tall, son of Amairgin, the battle on thy favour and on 
thy protection ; that I too may deliver my furious charge and my 
tigarddil of war on the armies." 

42. It is then that the tall Feithen, son of Amairgin, glanced 
behind him. He saw approaching him the small Feithen, son of 
Amairgin. " The battle on thy favour and on thy protection, small 
Feithen, son of Amairgin," said the tall Feithen, " that I may cast 
my violence of anger and my tigarddil of fury on the armies." " It 
is the striking of a head against cliffs, indeed, the action of anyone 
under the circumstances," replied the small Feithen. 

43. It is then that the small Feithen looked behind him. He 
saw Aitherni the Importunate approaching him. " The battle on thy 
favour, O Aitherni the Importunate," said the small Feithen, "till I 

298; charge, Cog. G. 114; prowess, Stakes' Siege of Howth, 56, 54. Cf. 
gleo ferge, LL. 60 bb ; anfot feirge, Sench. M. 336. 

4 tigarddil ( 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 49), tiger-meeting (?) tig-fardail, supreme 
effort (fardail, the major part of a thing, O'R. ; urdail, equivalent, Atkinson's Gl.}\ 
and cf. tig-lecht, the last bed or grave ; or tig-ar-dail, final-slaughter-encounter. 
It means fight, 46. Cf. with these proverbial sayings those of LB. 217 b. 


[m]bodba i\_or na 8luagail~\" "Ba chuta dom seilb-se sain," ale [bar 
Atherne], " ior seilb neich n-aill n-aile." 

44. Cid tra acJit iss-and-siw atchondairc Athene Algessach Cii Chu- 
laind* da saigid. " In cath bar th' aesam, a CM Chulaind," bar Aithmri 
Algessach. "Ba chuta daw-sa on," ale bar Cu Chulaind. Inund son 
7 daic dim. "Acht dobmm-se mo brethirris," ar Cu ChuMnd, "nach 
fail do ~Ultaib nech dobera a agid form-sa as-siw chath-sa, ar nad tres- 
siu slaidfet-sa each fer d'feraib ILerend na each fer dibsium." Is and 
rab^rt C& Chufaind beim d'a lorgfertais bar na sluagaib, corbdar comard- 
da comchuibdi iat. 

45. Imthusa Conaill sund iwnossa. Tanic fo na sluagaib 7 dobert 
cocetal a chlaidib forru, co torchratar deich cet fer n-armach leis. 
Ra-chuala sain Carpre "Nia Fer cocetal claidib Conaill Cernaig, 7 nir- 
brulngit/^r [do b ] Chairpr*!* Niaid J?er eside itir. Ka co tanic reme co 
hairm ir-raibe Conall. Et tucastar sciath fri sciath 7 doit iri doit 7 
einech iri einech, 7 ro-gab ca(ch) d dib oc slaide 7 oc slechtad araile. 
Co[clos] d glo-beim e sceith sceith f Cairpr^ Niad Fer fa deis clai[dib] g 

46. Et dariachtatar na iri rigfilwZ robatar h oc rig Themrach d'a 
Fortacnt 7 d'a forithin h [.i.] Eochaid Eolach 7 Diarmait Duanach 7 
IVg[al] Fianach; 7 ra-chommoratar in tigardail i cend Conaill. 
Fegais Conall forru. "Atdiur-sa brethir am," bar Conall, "menbad 
filid 7 s dana sib dogebad sib 1 bas 7 aided lim-sa a chiauaib ; 7 uair 

a Sic, for Coin Culaind. b do, indistinct. 

c airm, indistinct. d each and clos, indistinct. 

e glo appears an after-insertion, as it is all outside the perpendicular line. 

1 I can only guess at Aith erne's meaning; cf. nis words with those of Cuchu- 
laind, 44 : "ba chuta dom seilb-se sain," and "ba chuta damsa on ... inund 
son ocus daic dim." So " cuta" seems = "daic." Coda = right, equity, J 2t. ; 
cota na m-ban, an enclosure for women, Man. $ Gust. iii. 564. 

2 daic = do aic, for a request (?) ; aic, aicc, to bind, Laws, n. 30. 

3 It is clear that the Ulaid were retreating. 

4 Or staff-spindle; " staff," Mesca Ul. 32. 

5 Level and harmonious, .i. the order of their ranks was restored (?). 


spend my onset of anger and my dangerous tiger-fight on the armies." 
" That were a right of my possession," [replied Aitherni], " over the 
possession of any others whomsoever. m 

44. However, it is then that Aitherni the Importunate saw Cuchu- 
laind approaching him. " The battle on thy favour, Cii Chulaind," 
said Aitherni the Importunate. " That were a part [?] for me," 
replied Cu Chulaind. That is the same as " to require of me." 2 " But 
I give my word for it," said Cu Chulaind, " that there is not of the 
Ulaid one that will turn his face to me out of this battle, but that 
not more strongly I will smite every man of the men of Eriu than 
every man of them." 3 It is then that Cu Chulaind gave a blow of his 
club-staff 4 on the armies, so that they were even and harmonious. 5 

45. The performances of Conall here now. He came among 
the armies and played the music of his sword on them, till ten 
hundred armed men fell by him. Carpre Ma Per heard that, the 
music of Conall Cernach's sword, and that was not endured by Carpre 
Ma Fer by any means, and he advanced to the place in which Conall 
was, and brought shield against shield and hand against hand and face 
against face, and each of them began smiting and striking the other, 
till there was heard a strong stroke 6 of Carpre Ma Fer's shield under 
the blade of Conall' s sword. 

46. And the three royal poets, that the King of Temair had, arrived 
to aid him and to help him, namely Eochaid the Learned, and Diarmait 
the Songful, and Forgal the Just, and they kept up 7 the combat against 
Conall. Conall looked at them. " I give my word truly," said Conall, 
" were you not poets and doctors you should have received death and 

f Sic bis, by scribal error. s dib, indistinct. h atar and in, indistinct. 

1 ' ' Analytic ' ' or impersonal construction ; cf. cid dogena sib, what will you 
do? LIT. 99 b. 

6 Straight blow (?), Cf. glo-snathe, gl. norma, Z. Perhaps we should read 
"gleo-beim," or " glcwd-beim." 

7 rachommortatar, 3 pi. pret., 46; commorais, 3 sg. S.-pret., 49, = ro mdr, 49. 
Cf. do commoradh aonach, a fair was convened, held, C. M. Lena, 40 ; "do com- 
morad, fled"; ceann commortha, chief plotter, C. M. Rath, 200 ; ro morad aenach, 
B. of Balymote, p. 252 ; do morad irgaile, to excite battle, Mesca Ul. 30, 32. Per- 
haps the form "ro mor," used in the same sense as "commorais," forbids the 
equation with "con-'fo-ferais," which has been suggested; racoramortatar = do 
-congbadar, Stowe text, 41 ; cf. co folmaiset comeirgi, LU. 103 b. 



is ra bar triath 7 ra bar tigmia berthai far mbaig cid dam-sa nach 
digelaind foraib no ? " Et dob^rt beiw din lorg-fertais catha boi 'n-a 
laim doib con topacht a tri. ciwdu dib. 

47. Is and-sin dariachtatar buden coic cet dec do Luaigni na 
Temrnch co tancatar eter Conall 7 Carpre ~Niaid ~$er ; co rucatar lea 
e ar lar medon a catha fodeiw. Ro-gab Conall ac slaide in tsluaig co 
dremun 7 co barbarda, co uathmar 7 co di'cheillid, co ro-s-cuir uad i 
n-a n-agaib miwta a 7 i n-a cethrawthanaib fodalta. Co torch rat ar deich 
cet leis ar lar-medon in chatha. 

48. Ro-chuala sain rf Temrach, 7 nir-borulngither do beith oc 
eistecht ra rucht claidib Conaill ; 7 tame reime co lar-medon in chatha,. 
co torchratar ocht cet leech lan-chalma leis; co rocht co airm ir-rabe 
Ctowchobor, 7 Robert sciath iri sciath 7 doit fri doit 7 einech fri einech 
do. Et rb-thuairgestar a sciath for Conehotor .i. Inuochain seiath Con- 
chobuir. Et feib ro-geisestar-seWe ro-geisetar sceith Ulad uile. u Maith 
am a Ultu," [ale bar Conchobor], " nad-fetar-sa cosiwdiu ar bad chalmu 
in Galian Lagen na Luagni na Temrach andathi-si." 

49. Is and-sin tanic Loegaire Buadach mace Connaid Buide Taeicc 
Uliach budin b tri chet oclach ; commorais a thigardail i ceiid Cairpra 
TSiad Yer. Is and-sm luid Piwtan mace Neill Niamglonnaig bidden 75 
cet oclach co ro-mor a thigardail i cend Cairpn Niad Fer. 

50. Is and-siw tancatar deich cet ar fichit cet din Galian 7 di 
Luagni na Temrach ; et tuargabtar leo Cairpr^ Nia l?er il-larmedon a 
catha fadeiw. 

51. Is and-siw cunnis Cu Ckulaind bar na sluagaib 7 bar Carpr<? TSiaid 

a Cf. Condaralsat e na agib. LL. 169 a. 

b The ace. is used here, and the nom. in next line in like contexts. 

1 Aided = "bas" here; gl. interitus (Wb. 27); is not necessarily a violent 
or tragical death. In the F. Masters, Pref., p. 2 ; in LL. 66 a, 94 a; in C. M. 
Rath, 268 ; in Fair of Carman, p. 534, and in Cog. Gaedel re Gall. 68, "bas, ec, 
aided" are used as synon. ; " aided," death from grief, LL. 127 a. 


[met] your fate 1 by me long ago, and since it is with [for] your chief 
and with your lord that you bring your strife, what [reason is there] for 
me that I should not inflict punishment on you now ? " And he gave 
a blow with the club-staff of battle that was in his hand at them, so 
that he cut their three heads off them. 

47. It is then that a band of fifteen hundred of the Luaigni of 
Temair came up, and came between Conall and Cairpre Ma Fer ; and 
they carried him [Cairpre] with them in the very middle of their own 
battalion. Conall began smiting the army fiercely and furiously, 
fearfully and madly, so that he drove them from him in [their] 
broken bands, 2 and in [their] divided fractions. 3 So that ten hundred 
fell by him in the middle of the battle. 

48. The King of Temair heard that, and he could not bear 4 to be 
listening to the sound of Conall's sword; and he advanced to the 
middle of the battle, and eight hundred full-brave heroes fell by him ; 
and he reached the place in which Conchobar was, and he brought 
shield against shield and hand against hand and face against face to 
him. And he struck his shield on Conchobar, 5 i.e. The Ochain, the 
shield of Conchobar. And as it moaned, the shields of the TJlaid all 
moaned. " Good truly, Ulaid," [saith Conchobar], " I knew not till 
to-day whether the Galfan of the Lagin or the Luaigni of Temair were 
braver than you are." 

49. It is then that Loegaire the Victorious, son of Connad the 
Yellow, son of Iliach, came [with] a band of three hundred warriors, 
so that he upheld his combat against Cairpre Ma Fer. It is then that 
Fintan, son of Mall Mamglonnach went [with] a band of a hundred 
warriors, so that he maintained his fight against Cairpre Ma Fer. 

50. It is then that thirty hundred of the Galfan and of the Luaigni 
of Temair came, and by them was carried off Cairpre Ma Fer in the 
middle of their own battalion. 

51. It is then that Cuchulaind sought for 6 the armies and for 

2 Or broken limbs ; " agaib," joints, limbs ; nap. N. age, aige, LL. 197 a ; T. 6 
Froieh, 138 ; S. Carp. Conch. 382, 388. 3 Lit. quarters. 

4 Lit. was not borne by him. 

5 i.e. he struck Conor's shield. 

6 " cuinnis," S.-pret. of condaigim, = ro chunnig, LL. 114 b (na cuindig, ask 
not, C. M. Rath, 306) ; of. selais = ro-selaig. 



Yer. Et dolluid d'a iwsaigid, 7 tuc sciath ra sciath do, 7 tuc doit fri 
doit, 7 einech fri einech. a 

Is and-si^ ro-iwmir Carpr<? Km ~Fer a nert for Ci>[*] Cnlaind 7 ro- 
fad a da laim dar a armaib awmaig ; 7 tarlaic rout n-urchair secha [6s] b 
catha Galian. Is and-siw ro-luid Cu Chulaind tri-sna [ ] taib c immach 
can fuligud can Fordergad [fair]. d Is and barecaim Laeg mace Bian- 
gabra do-sum 7 a airm. senta deg-mathi Con Culaind i n-a laim .i. in 
Cruadin cotut-chend 7 in Duaibsech eclach.* Is and-siw ro-gab Cu Chu- 
laind in Duaibsech. .i. a sleg f f adem i w-a laim. Ea-boc 7 ra-bertaig hi, 
ra-Chroth 7 ra-chertaig, 7 tarlaic rout n-urchair uad di no, d' iwnsaigid 
Cairpr-/ ISiad ~Fer, cotarla 'n-a ucht 7 'n-a brunni, co ro-thregd a chride 
'n-a chliab, co ro-raiwd a drum dar do. "Ni ranic a chorp lar in n-uair 
dob^rt CM Chulaind side d'a saigid 7 cowtopacht a chend de. Et crothais 
a chend g ri-sna sluag iartaiw. 

52. Is and atr^acht Sencha mace AiMla 7 ra-chroth in craib sida, 7 
ra-ansatar Ulaid. h Et dollotar in Galian fa Find mace Eosa, 7 dob^r- 
tatar sciath dar lorg dar a n-eis. Et ro-lenastar Iriel gascedach 
glunmar mace Conaill Chernaig iat. Et ro-gab ac slaide 7 ic 1 slectad 
in tsluaig fades each ndi'riuch. Is awd-siw ro-impa Eidach E^rgach 

a Cf. LU. 80 b, antiWindisch' s Texte, 280 : d6it fri d. leoit fri 1. gualaind fri g. 
b 6s or uas, indistinct. 
c cathaib (?), cetaib (?) : cf. cet, 50. 
d Supply fair ? From this on is blurred and indistinct, 
e eclach(r) cotut-chend = caladchend, LL. 194 a. 

f [chruad]sleg, or airsleg, or chorrsleg (as. in Cath. M. Rath, p. 214). cruad- 
lann, B. of Fenayh, 220, Hyfiachr. 206, 210. 

1 Little steel (or hard) thing, the hard-head steelling. Cf. LL. 110'b, 254 ; arm 
oruaid catad, LL. 27 ah; gs. Caitt catotchind, LL. p. 29 ; cotut-lethar cruaid, LU. 
Tain ; cadut comcruaid, Cog. G. 7 G., p. 50 ; cruaid codut, LB. Ill b. 

2 Cf. naithraig n-duabais, LL. 223 a ; " duaibsech," dangerous (of ships), C. M. 
Lena, 44; "is duaibsech romduiscis, C. M. Rath, 170; duaibsib, gl. nefastis, Z. 

3 bogaim, I shake, #' R. ; notbocctha, te jactabas, Z. ; bdcail, ostentation, 
O'Begley's Eng.-Ir. Diet. 

4 A rush as of wind (?). Perhaps ' ' bedg " was the word here : ro la C. bedg, " C. 
dashed," Mesca Ul. 52. 


Cairpre Ma Per. And lie went against him, and brought shield 
against shield to him, and brought hand against hand and face against 

It is then that Cairpre Ma Fer plied his strength upon Cu Chulaind 
and clasped his two hands about his weapons outside, and launched the 
cast of a throw past him [over] the battalions of the Galfan. It is 
then that Cu Chulaind went through the [battalions] out without 
bleeding, without wounding [on him]. It is then that Laeg son of 
Riangabair met him, with the charmed, right-good arms of Cu Chulaind 
in his hand, namely, the hard-headed Cruadin 1 and the terrifying 
Duaibsech? It is then that Cu Chulaind took the Duaibsech, that is, his 
own spear, in his hand. He waved 3 and brandished it, he shook and 
adjusted it, and he launched a cast of a throw of it from him then 
towards Cairpre Ma Fer, so that it pitched in his breast and in his 
bosom, and pierced his heart in his chest, and cleft his back in two. 
His body had not reached ground, when Cu Chulaind made a spring 4 
towards it and cut his head off him. And he shook his [Cairpre's] 
head 5 towards the armies 6 then. 

52. It is then that Sencha son of Ailill rose and shook the branch 
of peace, and the TJlaid stood still. 7 And the Galfan went under Find 
son of Eos, and put shield across track behind them. 8 And Iriel the 
good at arms, the great-kneed, son of Conall Cernach, pursued them. 
And he began smiting and cutting down the army southward in every 
direction. 9 It is then that Fidach the "Wrathful of the Wood of Gaible 

e This was a practice of Cuchulaind's : " ba for6il leu a ndorigni Cft . . . 

crothad in chinn frisin slog,'' LU. 64 a. 
h Cf. Atracht Senchai iartain 7 rochroth in craeb sida 6s na sluagaib combatar 

sidaig amal betis meicc oenathar 7 oenmathar, LL. Ilia. 
1 ac infac-simile. 

5 Carpre's head appears to have been sent to his brother Ailill, and was buried 
in Sid Nento or Mullaghshee, near Lanesborough, LL. 121 b. 

6 sluag, recte sluagu ; or ap. neuter, sluag. 

7 Cf. Atracht Sencha ocus ro croith in craib, ocus contoiset Ulaid uili fris, LU. 
103 b ; " and they were peaceful as if they were sons of one father and one mother 
when Senchua shook the branch," LL. Ill a. 

8 i. e. covered the retreat. 

9 Or straight on. 


Feda Gabli ris, et dorat comlund ar ath do. * ' Fata n rigi dobmit 
Ulaid Foraind," ar coiced Lagen. Conid. de ata in Rigi Lagen ar in 
n-abaind sin. 

53. Is and-siw dawo lotar Ulaid co Temraig rempu in n-aidchi sin. 
Et tarrasatar and co cend secht lathi a na sechtmaiwe. Corop i cmd 
sechtmaiwe ra-chualatar-sum culgaire na carpal, 7 basc-bewmech na 
n-ech, 7 tetimnech na tet, 7 glond-beimnech na claideb, 7 muad-muirn 
in mor-sliiaig dochum in baile. Is e ra-bui and, Ere mace Carpn" 7 
mace Feidilmi K6i-chruthaige ingini Conchobuir. Et dobretha-sww a 
chend i w-ucht a sen-athar, 7 comnattacht b tir a athar Fair. Et ba 
chota-swm ani-siw a Choncholor. "Maith a meicc," ar Conchobor, 
"beir mo bewnachtain-se 7 bi dom reir." Is amlaid ra-boi ca rad 7 
rab^rt na 

54. " Beir mo b^wnact, bi dom reir, 

na dena f ein f rithbeirt frind ; 
da tuca dun tend fri tend 

is derb lem dafaethais lind. 
Ka cocthaig ra Coin na cless, 

na cuir tress for slicht do sen, 
naratruibther im raiwd crich 

immar bith Carpr<? Ma Fer. 

a lathi in marg,, mbl. deleted in text. 

1 " rige," reach (?), or " arm," B. of Canticles, viii. The Eye river joins the 
Liffey at Leixlip, F. Masters, an. 776 ; 6 Rige co Rig-Bdinn, C. M. Lena, 80 ; called 
Rige Lagen to distinguish it from other rivers named Rige : "rigid," reaches, L U. 

2 chariot -rattle. Cf. cul-gaire, LL. 96 a; sceld-gaire, shield-clatter, LL. 98 a; 
cul, .i. carpat, Cormac, LU. fo. 76, 6b ; culgaire carpait, LU. 45 a. 

3 hasc-beimnech. Cf. basgaim, I trample, O'E., not in W. ; bascad in Atkinson's 
Ol. = to hinder ; base = red, Cormac, #' Clery. 

4 tetimnech (= tet-beimnech ?), cord-striking; tetemnech, LL. 93 a, 96 a; 
breis-emnech, helmet-noise, Man. $ Gust. iii. 426 ; possibly there is a neuter " em" 
or "im" = twanging, creaking. 

5 glondbenmech, straight-striking (?). Cf. glo-beim, 45; glo-snathiu, gl. 
norma, ML 35, = glonsnathi, Atkinson'* Gl. ; gloinnbeimnech na ccloidem, Fragm. 
of Irish Ann. 122. 


turned upon him, and gave battle and combat on a ford to him. "Long 
[is] the reach 1 that the Ulaid are making towards us," said the 
province of the Lagin. And it is from this that Rige 1 Lagen is the 
name of that river. 

53. It is then that the Ulaid went on to Temair that night, and 
they tarried there till the end of the seven days of the week. And 
it was at the end of a week that they heard the roll 2 of the chariots, 
and the hoof-striking 3 of the horses, and the straining 4 of the traces, 
and the deed-striking 6 of the swords, and the trooping 6 of the vast 
army towards the place. It is he that was there Ere son of Cairpre 
.and son of Feidelm Noi-chruthach 7 daughter of Conchobar. And 
he placed his head on the breast 8 of his grandfather, and asked his 
father's land from him. And he obtained 9 that thing from Conchobar. 
" Good, son," said Conchobar, "take my blessing and be obedient 
to me." 10 It is thus that he was saying it, and he said these 
words : 

54. " Take my blessing, be obedient to me, 

do not thyself make opposition to us. 
If tliou givest us strong against strong 11 

I am certain that thou shalt fall by us. 
"War not with the Hound of the feats, 

inflict not strife on the race of thy ancestors, 
that thou mayest not be cut down 12 about division of territories, 

as is Cairpre Nia Fer. 

b So it seems written, but it is conatacht, LL. 20 b. 

6 muad-muirn, .i. m6r-buidean, O'C. 

7 Conchobor's daughter. Noichruthach. (Noicrothach, W.) = new-formed or ship- 
shaped or of nine beauties, as in LL. 

8 This and Conall Cernach's giving three kisses to his countryman present a 
charming picture of Irish customs. Compare " Luid dano in Liath Macha co tarat 
& chend for brunnib Conculaind," LL. 122 a. 

9 " bai hota" or " ba chota," 53 (and " ba chuta," 43, 44) seems = adchota. 
Cf. adcotut, gl. acquirunt, Wb. 26. 

10 Lit., (according) to my will. 

11 i. e. it' thou coutendest stiffly against us ; tend = tight, stiff, hold, cutting, 

12 ratruibther = ra-t-ro-fuibther ; cf. (fo-benim) fuibnim, fubae or fobothaim. 


Do gessaib rig Temracli tair, a 

a flaith Cermna can ni cle 
airdairc seel scailter fa chach 

cocad ruiwd co brath ce be." B. 

55. Doringned sid eter Ere mace Cairpn' 7 Coinculaind. Et tucad 
Fmseoth iwgen ConCulaind do mnai do-som. Et tancatar i ciwd secht- 
maiwi do dechaiw- in n-air co hor na Boircne. " Bamar-ni lathi and-so," 
[ale ar Conchobor], " 7 ba dulig cor risti ro-boi and .i. ri Carpr* "Nia 
!EV, 7 ba esbach comrac ris, 7 menbad Ckon&ll is foramne bad roen.'*" 
Et ro-raid na bri&Mr* : 

56. " Bamar lathi romda rind 

i tuaith Tem[rach] tess Boiwd : 
bai fi [eccomas] b 6s ard feirt 
ar ar sibthib bai ec/vzit. 
Munbad Conull Cernach cloen, c 
ropad foraiwne bad roen, 
ar in leirg leith if us d 
is aire ro-gab-sww fos. 
Ba escomol comrac fris, 
dichor Cairpn' do chlar fiss, 
sochaide am ro-do-s-cloe 
cossiw laithe sin rosbae." B. 

a Cf. Mad righ dileas do Themair . . . 
Co nach de&rna cocadh coin 
Tie slogh Choicidh Chonchobair, 
Na falmaigthear Teamair de 
Do chocadh chland Eudraige. L. na gCeart, 238. 

b freccomas (?) as 6. Cf. Conehobor's poem, LL. 331 : 
Eombdi lathe rordu rind de tbuait cor des 

boind. bai cendajrech f air birt. s ar sithbe ba begairc 
Bata>- cadal f cldr cliu clandes gesi fsuidiu : ba 

dg ar carpat uile ba Ian cend ar netruide 
Bafir ba Escmond firi scor aroeb issibor. ba lie 

ar ngnim glan gle. isindaithliu imbairne. 

1 Cermna of Dun Cermna, or Old Head of Kinsale, was brother of Sebuiige'of" 
Dunseverick. Cf. LL. 17 a: "Gabait Sobairche ocus Cermna Find rige n-Erend.' r 

2 Whatever may happen. 

3 Sad turn for the person ("risti" = frisinni). 


[It is] of the prohibitions of the King of Temair in the East, 
since the reign of Cermna 1 without partiality 

famous the tale which is spread through all 

to fight against us till doom, howsoever it be." 2 Take. 

55. Peace was made between Ere, son of Cairpre, and Cu Chulaind; 
and Fmscoth, Cu Chulaind's daughter, was given to him for wife. And 
they came at the end of a week to behold the slaughter, to the bank 
of the Boand. " We were here on a day," saith Conchobar, " and it was 
a sad affair for him 3 who was here, namely, for Cairpre Ma Fer, and it 
was a vain struggle against him, and if it had not been [for] Conall, 
it is we that should have been defeated." And he spoke the words : 
56. " "We were on a day it seems splendid to us 

in the country of Temair south of the Boand : 

there was [contention] above the high hill 4 

on our chiefs there was terror. 

Were it not Conall Cernach the cross-eyed, 5 

we should have been defeated : 

on the plain 6 on this side 

it is on it that he took position. 

It was vain 7 to contend with him, 

to repel Cairpre of wide knowledge 8 ; 

[it was] numbers truly that defeated him ; 

until that day, that slew him." 9 We were. 

c The next 8 lines indistinct. 

d Verse short by one syllable, because perhaps leirg was pronounced leirig; read 
(cath or ar-)leirg (cf. armag (battle plain), cath lathair (battle field), C. M. Rath, 

4 Rosnaree, or Knowth, or New Grange, or the ridge embracing both opposite 
Rosnaree. frif ] = frithorcon, frithaire, frecomas = harassing, watching (?). 

5 ''Conall the Cross-eyed was his name till then. For the Ulstermen had 
three blemishes, to wit, Cu Chulaind the Blind, and Cuscraid the Mute," &c., 
Talland Etair, LL. 117 a, ed. by Whitley Stokes, Rev. Celt, viii., p. 60. 

e "leirg" ( 56, 28, 29), slope, plain C. M. Lena, 92, 146; dp. "fertil- 
lergaib," LL. 77 b, 76 a. 

7 "es-comol," difficult (a non-performance) ; cf. esbach, 55, and comalnaim, 
gl. impleo. 

8 Level wisdom, experience (?) ; elar = board, flat surface, 29. 

9 ro-s-bae ; cf. ro-s-mbi, gl. ro-ben, pret. of benim. Perhaps these two lines 
= many truly, he overcame them till that day, he slew them ; or, which was to him. 


57. Tancatar rempu co Temraig aris. "Maith am inti ro-boi and-so 
co n-a brathrib. Rapa leo-mim Heriu" : 7 atb^rt na briathra : 

" Tri meicc Rosa Ruaid in rig a 
gabsat in tir buidnib sel : 
Find i rc-Alind, Ai/ll i Cruaich, 
Carpre thuaid i Tern air Breg. 
In n-oen-fecht comterbtis b a ngnim 
a triar brathar im each gleo, 
in oen-fecht dob^rtis a mbaig, 
ba critbail oen-mucci leo. c 
Batar 'n-a tri n-uathnib oir 
im a tilchaib, buan in bale ; 
is bem i n-a congaib catha 
o focheraiw tres m06'c." T. 

Ahain sluaged catha Findchorad, et in trow-lowges timchell i 
Connachtaib, 7 Cath na M<?craide. 

a Tri meieo la Ross ~Ruad, .i. Find File, Ailill mace Matae [gl. Mur(isce)], 
Corpre Nia Fer. Quidam addunt aiie filium .i. Cathbath Drui afhair Conehofonr. 
Ailill tra mace Rosa 7 Mata Murisc a mdthair do feraib Olnecmacht : dib-side con- 
gairther Connachta indiu. Rongabsat ir-rige ar a mathe .i. Dolluid Medb Chruachaw 
ingen ~Echach Yedlig co feraib Olnecmacht impi i O[uachain] combertatar Aili/1 
leo . . . rech do rigu Connacht, daig ba dib a mat hair . iur (?) do denarn oentad eter 

1 i.e. in their might ? 

2 comterptis (perperam comtentis in Fac- simile) from con-do-air-bnim (?). Cf. 
comthercomrac con-do-air-c, "foirbthe," perfectus. Or it is formed from, or 
connected with, "taisbenim, taisfenim," or " tadbadim," S.-fut. 2sa., condarbais, 
gl. ut demonstres ; and so means "they would display " (?). Or con-do-erptis, they 
confided, committed; terbaid, drive away, of T. 6 eg., would not suit here. 

3 crithail = grithail (the grunting of young pigs, O'JR.}, figuratively for litter (?) ; 
or "crithail" = crith-fail = ricketty stye (fail, stye, Coney's Diet.}, iailnir, Bodl. 
Cormac, p. 22; cf. mucc-'foil, gl. hara, stabula porcorum. 

4 nsf. in chongab chruid, the seizure of cattle (?), LL. 296 a. 


57. They came on to Temair again. " Goodly indeed [was] he that 
was here with his brethren. 6riu was theirs." And he said the 
words : 

" The three sons of llos Ruad the king 

they held the land by battalions 1 awhile, 

Find in Alend, Ailill in Cruach, 

Cairpre in the north in Temair Breg. 

Together they used to perform 2 their deed [of arms] 

the three brothers, in every strife ; 

together they used to give their battle; 

one pig's litter [?] 3 was theirs. 

They were three pillars of gold 

about their hills, abiding the strength, 

it is a gap in their grasp 4 of battle, 

since the third son has fallen. 5 " The three. 

Therefrom [originated] the expedition of the battle of Findchora 6 
and the great sea voyage around among the Connachta, 7 and the 
Battle of the Youths. 8 

na dacoiced 7 do chocad fri Conchobor 7 fri coiced n-TJlad. Corpre din i Temraig, 
Find File i n-Alind, Ailill i Cruachatn. Uncfe Senchan cecinit : Tri meicc Euaid 
ruirig flaind, fiangal Find, Ai&ll acher, caem Car[pre . . . ] Ailend chruind, Crua- 
chu, Temair. LL. 31 lb. 

b comtenbtis, Fac-simile. 

c Faded and indistinct, cf. mucce crai, muc cotri hal, Laws, ii. 368, 246. 

5 "fo-chera," falls (?), seems connected with dooer, torehair, gl. cecidit, and 
erchre, gl. interitvt, eclipsis ; I cannot explain it satisfactorily: historic pres. subj. 
of " focbiur " (?). " Do " and " fo " are used promiscuously in LL. 

6 In At. D Arbois de Jubainville's Catalogue, p. 66, Kiating- is the only authority 
for this tale. Add this from LL. and Harl. 5280, fo. 54 a, and our 2nd Version, 36. 

7 Not mentioned by M. D'Arbois. 

8 Not in M. D" 1 Arbois; nor is "Dergruaba Conaill," which, is cited in C. M. 
Rath, p. 176, though he gives "Dergruathar Conaiil" from p. 222 of that book : 
add "Aided na Macraide," LB, 139; "macrad" = the sons of Calatin, Cairpre, 

cac ROIS "Na RIO POR boiuKi ant) so sios. 

1. Cpdch pa paibe Concubap mac paccna pacaig dipb-pf$ 
"Ula6 a a meipcne "| a m6ip-cheap p6 pae cfan i pe* haimpip paba ; 
1 nfop cobail i nfop comuil bfa& pip an pae pin, i nfop Iui6 
coil lond mncinn leip, ~\ nf 6eappna sen b gdipe lond pop- 
bpaoilce pe" mnaoi nd pe* peap b'peapaib "Ula& pe hucc <: na 
haimpipe pin. a$ap ba6 himpnfom m6p le hUllcaib uile an nf 

2. a^ap bo pd6pab p6 Cacpa6 d caom-6paoi e a pd6 pe" 
Concubap gan beic f ip an meipcne lona pan mfolaocap pom 
inna paibe, -j bo can Cacpa6 s pin pip. 

3. Ppea^pap Concubap 66, -j ip eab h abubaipc : " a mo popa 
a Cacpa^," 1 ap p6, "ip m6p a6bap ~| bamna a^am-pa, 6ip bo 
puaccabap ceicpe hollc6i5i6 'Gipionn, i bo muppab mo bain^in 
1 mo 6tincaib, ~| mo 6pom-culcaib, a n-fplib, i a n^leancaib, 
1 bo loipsplob mo combaie j i mo cacpacaib, i mo 6eag- 
bailcib, k i bo pugpab uaim mo mic, ~| mo mndib, i mo macaoirh, 
1 pu^pab uaim p6p mo bu, i mo b6-cdmcib buan-bleacca, "| mo 
eacpacaib dille allmup6a, -j mo cuipc cpoma caoib-leacna, -j 
mo caipb cpobdm co$ai6e gan pacain uaim." O^ap ip cuma 
bo bf 05 a pd6, -| bo pgeic bpucc a&bal-m6p bo cpu a cpoi6e 
cap a b6al amac. 

4. "Nf pd6 ampa 6uic-pi pin, a dipb-pf^," ap Cacpa6, " 6ip 
ip maic bo bfogailUlaib pin ap peapaib'eipionn,b'ap bpipiobap 1 
cac *5dipi6e i Iol5dipi6e oppo." u "Ni cac liom-pa cac nac ap 
cuic pf, a Cacpai6," ap Concubap ; " ace ceana beapbaim-pi 
na m6ibe 6eapbaib "Ulai6, 50 ccuiepib pfge -| puipi5 m piom-pa 
bom peace, n6 50 bpag(b)ap 605 -\ oi6ea6." 

1_4] a lt)1 p ConculDap "Rf Ula6 -[ Caipbpe Mia&pep "Rf Ceam- 
pach, M. b sean, A.S. c he6, M. d bo pdi& pfab le Cacp(a&), 
M.A. ; Cacpaib, S. e caom&paoi, A.S. f gan a beic, M.A. 


1. Once upon a time, Conchubliar son of Fachtna Fathach, high 
king of Ulster, was in depression and in a severe sickness 1 for a long 
time and for a lengthy period ; and he slept not and ate not food 
during that time, and he had neither will nor intelligence, and he 
made not a smile of laughter or of gladness to woman or to man of the 
men of Ulster within that period. And that was a great trouble 
among all the Ulstermen. 

2. And they said to Cathfadh the noble druid to tell Conchubhar 
not to be in that depression or unwarriorlike state in which he was ; 
and Ciithfadh spoke thus to him. 

3. Conchubhar answered him, and this is what he said: " My 
master Cathfadh," said he, " I have great cause and reason to be so; 
for the four great provinces of Ireland have come and have destroyed 
my strongholds and my forts, and my ridge-hills in lowlands and in 
valleys, and they have burnt my fastnesses and my walled towns and 
my good home-steads, and they have taken from me my lads and my 
women and my youths, and they have taken from me too my cows 
and my herds of constant milk and my beautiful foreign steeds, my 
heavy side-broad hogs, and my choice fighting bulls, without provoca- 
tion from me." And just as he was speaking a wonderful great vomit 
of his heart's blood burst out 2 through his mouth. 

4. "That is not a strange saying of thine, high-king," said 
Cathfadh, " for well have the Ulstermen avenged that on the men of 
Ireland, when they gained the battle of Gaireach and lolghaireach 
over tli em." "I deem it no battle in which a king has not fallen, 
Cathfadh," said Conchubhar ; " however I swear the oaths that the 
Ulstermen swear that kings and chieftains shall fall by my hand for 
my right [?], or that I shall meet death and a tragical fate." 

s Cacpac, A. h ar- e, A. * Cacpaig, S. J btincaib repeated, S. 
k beag-bailcib, A.M. l bpir-iobap, A.M. m puipe, S. 

i tii6i]\ceAf, falling sickness, O'lt. ~ Or he threw up. 

62 cac ROIS NO 12105. 

5. "Ip f mo comaiple-pi ouic," ap Cacpao, " an main ^opam- 
pa6 ; 6ip ip pliuc puap ^dibcioc ^aoc-buaOapca ^entipe(a&), -j nf 
ham eip$e a eappac, 6ip ip ppapac ppaocba pabpa, -| ip moc an 
TTlapca, i ni huille Qbpaon pe" haonaie, b -\ ip maips a mf TTIdi 
t>o($)nf m6p-cuaipc. 5 onaD a1 P e T 1T1 ] T c6ln an T^ ua 5 t)O coip- 

50 pampa(6), 50 ina6 p6i& pacmap na p6t>aib, 50 ma6 
eaborhum na hdca, guppat) aoibinn c dpt> na culca, 50 
ma& p6icpi$ ponaipce ap pluaig, guppat) puanaig poiceapt>a 
ap pfoga, suppat) cp66a c6im-neimneac ap ccupabaib, guppat) 
6apsa6 a6mapa ap n-6is, guppat) aicheolac ilbeaplac ap 
n-ollamuin, ^uppat) lucmap Idin-glic ap laoic, 5uppat> ^leapca 
gabalca ap n5poi6e, ^uppat) I6it>meac lucmap ap Idmp^op 11 
guppat* ilbpeaga lon^ancac ap n-6at)ai5e, guppab cpuab- 
paobpac cpop-6p6a ap ccloi6mce, guppat) pliopca pleamna 
plinn-s^apa ap plea^a, guppat) c6ipi5ce cldp-bain^ean ap 
ccapbait), guppat) caoma comslap(a) na coillcib, guppat> 
t)ft)iona na t>opa 'oluc-6uilleaca, ^up ba6 paipcpiona 506 
pionn-capnn, i gupab ceapcaill cot>alca 506 p6t> p^ap-glap. 

6. " 5ona& aipe pin ip c6ip an pluag t)O coipmiopg," ap Cac- 
pa6, " 50 cca^um Ulai& uile t)'6in-t>e6in -\ t>'aon-ldim bo 6fo$ail 
Cdna t)6 Cuail^ne ap peapaib 'Gipionn. 

7. "Qcc acd nf e ceana, cuip-pi peapa i ceacca uaic 50 luce 
t)0 cuapapbail p6in cap muincinn mapa -| Tn6p-paip55e .1. 50 
TTIuille i 50 Ruan, 50 Sio^pa pf Qpcat)fa, 50 Tildl, 50 TTlaoldn, 
50 hlomp5oa f pi5 g an peaccma6 pann t>o'n bomuin Loclannac, 
50 Cana& na ngall, 1 50 TTlaoldn mflio, 50 pf hmpe hOpc, 50 
Concubap TTIOC t)uipe meic t)un$aile, 50 h'Qpcup "Rua&." 

8. Ip anb pin bo cuip Concubap pionncab h TTIOC Concubaip 
1 pionncaom mac Conuill Ceappnuig bo m6ip-cion6l na n^all 
pom cap ceann maiciopa i m6p-cuapapbailbdib, -| a n-oipcill 50 
nbfogalbaoip a nuilc -\ a n-^a^c^pa ap peapaib '6ipionn. "Q 
Cacpa(i6)," ap Concubap, " anpab-pa pip na pocai&ib ub' -\ 
bobeipim-pi mo bpiachap," ap p6, "bd ccigib gin 50 

5-8] a nf ham aon-pota, S. b haonaigib, A.M. c 6accpom, A. 
d laom-psop, A.M. e aon nf, A. f TTIaoilm, Impgo, S.A. 

s nfg, A.M. h pionncaom, A.S.M., see note, p. 6. > ub, 50 

ccoippeat) cusam 50 pacat)-ra, &c., A. ; -| bobeipimpi mo bpiacap cap 
ceana, ap pe, t>a ccisib mo in 50 bcfopaib pin cusam, 50 pacabpa, M. 


5. "This is my advice to thee," said Cathfadh, "to wait until 
Summer ; for Winter is wet, cold, dangerous, storm-troubled, and 
Spring is no time for setting out ; for February is rainy and tempes- 
tuous, and March is early, and April is not fitter 1 for assemblies, and 
woe to him who in the month of May makes a long circuit. "Where- 
fore it is meet to stay the army until Summer, till the roads are 
smooth and safe, till the fords are rapid and shallow, till the hills 2 are 
pleasant and high ; till our army corps are vigorous and strong, till 
our kings are valiant and dexterous, till our champions are valorous 
and stout-stepping, 3 till our youths are nimble and in good form, 4 till 
our sages are sharp-witted and eloquent, till our heroes are active and 
full-cunning, till our horses are trained and broken in [?] ; till our 
hand-teams are strong and spirited, till our garments are of varied 
beauty and rare aspect, till our swords are hard-edged and hilt-golden, 
till our spears are sharp-pointed, smooth, and blade-keen, till our 
chariots are put in order and board-firm, till the woods are fair and all 
green, till the thick-leaved bushes are shelters, till every fair earn is 
conspicuous, and till every grass-green sod is a pillow of sleep. 

6. " Wherefore it is meet to stay the army," said Cathfadh, "till 
all the Ulstermen come with one will and with one hand to avenge the 
Foray of the Kine of Cooley on the men of Ireland. 

7. " Meanwhile send thou messengers and envoys forth to thy 
own mercenaries past the surface of sea and ocean, to wit, to Muille 
and to Euan, to Siogra King of Arcadia, to Mai, to Maolan, to lomsgo, 
King over the seventh part of the Scandinavian world, to Canadh of 
the Foreigners, and Maolan the warrior, to the King of the Island of 
Ore, to Conchubhar son of Duire son of Dunghal, to Artur the Eed." 

8. Then Conchubhar sent Fionnchadh son of Conchubhar and 
Fionnchaomh son of Conall Cearnach to muster largely those Foreigners 
for bounty and great pay to them, and to prepare them that they 
might avenge their wrongs and their injuries on the men of Ireland. 
" Cathfadh," said Conchubhar, " I shall wait for yonder hosts ; 
and I give my word," said he, " whether they come or come not to 

1 tulle, compar. of oUl, greater, better ; perhaps we should read Titnj-pe, fit, 

2 Or meeting places, "rate-hills." 

3 Cf. rceim-neirrmi5 in Atkinson* Gloss. 

4 AT>tfiA]\ = lucky, fortunate, in O'R. 

64 CCU: R01S NO RlOg. 

cu5am a 50 pacab-pa 50 Ceanipaig 50 Caipbpe ~Niai6 peap -| 
50 pionn mac "Ropa an pf-p6ine, -| 50 Lu$ai6 mac Con-Raoi, 
50 h6ochai6 mac Lucca, 50 TTIei&b -\ 50 hOilill 50 n-ionnpap 
ceiepe 011661516 'Gipionn, -] 50 bpd^bap leacca -| liaga i 
peapcaib peap a bpaonluige peacn6m 'Gipionn, mup bo 
pa^bac-ap-pan mo 661566-1*1." 

9. Ci& cpa ace 6bclop b bo TTlei6b an bpiacap eu5 Concubap, 
5ona6 aipe pin abubaipc ; " Ip c6ip &umn ceacca DO cup 
uain(n) 50 Concubap -\ a pd6 pip cdc bo coipmiops ciopc d a 
605016 p6in ppf pae na blia&na-po, i 56111 bo beic 6 peapaib 
'Bipionn lona Idirh-pion, i seill ua6-pan b6ib-pion p6 caipipe 
na blia6na po." "Cia ba6 cuba(i)6 e p6 hiompd6 na n-aiciop5 
pom ?" ap Oilill. " Cia bo paca6 ann," ap TTlea6b, " ace TTlac 
R6i5anpf5-mfle ?" t)o labaip TTlac ^6151 bopd(i)6: "NT pac- 
ap-pa ann pom eibip, 6ip nf bpuil m6m na maig, bam5ean, na 
beas-baile, na leacc luige 1 " laoc a n-Ulcaib uile bdp millea6 16 
peapaib Connacc nac mipe ip cionncac pip." " Q peapgaip, 
na habaip pin," ap TTIea6b, u 6ip nf b6ap g b'Ullcaib acmupdn h bo 
cabaipc bo ceaccaib bo sp6ap. 'Oip bd mapba6 neac acaip n6 
bpdcaip 506 aom bfob, nf ba6 oriian 1 b6 lab lap nbul na 
cceann." j t)'aoncui5 TTlac "R6i5 an nf pin, -] abubaipc T11ea6b 
pip bul 50 pionn mac Ropa pf$ lai&ean, -j 50 Caipbpe Niai6 
peap pf<5 Ceampac, b'mnipin na ccoma6 pom b6ib. 

10. "Rdini5 an pf5-mfle6 k 50 pionn mac Ropa i pdi6iop l 
pionn p6 t)oipn-iubpa ua Cip-gabann i 16 pio6ac polc-gapb 
bol leip 50 Ceampai5 m 50 Caipbpe Niai6 peap i p6 innipeabap 
a ccopsa ec a ccoicim 66. 

11. Cuipiop lomoppo Caipbpe pa6b ua hlomna6a leo 50 
Concubap mac "Neapa, .1. pf neapcamail n nUla6 ; i po canpab 
a n-aichiopsa pip. u lp bpiacap 6am-pa," ap Concubap, "nac 
5eabab-pa comai6 p ap bioc 50 poiceap q Cpuacan-Rdc q hGoi, -\ 

8-11] a cugab, S. b acclop, S. ; abclop, M. c an bpiacap ... bo 
5, A. d ap ceapc, A. e cubaO, S. ; cuibe, A.M. f leacc n6 
M. s becc, M. h acuf an, A. iuaman, A. i cceab, A. 
pt5Thfli&, A. l abpap, M.A. m Ceampai^ na pfo$, A.M. 

n neap c-rhap, A.M. bariipa, M. P curhaib, S. ipoicap... 

Rdca, S. 


me, that I will go to Tara to Cairbre Eia Fear and to Fionn son of 
Ros, the king-warrior, and to Lughaidh son of Cu-Raoi, to Eocha son 
of Luchta, to Meadhbh and to Oilill, till I ravage the four great pro- 
vinces of Ireland, and till I leave the monuments and tombstones and 
graves of men lying prostrate throughout Ireland, as they have left my 

9. ISTow the vow that Conchubhar took was heard of by Meadhbh, 
who thereupon said : " It is meet for us to send envoys to Conchubhar 
and say to him [that] everyone [should] stay the right of his own 
war 1 during the space of this year, and that he hold in hand hostages 
from the men of Ireland and give hostages to them during the 
armistice 2 of this year." " Who would be suitable to announce those 
terms ?" said Oilill. " Who should go thither," said Meadhbh, " but 
Mac Roigh, the king- warrior ?" Mac Roigh spake and said : " I will 
not go thither at all, for there is not a moor or a plain, a stronghold or 
a goodly homestead, or a heroes' monument in all Ulster that has been 
ravaged by the men of Connacht, but that I am to blame for it." 
" Fearghus, 3 say not so," quoth Meadhbh, " for it is not ever a custom 
of the TJlstermen to offer reproach to envoys. For if one should kill 
the father or brother of every one of them, he should not have to fear 
them, having gone to meet them." 4 Mac Roigh conceded this, and 
Meadhbh told him to go to Fionn son of Ros, King of Leinster, and to 
Cairbre JS"ia Fear, King of Tara, to inform them of those conditions. 

10. The king-warrior came to Fionn son of Ros, and Fionn said to 
Doirniubhra [Fist of yew] grandson of Ceap-ghabha [Fetter- smith], 
and to Fiodhach Coarse-hair, to go with him [Mac Roigh] to Tara of 
the Kings, to Cairbre Ma Fear ; and they told their business and their 
mission 5 to him. 

11. Cairbre likewise sends Fadhbh grandson of lomnadh with 
them to Conchubhar son of ISTeas, the mighty King of Ulster ; and 
they announced to him their proposals. " It is my vow," said Con- 
chubhar son of Neas, "that I will accept no terms till I reach 

1 Maintain an armed truce (?). 

2 cAijMfe CAijYifem, cessation, stay; or " friendship," O'R. 

3 Mac Roig, the herald, is confounded here with Fergus Mac R6ig; or something 
is omitted. The herald is always called " Mac-Koth " in L U. and LL. 

4 i.e. as an envoy ; so Daire did not molest the messengers of Medb ; see Preface. 

5 Lit. journey, i.e. its cause. Cf. cid is toisc do Patraicc, what is P.'s desire? 
Trip. Life, 128 ; it also means "business." 


66 cat ROIS ua 12105. 

50 n-ionnpap ceicpe hollc6i5i6 '6ipionn, a 50 nt)fo&lap mo capb b 
-] mo cdna oppo." 

12. Nf cicm bo bdbap ap na hiompdicib pin, an can can- 
^abap ceacca na loingpi a6bal-m6ipe allmup&a p6 cuipeab pe" 
Concubap, lap ngabdil cuam d a ccpdi dlumn mbip -j 05 Cpdig 
6aile 6uam -| 05 Spuim Innpe hOiliolla: i cdmi^ Concubap 
lap pin 'n-a ccoinne 50 t)tin ttealgan, -| cdngabap 6 maiche na 
loingpi allmupba pin 'n-a comne f ann 50 ceac Con ^Culainn 
rheic Subaleairii. 8 

13. Qgap peapap an Cti pdilce 50 iniocdip muinnceapba piu, 
50 nbubaipc, a TTIo cean bup n-aicne -| bup nearii-aicne, bup 
maic i bup paic, h bup n-6ig i bup pean," ap p6. "Do bdoop map 
pin 6'n caoi peaccmame 1 50 apoile 05 61 -\ aoibnedp. Ip ann 
pom DO ciomdin Concubap ceiliobpab oo Co(i)n gCulamn, -] 
o^Gimeip ingm popgaill TTIona&, 50 noubaipc: u ptea6 coic- 
cionn bo pleao, a Coin gColumn ; mio6 ap cpuaguib -j ap 
cpganuib bo mio6." 

14. Ip ann pin abubaipc^ TTIac "R6i$ : " 'O nach anai6 k ap 
coniaio, a Concubaip, ca conaip a pacaip ap po?" " TCacab-pa," 
ap Concubap, "50 Cuan Jlaipe Sl6ibe bpeag, 1 1 ap pom goTCop 
na "Rto$ pop b6inn, 50 Caipbpe "Niai6 peap, ] 50 maicib Iton- 
mapa Laigean, 50 nbfo$6lap m oppa a nbeapnpab ap an ccdm n 
bon cop po." 

15. lomcupa TTlic "R6i$ -\ na ceacca, cdngabap peampo 50 
Ueampaig 50 Caipbpe, -j mnpib b6, "Concubap b'oba& na ccoriiab p 
p6am-pdice, -j 6 pe"m 50 n-a lomgeap bo beic a cci5 q Con 
cColuinn ppia p6 peaccmome 05 61 ~\ 05 aoibneap, ~\ pionncao r 
mac Concubuip, i pionncaom mac Conaill Cepnais bo ceacc 
pip na heacpuib alliiiup6a pin 50 Cpdi n-Gochaille, 8 

Ingme pleibip, "] Concubap bo ceacc 50 Cuan 5^ ai F 

ap pom 50 Rop na "Rfo$ pop b6mn bo cup caca pib-pi." Ip ea& u 

11-15] a yiiom, S. b caipft, S. c an can bo concabap na 
ceacca loinsif a&bal-rii6pa 6i5Ciallai&e allmu]i&a p6bdp p6 cuipeafr 
6 Concubap, A.M. d i calai&, A.M. e cdims, S. f cuise, A. 
g SuttalcaiQ-, A. h paig, S. { o 'n cpeaccmum, A.M. i bo pdio, A. 
k read ana = later anaip, thou stayest (?) or ccoriiai& = (our) terms (?). 
1 Cuan glaipe bpeag, A.M. m bfosalap, M. n pop a ccdmig, S.M. 


Cruachan-Ratha [Rathcroghan] of Magh Aoi, and till I ravage the 
four great provinces of Irel